Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: May 2016

14 - Neurocognitive findings in bipolar disorder: an update

Addington, J., Addington, D. Attentional vulnerability indicators in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophr Res. 1997;23(3):197204.
Altshuler, L. L., Ventura, J., van Gorp, , et al. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable men with bipolar I disorder or schizophrenia and normal control subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56(8):560–9.
Amado-Boccara, I., Gougoulis, N., Poirier Littre, M. F., et al. Effects of antidepressants on cognitive functions: a review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1995;19(3):479–93.
Anaya, C., Martinez Aran, A., Ayuso-Mateos, J. L., et al. A systematic review of cognitive remediation for schizo-affective and affective disorders. J Affect Disord. 2012;142(1–3):1321.
Asarnow, R. F., MacCrimmon, D. J. Span of apprehension deficits during the postpsychotic stages of schizophrenia. A replication and extension. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981;38:1006–11.
Atre-Vaidya, N., Taylor, M. A., Seidenberg, M., et al. Cognitive deficits, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar mood disorder. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 1998;11(3):120–6.
Badcock, J. C., Michiel, P. T., Rock, D. Spatial working memory and planning ability: contrasts between schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. Cortex. 2005;41(6):753–63.
Baddeley, A. Working memory. Science. 1992;255(5044): 556–9.
Baddeley, A. The fractionation of working memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93(24):13468–72.
Baddeley, A. The central executive: a concept and some misconceptions. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1998;4(5):523–6.
Baker, S. C., Rogers, R. D., Owen, A. M., et al. Neural systems engaged by planning: a PET study of the Tower of London task. Neuropsychologia. 1996;34(6):515–26.
Basso, M. R., Lowery, N., Neel, J., et al. Neuropsychological impairment among manic, depressed, and mixed-episode inpatients with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychology. 2002;16(1):8491.
Bearden, C. E., Hoffman, K. M., & Cannon, T. D. The neuropsychology and neuroanatomy of bipolar affective disorder: a critical review. Bipolar Disord. 2001;3(3):106–50; discussion 151203.
Bearden, C. E., Glahn, D. C., Monkul, E. S., et al. Sources of declarative memory impairment in bipolar disorder: Mnemonic processes and clinical features. J Psychiatr Res. 2006;40(1):47-58.
Bora, E., Pantelis, C. Domains of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder: commentary on “The International Society for Bipolar Disorders-Battery for Assessment of Neurocognition (ISBD-BANC)”. Bipolar Disord. 2011;13(2):217–18.
Bora, E., Yucel, M., Pantelis, C. Cognitive endophenotypes of bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of neuropsychological deficits in euthymic patients and their first-degree relatives. J Affect Disord. 2009a;113(1–2):120.
Bora, E., Yucel, M., & Pantelis, C. Cognitive functioning in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and affective psychoses: meta-analytic study. Br J Psychiatry. 2009b;195(6):475–82.
Bryan, J., Luszcz, M. A. Speed of information processing as a mediator between age and free-recall performance. Psychol Aging. 1996;11(1):39.
Burdick, K. E., Endick, C. J., Goldberg, J. F. Assessing cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder: are self-reports valid? Psychiatry Res. 2005;136(1):4350.
Burdick, K. E., Goldberg, T. E., Cornblatt, B. A., et al. The MATRICS consensus cognitive battery in patients with bipolar I disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36(8):1587–92.
Cannon, M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., et al. Evidence for early-childhood, pan-developmental impairment specific to schizophreniform disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59(5):449–56.
Carpenter, P. A., Just, M. A., Shell, P. What one intelligence test measures: a theoretical account of the processing in the Raven Progressive Matrices Test. Psychological Rev. 1990;97(3):404–31.
Carrus, D., Christodoulou, T., Hadjulis, M., et al. Gender differences in immediate memory in bipolar disorder. Psychol Med. 2010;40(8):1349–55.
Cavanagh, J. T., Van Beck, M., Muir, W., et al. Case-control study of neurocognitive function in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder: an association with mania. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180:320–6.
Christodoulou, T., Messinis, L., Papathanasopoulos, P., et al. The impact of familial risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder on cognitive control during episodic memory retrieval. Psychiatry Res. 2012;197(3):212–16.
Clark, L., Goodwin, G. M. State- and trait-related deficits in sustained attention in bipolar disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;254(2):61–8.
Clark, L., Iversen, S. D., Goodwin, G. M. A neuropsychological investigation of prefrontal cortex involvement in acute mania. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(10):1605–11.
Clark, L., Iversen, S. D., Goodwin, G. M. Sustained attention deficit in bipolar disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180:313–19.
Clark, L., Sarna, A., Goodwin, G. M. Impairment of executive function but not memory in first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar I disorder and in euthymic patients with unipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(10):1980–2.
Corbetta, M., Shulman, G. L. Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002;3(3):201–15.
Corbetta, M., Shulman, G. L., Miezin, F. M., et al. Superior parietal cortex activation during spatial attention shifts and visual feature conjunction. Science. 1995;270(5237):802–5.
Dalby, J., Williams, R. Preserved reading and spelling ability in psychotic disorders. Psychol Med. 1986;16(1):171–5.
Deckersbach, T., McMurrich, S., Ogutha, J., et al. Characteristics of non-verbal memory impairment in bipolar disorder: the role of encoding strategies. Psychol Med. 2004a;34(5):823–32.
Deckersbach, T., Savage, C. R., Reilly-Harrington, N., et al. Episodic memory impairment in bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: the role of memory strategies. Bipolar Disord. 2004b;6(3):233–44.
Delis, D., Kaplan, E. Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D–KEFS). San Antonio: Harcourt Assessment Company; 2001.
Denicoff, K. D., Ali, S. O., Mirsky, A. F., et al. Relationship between prior course of illness and neuropsychological functioning in patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 1999;56(1):6773.
D’Esposito, M., Aguirre, G. K., Zarahn, E., et al. Functional MRI studies of spatial and nonspatial working memory. Brain Res. Cogn Brain Res. 1998;(1):113.
Dickerson, F. B., Boronow, J. J., Stallings, C. R., et al. 2003). Association between cognitive functioning and employment status of persons with bipolar disorder. Psychiatr Serv. 2003;55(1):54–8.
Dickstein, D. P., Treland, J. E., Snow, J., et al. Neuropsychological performance in pediatric bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55(1):32–9.
Dixon, T., Kravariti, E., Frith, C., et al. Effect of symptoms on executive function in bipolar illness. Psychol Med. 2004;34(5):811–21.
Donaldson, S., Goldstein, L. H., Landau, S., et al. The Maudsley Bipolar Disorder Project: the effect of medication, family history, and duration of illness on IQ and memory in bipolar I disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(1):8693.
Donnelly, E. F., Murphy, D. L., Goodwin, F. K., et al. 1982). Intellectual function in primary affective disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 1982;140:633–6.
Doyle, A. E., Wilens, T. E., Kwon, A., et al. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58(7):540–8.
Duff, K., Planel, E. Untangling memory deficits. Nat Med. 2005;11(8):826–7.
Duncan, J., Owen, A. M. Common regions of the human frontal lobe recruited by diverse cognitive demands. Trends Neurosci. 2000;23(10):475–83.
Duncan, J., Seitz, R. J., Kolodny, J., et al. A neural basis for general intelligence. Science. 2000;289(5478):457–60.
El-Badri, S. M., Ashton, C. H., Moore, P. B., et al. Electrophysiological and cognitive function in young euthymic patients with bipolar affective disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2001;3(2):7987.
Engelsmann, F., Katz, J., Ghadirian, A. M., et al. Lithium and memory: a long-term follow-up study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1988;8(3):207–12.
Engle, R. W., Tuholski, S. W., Laughlin, J. E., et al. Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: a latent-variable approach. J Exp Psychol Gen. 1999;128(3):309–31.
Ericsson, K. A., Delaney, P. F. Long-term working memory as an alternative to capacity models of working memory in everyday skilled performance. In Miyake, A., Shah, P. (eds.). Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press; 1999: pp. 257–97.
Fears, S. C., Service, S. K., Kremeyer, B., et al. Multisystem component phenotypes of bipolar disorder for genetic investigations of extended pedigrees. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(4):375–87.
Ferrier, I. N., Stanton, B. R., Kelly, T. P., et al. Neuropsychological function in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 1999;175:246–51.
Ferrier, I. N., Chowdhury, R., Thompson, J. M., et al. Neurocognitive function in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder: a preliminary report. Bipolar Disord. 2004;6(4):319–22.
Fleck, D. E., Sax, K. W., Strakowski, S. M. Reaction time measures of sustained attention differentiate bipolar disorder from schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2001;52:251–9.
Fleck, D. E., Shear, P. K., Zimmerman, M. E., et al. Verbal memory in mania: effects of clinical state and task requirements. Bipolar Disord. 2003;5(5):375–80.
Frangou, S. Snipping at the endophenotypic space. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170(11):1223–5.
Frangou, S., Donaldson, S., Hadjulis, M., et al. The Maudsley Bipolar Disorder Project: executive dysfunction in bipolar disorder I and its clinical correlates. Biol Psychiatry. 2005a;58(11):859–64.
Frangou, S., Haldane, M., Roddy, D., et al. Evidence for deficit in tasks of ventral, but not dorsal, prefrontal executive function as an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005b;58(10):838–9.
Fry, A. F., Hale, S. Relationships among processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence in children. Biol Psychol. 2000;54(1–3):134.
Fuster, J. M. Memory in the Cerebral Cortex: An Empirical Approach to Neural Networks in the Human and Nonhuman Primate. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press; 1995.
Fuster, J. M. The Prefrontal Cortex: Anatomy, Physiology, and Neuropsychology of the Frontal Lobe (3rd edn). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1997.
Gabrieli, J. D., Poldrack, R. A., Desmond, J. E. The role of left prefrontal cortex in language and memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(3):906–13.
Gallagher, P., Gray, J. M., Kessels, R. P. Fractionation of visuo-spatial memory processes in bipolar depression: a cognitive scaffolding account. Psychol Med. 2014a;114.
Gallagher, P., Gray, J. M., Watson, S., et al. Neurocognitive functioning in bipolar depression: a component structure analysis. Psychol Med. 2014b;44(5):961–74.
Gevins, A., Cutillo, B. Neuroelectric evidence for distributed processing in human working memory. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1993;87:128–43.
Glahn, D. C., Bearden, C. E., Niendam, T. A., et al. The feasibility of neuropsychological endophenotypes in the search for genes associated with bipolar affective disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2004;6 (3):171–82.
Glahn, D. C., Bearden, C. E., Caetano, S., et al. Declarative memory impairment in pediatric bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2005;7(6):546–54.
Glahn, D. C., Bearden, C. E., Cakir, S., et al. Differential working memory impairment in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: effects of lifetime history of psychosis. Bipolar Disord. 2006a;8(2):117123.
Glahn, D.C., Barrett, J., Bearden, C.E., et al. Dissociable mechanisms for memory impairment in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Psychol Med. 2006b;36(8):1085–95.
Glahn, D. C., Bearden, C. E., Barguil, M., et al. The neurocognitive signature of psychotic bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62(8):910–16.
Glahn, D. C., Almasy, L., Barguil, M., et al. Neurocognitive endophenotypes for bipolar disorder identified in multiplex multigenerational families. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(2):168177.
Gold, J. M., Carpenter, C., Randolph, C., et al. Auditory working memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997;54(2):159–65.
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. The prefrontal landscape: implications of functional architecture for understanding human mentation and the central executive. PhilosTrans R Soc Lond – Ser B: Biol Sci. 1996;351(1346):1445–53.
Gooding, D. C., & Tallent, K. A. The association between antisaccade task and working memory task performance in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2001;189(1):816.
Goodwin, F. K., Jamison, K. R. Manic-Depressive Illness. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1990.
Gottlieb, J. P., Kusunoki, M., Goldberg, M. E. The representation of visual salience in monkey parietal cortex. Nature. 1998;391(6666):481–4.
Gourovitch, M. L., Torrey, E. F., Gold, J. M., et al. Neuropsychological performance of monozygotic twins discordant for bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45(5):639–46.
Grant, B. F., Stinson, F. S., Hasin, D. S, et al. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of bipolar I disorder and axis I and II disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66(10):1205–15.
Green, M. F., Nuechterlein, K. H., Gold, J. M., et al. Approaching a consensus cognitive battery for clinical trials in schizophrenia: the NIMH-MATRICS conference to select cognitive domains and test criteria. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56(5):301–7.
