Skip to main content Accessibility help

The relationship between lung function and the clinical and histopathological features in Chinese patients with nasal polyps

  • Q L Zhao (a1) (a2), L Yu (a2), L L Zhi (a1) (a3), P Jin (a1), X X Zi (a1), L Zhao (a1), A Li (a1), Y Y Tu (a1), L Shi (a1) and H P Zhang (a1)...



To investigate lung function in Chinese patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and examine its association with histopathological features.


The lung function of 99 patients with nasal polyps was measured. Haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining were performed to evaluate any inflammatory cells and epithelial tissue remodelling.


Predicted maximal expiratory flow rate at 25 per cent vital capacity was reduced (p < 0.05) in epithelial hyperplasia, and predicted maximal expiratory flow rate at 50 per cent vital capacity was reduced (p < 0.05) in goblet cell hyperplasia. Both peripheral blood eosinophilia and tissue eosinophilia nasal polyps manifested significantly reduced: forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio, predicted maximal expiratory flow rate at 25, 50 and 75 per cent of vital capacity, and predicted maximal mid-expiratory flow. Peripheral blood eosinophils were negatively correlated with predicted maximal expiratory flow rate at 25 and 50 per cent of vital capacity, and predicted maximal mid-expiratory flow. Eosinophils in tissue were negatively correlated with all lung function parameters investigated except predicted forced vital capacity.


Clinicians should be aware of lung function decline in nasal polyps patients, especially in those with tissue eosinophilia.


Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Dr Hong Ping Zhang, Department of Otolaryngology, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, 247 Beiyuan Street, Jinan, Shandong 250033, PR China Fax: +86 531 8896 2544 E-mail:


Hide All
1 Fokkens, WJ, Lund, VJ, Mullol, J, Bachert, C, Alobid, I, Baroody, F et al. EPOS 2012: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2012. A summary for otorhinolaryngologists. Rhinology 2012;50:112
2 Kim, JW, Hong, SL, Kim, YK, Lee, CH, Min, YG, Rhee, CS. Histological and immunological features of non-eosinophilic nasal polyps. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007;137:925–30
3 Li, CW, Zhang, KK, Li, TY, Lin, ZB, Li, YY, Curotto de Lafaille, MA et al. Expression profiles of regulatory and helper T-cell-associated genes in nasal polyposis. Allergy 2012;67:732–40
4 Baba, S, Kagoya, R, Kondo, K, Suzukawa, M, Ohta, K, Yamasoba, T. T-cell phenotypes in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in Japanese patients. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2015;11:33
5 Gao, T, Ng, CL, Li, C, Li, YY, Duan, C, Shen, L et al. Smoking is an independent association of squamous metaplasia in Chinese nasal polyps. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2016;6:6674
6 Brozek, JL, Bousquet, J, Baena-Cagnani, CE, Bonini, S, Canonica, GW, Casale, TB et al. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines: 2010 revision. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;126:466–76
7 Kariya, S, Okano, M, Oto, T, Higaki, T, Makihara, S, Haruna, T et al. Pulmonary function in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis. J Laryngol Otol 2014;128:255–62
8 Kariya, S, Okano, M, Higaki, T, Noyama, Y, Haruna, T, Ishihara, H et al. Chronic rhinosinusitis patients have decreased lung function. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2014;4:828–33
9 Yang, MS, Lee, HS, Kim, MH, Song, WJ, Kim, TW, Kwon, JW et al. Rhinitis patients with sputum eosinophilia show decreased lung function in the absence of airway hyperresponsiveness. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2013;5:232–8
10 Alatas, N, Baba, F, San, I, Kurcer, Z. Nasal polyp diseases in allergic and nonallergic patients and steroid therapy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006;135:236–42
11 Soler, ZM, Sauer, DA, Mace, J, Smith, TL. Relationship between clinical measures and histopathologic findings in chronic rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2009;141:454–61
12 Lee, JJ, Jacobsen, EA, McGarry, MP, Schleimer, RP, Lee, NA. Eosinophils in health and disease: the LIAR hypothesis. Clin Exp Allergy 2010;40:563–75
13 Kariya, S, Okano, M, Higaki, T, Noyama, Y, Haruna, T, Nishizaki, K. Pulmonary function in never-smoker patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2015;5:990–5
14 Lapperre, TS, Sont, JK, van Schadewijk, A, Gosman, MM, Postma, DS, Bajema, IM et al. Smoking cessation and bronchial epithelial remodelling in COPD: a cross-sectional study. Respir Res 2007;8:85
15 Bolton, SJ, Pinnion, K, Oreffo, V, Foster, M, Pinkerton, KE. Characterisation of the proximal airway squamous metaplasia induced by chronic tobacco smoke exposure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Respir Res 2009;10:118
16 Elwany, S, Ibrahim, AA, Mandour, Z, Talaat, I. Effect of passive smoking on the ultrastructure of the nasal mucosa in children. Laryngoscope 2012;122:965–9
17 Ikeda, K, Shiozawa, A, Ono, N, Kusunoki, T, Hirotsu, M, Homma, H et al. Subclassification of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp based on eosinophil and neutrophil. Laryngoscope 2013;123:E19
18 Matsuwaki, Y, Ookushi, T, Asaka, D, Mori, E, Nakajima, T, Yoshida, T et al. Chronic rhinosinusitis: risk factors for the recurrence of chronic rhinosinusitis based on 5-year follow-up after endoscopic sinus surgery. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2008;146(suppl 1):7781
19 Nakayama, T, Yoshikawa, M, Asaka, D, Okushi, T, Matsuwaki, Y, Otori, N et al. Mucosal eosinophilia and recurrence of nasal polyps – new classification of chronic rhinosinusitis. Rhinology 2011;49:392–6
20 Promsopa, C, Kansara, S, Citardi, MJ, Fakhri, S, Porter, P, Luong, A. Prevalence of confirmed asthma varies in chronic rhinosinusitis subtypes. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2016;6:373–7
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Laryngology & Otology
  • ISSN: 0022-2151
  • EISSN: 1748-5460
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-laryngology-and-otology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed