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Nonlinear oscillations of viscous liquid drops

  • Osman A. Basaran (a1)

Abstract

A fundamental understanding of nonlinear oscillations of a viscous liquid drop is needed in diverse areas of science and technology. In this paper, the moderate- to large-amplitude axisymmetric oscillations of a viscous liquid drop, which is immersed in dynamically inactive surroundings, are analysed by solving the free boundary problem comprised of the Navier–Stokes system and appropriate interfacial conditions at the drop–ambient fluid interface. The means are the Galerkin/finite-element technique, an implicit predictor-corrector method, and Newton's method for solving the resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations. Attention is focused here on oscillations of drops that are released from an initial static deformation. Two dimensionless groups govern such nonlinear oscillations: a Reynolds number, Re, and some measure of the initial drop deformation. Accuracy is attested by demonstrating that (i) the drop volume remains virtually constant, (ii) dynamic response to small-and moderate-amplitude disturbances agrees with linear and perturbation theories, and (iii) large-amplitude oscillations compare well with the few published predictions made with the marker-and-cell method and experiments. The new results show that viscous drops that are released from an initially two-lobed configuration spend less time in prolate form than inviscid drops, in agreement with experiments. Moreover, the frequency of oscillation of viscous drops released from such initially two-lobed configurations decreases with the square of the initial amplitude of deformation as Re gets large for moderate-amplitude oscillations, but the change becomes less dramatic as Re falls and/or the initial amplitude of deformation rises. The rate at which these oscillations are damped during the first period rises as initial drop deformation increases; thereafter the damping rate is lower but remains virtually time-independent regardless of Re or the initial amplitude of deformation. The new results also show that finite viscosity has a much bigger effect on mode coupling phenomena and, in particular, on resonant mode interactions than might be anticipated based on results of computations incorporating only an infinitesimal amount of viscosity.

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Nonlinear oscillations of viscous liquid drops

  • Osman A. Basaran (a1)

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