Gur, R. C., Ragland, J. D., Resnick, S. M., et al. Lateralized increases in cerebral blood flow during performance of verbal and spatial tasks: relationship with performance level. Brain Cogn. 1994;24(2):244–58.
Ha, T. H., Chang, J. S., Oh, S. H., et al. Differential patterns of neuropsychological performance in the euthymic and depressive phases of bipolar disorders. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014;68(7):515–23.
Hansell, N. K., Wright, M. J., Luciano, M., et al. Genetic covariation between event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral non-ERP measures of working-memory, processing speed, and IQ. Behav Genet. 2005;35(6):695706.
Harmer, C. J., Clark, L., Grayson, L., et al. Sustained attention deficit in bipolar disorder is not a working memory impairment in disguise. Neuropsychologia. 2002;40(9):1586–90.
Hart, R. P., Kwentus, J. A. Psychomotor slowing and subcortical-type dysfunction in depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1987;50(10):1263–6.
Hawkins, K. A., Hoffman, R. E., Quinlan, D. M., et al. Cognition, negative symptoms, and diagnosis: a comparison of schizophrenic, bipolar, and control samples. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1997;9(1):81–9.
Heaton, R., Cfhelune, G., Talley, J., et al. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual: Revised and Expanded. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1993.
Henry, G. M., Weingartner, H., Murphy, D. L. Influence of affective states and psychoactive drugs on verbal learning and memory. Am J Psychiatry. 1973;130(9):966–71.
Holmes, M. K., Erickson, K., Luckenbaugh, , et al. A comparison of cognitive functioning in medicated and unmedicated subjects with bipolar depression. Bipolar Disord. 2008;10(7):806–15.
Honig, A., Arts, B. M., Ponds, R. W., et al. Lithium induced cognitive side-effects in bipolar disorder: a qualitative analysis and implications for daily practice. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999;14(3):167–71.
Hunter, W. S. The delayed reaction in animals and children. Behav Monogr. 1913;2:186.
Jones, B. P., Duncan, C. C., Mirsky, A. F., et al. Neuropsychological profiles in bipolar affective disorder and complex partial seizure disorder. Neuropsychology. 1994;8:5564.
Jones-Gotman, M. Memory for designs: the hippocampal contribution. Neuropsychologia. 1986;24(2):193203.
Jones-Gotman, M. Localization of lesions by neuropsychological testing. Epilepsia. 1991;32(Suppl 5):S41–52.
Jones-Gotman, M., Milner, B. Right temporal-lobe contribution to image-mediated verbal learning. Neuropsychologia. 1978;16(1):6171.
Joy, S., Kaplan, E., Fein, D. Speed and memory in the WAIS-III Digit Symbol–Coding subtest across the adult lifespan. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2004;19(6):759–67.
Kane, M. J., Engle, R. W. The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention, and general fluid intelligence: an individual-differences perspective. Psychon Bull Rev. 2002;9(4):637–71.
Kanwisher, N. Neural events and perceptual awareness. Cognition. 2001;79(12):89113.
Kanwisher, N., Wojciulik, E. Visual attention: insights from brain imaging. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2000;1(2):91100.
Kapur, S., Tulving, E., Cabeza, R., et al. The neural correlates of intentional learning of verbal materials: a PET study in humans. Brain Res. Cogn Brain Res. 1996;4(4):243–9.
Kathleen Holmes, M., Bearden, C. E., Barguil, M et al. Conceptualizing impulsivity and risk taking in bipolar disorder: importance of history of alcohol abuse. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11(1):3340.
Keri, S., Kelemen, O., Benedek, G., et al. Different trait markers for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a neurocognitive approach. Psychol Med. 2001;31(5):915–22.
Kessing, L. V. Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of affective disorder. Psychol Med. 1998;28(5):1027–38.
Kieseppa, T., Tuulio-Henriksson, A., Haukka, J., et al. Memory and verbal learning functions in twins with bipolar-I disorder, and the role of information-processing speed. Psychol Med. 2005;35(2):205–15.
Kozicky, J. M., Torres, I. J., Bond, D. J., et al. Comparison of neuropsychological effects of adjunctive risperidone or quetiapine in euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012;27(2):91–9.
Krabbendam, L., Honig, A., Wiersma, J., et al. Cognitive dysfunctions and white matter lesions in patients with bipolar disorder in remission. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000;101(4):274–80.
