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  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: June 2019

Chapter 4 - ECT in Mania (and Mixed States)


While there is no mention of ECT in the current NICE guidelines on bipolar disorder (NICE Guidelines; CG185, 2014), ECT is included as a recommended treatment for both manic and mixed affective episodes in bipolar disorder in the American Psychiatric Association Clinical Practice Guidelines (2002), the World Federation of Biological Psychiatry guidelines (Grunze, et al., 2010) and the British Association for Psychopharmacology bipolar guidelines (Goodwin, et al., 2016). Since the previous edition of The ECT Handbook, two narrative and one systematic reviews have been published that describe the evidence base regarding the use of ECT in manic and mixed affective episodes (Loo, et al., 2011; Versiani, et al., 2011; Thirthalli, et al., 2012).