- Cited by 171
Blackman, G. S. Mate, C. M. and Philpott, M. R. 1990. Interaction forces of a sharp tungsten tip with molecular films on silicon surfaces. Physical Review Letters, Vol. 65, Issue. 18, p. 2270.
Jacobsen, S.C. Wells, D.L. Davis, C.C. and Wood, J.E. 1991. Fabrication of micro-structures using non-planar lithography (NPL). p. 45.
Gaucher, P. Lequien, S. Ganne, J.P. Faure, S. and Barboux, P. 1991. Sintering of lead titanate and titano-zirconate sol-gel thin films. p. 267.
Tahan, D.M. and Safari, A. 1992. Pure and modified lead titanate thin films by sol-gel. p. 420.
Stillwagon, L. E. and Larson, R. G. 1992. Planarization during spin coating. Physics of Fluids A: Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 4, Issue. 5, p. 895.
Livage, C. Safari, A. and Klein, L.C. 1992. Sol-gel lead zirconate-titanate thin films: effect of solution concentration. p. 444.
Higuchi, K. Miyazawa, K. Sakuma, T. and Suzuki, K. 1994. Microstructure characterization of sol-gel derived PZT films. Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 436.
Floch, H. G. and Belleville, P. F. 1994. Damage-resistant sol-gel optical coatings for advanced lasers at CEL-V. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 2, Issue. 1-3, p. 695.
Livage, Carine Safari, Ahmad and Klein, Lisa C. 1994. Glycol-based sol-gel process for the fabrication of ferroelectric PZT thin films. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 2, Issue. 1-3, p. 605.
Belleville, P. F. and Floch, H. G. 1994. A new room-temperature deposition technique for optical coatings. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, p. 23.
Thomas, Ian M. 1994. Sol-Gel Optics. p. 141.
Min, Xin Orignac, Xavier and Almeida, Rui M. 1995. Striation-Free, Spin-Coated Sol-Gel Optical Films. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 78, Issue. 8, p. 2254.
Gao, C. Lee, Y.C. Chao, J. and Russak, M. 1995. Dip-coating of ultra-thin liquid lubricant and its control for thin-film magnetic hard disks. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 31, Issue. 6, p. 2982.
Bill, Joachim and Aldinger, Fritz 1995. Precursor-derived Covalent Ceramics. Advanced Materials, Vol. 7, Issue. 9, p. 775.
Burns, S.P. and Sullivan, J.P. 1995. The use of pressure sensitive paints on rotating machinery. p. 32/1.
Francis, Lorraine Falter 1997. Sol-Gel Methods for Oxide Coatings. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 12, Issue. 6, p. 963.
Arfsten, N. J. Eberle, A. Otto, J. and Reich, A. 1997. Investigations on the angle-dependent dip coating technique (ADDC) for the production of optical filters. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 8, Issue. 1-3, p. 1099.
Abdelghani, A. Chovelon, J.M. Jaffrezic-Renault, N. Lacroix, M. Gagnaire, H. Veillas, C. Berkova, B. Chomat, M. and Matejec, V. 1997. Optical fibre sensor coated with porous silica layers for gas and chemical vapour detection. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 44, Issue. 1-3, p. 495.
Larson, Ronald G. and Rehg, Timothy J. 1997. Liquid Film Coating. p. 709.
Vong, M.S.W. and Sermon, P.A. 1997. Observing the breathing of silica sol-gel-derived anti-reflection optical coatings. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 293, Issue. 1-2, p. 185.
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Dip coating is a simple old way of depositing onto a substrate, especially small slabs and cylinders, a uniform thin film of liquid for solidification into a coating. The basic flow is steady, and in it film thickness is set by the competition among viscous force, capillary (surface tension) force and gravity. Thickness and uniformity can be sensitive to flow conditions in the liquid bath and gas overhead. The faster the substrate is withdrawn, the thicker the film deposited. This can be countered by using volatile solutes and combining rapid enough drying with the basic liquid flow. Then the physics grows more complicated, theoretical prediction of process performance more difficult, and control of the process more demanding. Outside product R&D labs it is far less often used in precision coating manufacture than a variety of premetered coating methods.
Spin coating is a more recently developed way of getting onto piecemeal substrates, especially small flat disks, a uniform thin liquid film for the same end. The basic flow is unsteady radial drainage in which centrifugal and viscous forces so compete that ordinary (Newtonian) liquid of constant viscosity tends toward a uniform film that grows ever thinner ever more slowly. Volatile solvents are commonly used because conditions can often be found that adequately separate thinning by spin-off from later thinning and solidification by drying. Thickness and uniformity, today theoretically predictable, are sensitive to speed, gas conditions, and rheology of concentrating, solidifying liquid. For the rheology of photoresist coating in microelectronics, spin coating works well. For that of suspension coatings in magnetic disk technology the process demands more careful control; actually it is often modified.
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