Kuhl, B.A., Kahn, I., Dudukovic, N.M., et al. Overcoming suppression in order to remember: contributions from anterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2008;8(2):211–21.
Kumar, C. T., Christodoulou, T., Vyas, N. S., et al. Deficits in visual sustained attention differentiate genetic liability and disease expression for schizophrenia from bipolar disorder. Schizophr Res. 2010;124(1–3):152–60.
Lebowitz, B. K., Shear, P. K., Steed, M. A., et al. Verbal fluency in mania: relationship to number of manic episodes. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2001;14(3):177–82.
Lee, R. S., Hermens, D. F., Scott, J., et al. A meta-analysis of neuropsychological functioning in first-episode bipolar disorders. J Psychiatr Res. 2014;57C:111.
Lezak, M. Neuropsychological Assessment (3rd edn). New York: Oxford University Press; 1995.
Lindenberger, U., Mayr, U., Kliegl, R. Speed and intelligence in old age. Psychol Aging. 1993;8(2):207–20.
Liu, S. K., Chiu, C. H., Chang, C. J., et al. Deficits in sustained attention in schizophrenia and affective disorders: stable versus state-dependent markers. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(6):975–82.
Luria, A. Higher Cortical Functions in Man (2nd edn). New York, NY: Plenum; 1980.
MacQueen, G. M., Young, L. T., Galway, T. M., et al. Backward masking task performance in stable, euthymic out-patients with bipolar disorder. Psychol Med. 2001;31(7):1269–77.
Mann-Wrobel, M. C., Carreno, J. T., Dickinson, D. Meta-analysis of neuropsychological functioning in euthymic bipolar disorder: an update and investigation of moderator variables. Bipolar Disord. 2011;13(4):33442.
Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., et al. Neuropsychological performance in depressed and euthymic bipolar patients. Neuropsychobiology. 2002;46(Suppl 1):1621.
Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., et al. Cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients: implications for clinical and functional outcome. Bipolar Disord. 2004a;6(3):224–32.
Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Reinares, M., et al. Cognitive function across manic or hypomanic, depressed, and euthymic states in bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2004b;161(2):262–70.
Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., et al. Do cognitive complaints in euthymic bipolar patients reflect objective cognitive impairment? Psychother Psychosom. 2005;74(5):295302.
McClure, R. K. Backward masking in bipolar affective disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1999;23(2):195206.
McGrath, J., Chapple, B., Wright, M. Working memory in schizophrenia and mania: correlation with symptoms during the acute and subacute phases. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001;103(3):181–8.
McIntosh, A. M., Harrison, L. K., Forrester, K., et al. Neuropsychological impairments in people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;186:378–85.
Mesulam, M. M. From sensation to cognition. Brain. 1998;121(6):1013–52.
Meyer, S. E., Carlson, G. A., Wiggs, E. A., et al. A prospective study of the association among impaired executive functioning, childhood attentional problems, and the development of bipolar disorder. Dev Psychopathol. 2004;16(2):461–76.
Milner, B. Disorders of learning and memory after temporal lobe lesions in man. Clin Neurosurg. 1972;19:421–46.
Murphy, F. C., Rubinsztein, J. S., Michael, A, et al. Decision-making cognition in mania and depression. Psychol Med. 2001;31(4):679–93.
Najt, P., Glahn, D., Bearden, C. E., et al. Attention deficits in bipolar disorder: a comparison based on the Continuous Performance Test. Neurosci Lett. 2005;379(2):122–6.
Neuchterlein, K. H., Dawson, M. E., Ventura, J., et al. Information-processing anomalies in the early course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophr Res. 1991;5(3):195–6.
Nuechterlein, K. H., Barch, D. M., Gold, J. M., et al. Identification of separable cognitive factors in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2004;72(1):2939.
Olley, A. L., Malhi, G. S., Bachelor, J., et al. Executive functioning and theory of mind in euthymic bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2005;7(Suppl 5):4352.
O’Reilly, R. C., Braver, T. S., & Cohen, J. D. A biologically based computational model of working memory. In Miyake, A., Shah, P. (eds.). Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1999: pp. 375411.
Owen, A., McMillan, K., Laird, A., et al. The n-back working memory paradigm: a meta-analysis of normative fMRI studies. Hum Brain Mapp.2005;25:4659.
Park, S., Holzman, P. S. Schizophrenics show spatial working memory deficits. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49(12):975–82.
Park, S., Holzman, P. S. Association of working memory deficit and eye tracking dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1993;11(1):5561.
Pashler, H. The Psychology of Attention. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1999.
Pavlickova, H., Turnbull, O., Bentall, R. P. Cognitive vulnerability to bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Br J Clin Psychol. 2014;53(4):386401.
Petrides, M. Deficits on conditional associative-learning tasks after frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia. 1985;23(5):601–14.
Petrides, M., Milner, B. Deficits on subject-ordered tasks after frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia. 1982;20(3):249–62.
Quraishi, S., Frangou, S. Neuropsychology of bipolar disorder: a review. J Affect Disord. 2002;72(3):209–26.
Ragland, J. D., Glahn, D. C., Gur, R. C., et al. PET regional cerebral blood flow change during working and declarative memory: relationship with task performance. Neuropsychology. 1997;11(2):222–31.
Regier, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., et al. Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study. JAMA. 1990;264(19):2511–18.
Reichenberg, A., Weiser, M., Rabinowitz, J., et al. A population-based cohort study of premorbid intellectual, language, and behavioral functioning in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and nonpsychotic bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(12):2027–35.
Reinares, M., Papachristou, E., Harvey, P., et al. Towards a clinical staging for bipolar disorder: defining patient subtypes based on functional outcome. J Affect Disord. 2013;144(1–2):6571.
Rey, A. L’Examen clinique en psychologie. Paris: Presse Universitaire de France; 1964.
Robbins, T. W., James, M., Owen, A. M, et al. Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): A factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers. Dementia. 1994;5:266–81.
Robinson, L. J., Ferrier, I. N. Evolution of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of cross-sectional evidence. Bipolar Disord. 2006;8(2):103–16.
Rogers, R. D., Owen, A. M., Middleton, H. C., et al. Choosing between small, likely rewards and large, unlikely rewards activates inferior and orbital prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci. 1999;20(19):9029–38.
Rosvold, H. E., Mirsky, A. F., Sarason, I., et al. A continuous performance test of brain damage. J Consult Psychol. 1956;20:343–50.
Rubinsztein, J. S., Michael, A., Paykel, E. S., et al. Cognitive impairment in remission in bipolar affective disorder. Psychol Med. 2000;30(5):1025–36.
Rubinsztein, J. S., Michael, A., Underwood, B. R., et al. Impaired cognition and decision-making in bipolar depression but no ‘affective bias’ evident. Psychol Med, 2006;36(5):629–39.
Ruchkin, D. S., Johnson, R., Grafman, J., et al. Distinctions and similarities among working memory processes: An event-related potential study. Cogn Brain Res. 1992;1(1):5366.
Ruchkin, D. S., Johnson, R., Jr., Grafman, J., et al. Multiple visuospatial working memory buffers: Evidence from spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity. Neuropsychologia. 1997;35(2):195209.
Rypma, B., Berger, J. S., Genova, H. M., et al. Dissociating age-related changes in cognitive strategy and neural efficiency using event-related fMRI. Cortex. 2005;41(4):582–94.
Sackeim, H., Decina, P., Epstein, D., et al. Possible reversed affective lateralization in a case of bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1983;140(9):1191–3.
Sahakian, B. J., Morris, R. G., Evenden, J. L., et al. A comparative study of visuospatial memory and learning in Alzheimer-type dementia and Parkinson’s disease. Brain. 1988;111 (3):695718.
Salthouse, T. A. Aging and measures of processing speed. Biol Psychol. 2000;54(13):3554.
Samuels, I., Butters, N., & Fedio, P. Short term memory disorders following temporal lobe removals in humans. Cortex, 1972;8(3):283–98.
Santos, J.L., Aparicio, A., Bagney, A,et al. A five-year follow-up study of neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2014;16(7):722–31.
Sapin, L. R., Berrettini, W. H., Nurnberger, J. I., Jr, et al. Mediational factors underlying cognitive changes and laterality in affective illness. Biol Psychiatry. 1987;22(8):979–86.
Sax, K. W., Strakowski, S. M., Keck, Jr., et al. Symptom correlates of attentional improvement following hospitalization for a first episode of affective psychosis. Biol Psychiatry 1998;44, 784–6.
Sax, K. W., Strakowski, S. M., Zimmerman, M. E., et al. Frontosubcortical neuroanatomy and the continuous performance test in mania. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156(1):139–41.
Schott, B.H., Niklas, C., Kaufmann, J., et al. Fiber density between rhinal cortex and activated ventrolateral prefrontal regions predicts episodic memory performance in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108(13):5408–13.
Scott, J. Psychotherapy for bipolar disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 1995;167(5):581–8.
Shulman, G. L., Ollinger, J. M., Akbudak, E., et al. Areas involved in encoding and applying directional expectations to moving objects. J Neurosci. 1999;19(21):9480–96.
Smith, E. E., Jonides, J. Neuroimaging analyses of human working memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(20):12061–8.
Smith, E. E., Jonides, J., Koeppe, R. A. Dissociating verbal and spatial working memory using PET. Cereb Cortex. 1996;6(1):1120.
Soares, J. C. Contributions from brain imaging to the elucidation of pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003;6(2):171–80.
Sobczak, S., Honig, A., Nicolson, N. A., et al. Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on mood and cortisol release in first-degree relatives of type I and type II bipolar patients and healthy matched controls. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27(5):834–42.
Sole, B., Bonnin, C. M., Torrent, C., et al. Neurocognitive impairment and psychosocial functioning in bipolar II disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012;125(4):309–17.
Squire, L. R. The organization and neural substrates of human memory. Int J Neurol. 1987;21–2:218–22.
Strakowski, S. M., Adler, C. M., Holland, S. K., et al. A preliminary FMRI study of sustained attention in euthymic, unmedicated bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29(9):1734–40.
Strakowski, S. M., Adler, C. M., Holland, S. K, et al. Abnormal FMRI brain activation in euthymic bipolar disorder patients during a counting Stroop interference task. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(9):1697–705.
Stroop, J. R. Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. J Exp Psychol. 1935;18:643–61.
Sweeney, J. A., Kmiec, J. A., Kupfer, D. J. Neuropsychologic impairments in bipolar and unipolar mood disorders on the CANTAB neurocognitive battery. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;48:674–85.
Tabares-Seisdedos, R., Balanza-Martinez, V., Salazar-Fraile, J., et al. Specific executive/attentional deficits in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who have a positive family history of psychosis. J Psychiatr Res. 2003;37(6):479–86.
Tham, A., Engelbrektson, K., Mathe, A. A., et al. Impaired neuropsychological performance in euthymic patients with recurring mood disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58(1):26–9.
The Psychological Corporation. WAIS-III–WMS-III Technical Manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 1997.
Thompson, J. M., Gallagher, P., Hughes, J. H., et al. Neurocognitive impairment in euthymic patients with bipolar affective disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;186:3240.
Torrent, C., Martinez-Aran, A., Daban, C., et al. Effects of atypical antipsychotics on neurocognition in euthymic bipolar patients. Compr Psychiatry. 2011;52(6):613–22.
Trotta, A., Murray, R. M., MacCabe, J. H. Do premorbid and post-onset cognitive functioning differ between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2014;114.
van Gorp, W. G., Altshuler, L., Theberge, D. C., et al. Cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients with and without prior alcohol dependence. A preliminary study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55(1):41–6.
van Gorp, W. G., Altshuler, L., Theberge, D. C., et al. Declarative and procedural memory in bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46(4):525–31.
Van Rheenen, T.E., Rossell, SL. An empirical evaluation of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2014;16(3):318–25.
Verdoux, H., Liraud, F. Neuropsychological function in subjects with psychotic and affective disorders. Relationship to diagnostic category and duration of illness. Eur Psychiatry. 2000;15(4):236–43.
Wilder-Willis, K. E., Sax, K. W., Rosenberg, H. L., et al. Persistent attentional dysfunction in remitted bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2001;3(2):5862.
Yatham, L. N., Torres, I. J., Malhi, G. S., et al. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders-Battery for Assessment of Neurocognition (ISBD-BANC). Bipolar Disord, 2010;12(4):351–63.
Zalla, T., Joyce, C., Szoke, A., et al. Executive dysfunctions as potential markers of familial vulnerability to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2004;121(3):207–17.
Zubieta, J. K., Huguelet, P., O’Neil, R. L., et al. Cognitive function in euthymic bipolar I disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2001;102(1):920.