Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Attempts to develop a simple, objective test for oestrus in sows

  • Ruth Henderson (a1), A. Stolba (a1), M. Döbeli (a2) and H. Kündig (a2)

Summary

To evaluate the accuracy of various techniques for determining the sexual state of sows, four multiparous Landrace sows were housed in stalls 2–5 weeks after weaning. Catheters were inserted under anaesthetic into a prominent ear vein on each sow. Four days later blood and urine sampling commenced, along with other measurements to assess the oestrous state of the animals.

Oestrus was detected in all four sows and so were corresponding oestradiol·17β peaks (22–49 pg/ml) in serum of the three sows from which blood was successfully sampled during the complete 25·day collection period. Serum progesterone concentrations were highest between days — 5 and — 12 (day 0 = 1st day of standing heat) (peak values of 33·1–58·2 ng/ml), with values of 3·55 ng/ml or less on day 0. Urinary oestrogen was less well correlated with oestrous state than were serum hormone concentrations, but progesterone derivatives in urine corresponded well to serum progesterone with peaks between days —5 and —9. Vulval redness, vulval size, social interest and the occurrence of flehmen were markedly greater during the oestrous period than at other times in the cycle. Body temperature, vaginal pH, the presence of vaginal mucus and behavioural manifestations of oestrus (with the exception of back pressure test) were less well correlated with sexual state. A combination of vulval colour and size, back pressure test, a more detailed study of behaviour and possibly with urinary progesterone derivatives, should give the best indication of the incidence of oestrus in sows.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alexander, G., Signoret, J. P. & Hafez, E. S. E. (1974). Sexual and maternal behaviour. In Reproduction in Farm Animals, 3rd edn (ed. Hafez, E. S. E.), pp. 222254. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.
Allen, E. & Rieman, W. (1953). Determining only one compound in a mixture. Analytical Chemistry 25, 13251331.
Anderson, L. L. (1974). Reproductive cycles: pigs. In Reproduction in Farm Animals, 3rd edn (ed. Hafez, E. S. E.), pp. 275287. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.
Ensley, P. K., Wing, A. E., Gosink, B. L., Lasley, B. L. & Durrant, B. (1982). Application of non invasive techniques to monitor reproductive function in a brown hyena (Hyena brunea). Zoo Biology 1, 333343.
Erb, R. E., Tillson, S. A., Hodgen, G. D. & Plotka, E. D. (1970). Urinary creatinine as an index compound for estimating rate of excretion of steroids in the domestic sow. Journal of Animal Science 30, 7985.
Guthrie, H. D., Henricks, D. M. & Handlin, D. L. (1972). Plasma oestrogen, progesterone and luteinising hormone prior to oestrus and during early pregnancy in pigs. Endocrinology 91, 675679.
Hafez, E. S. E. (1974). Functional anatomy of female reproduction. In Reproduction in Farm Animals, 3rd edn (ed. Hafez, E. S. E.), pp. 2453. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.
Hodges, J. K., Czekala, N. M. & Lasley, B. L. (1979). Estrogen and luteinizing hormone secretion in diverse primate species from simplified urinary analysis. Journal of Medical Primatology 8, 349365.
Jones, P. H. & Erb, R. (1968). Levels of 5β-pregnan- 3α, 6α·diol-20·one in urine and its relationship to other metabolites of progesterone in urine of the nonpregnant domestic sow. Journal of Animal Science 27, 10541058.
Lunaas, T. (1962). Urinary oestrogen levels in the sow during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 4, 1320.
Martys, M. (1977). Das Flehmen der Schweine, Suidae. Zoologischer Anzeiger 199, 433440.
Perry, J. S. (1971). The Ovarian Cycle of Mammals. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.
Raeside, J. I. (1963). Urinary oestrogen excretion in the pig at oestrus and during the oestrous cycle. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 6, 421426.
Schomberg, D. W., Jones, P. H., Erb, R. E. & Gomes, W. R. (1966). Metabolites of progesterone in urine compared with progesterone in ovarian venous plasma of the cycling domestic sow. Journal of Animal Science 25, 11811185.
Seelig, H. P. & Wust, H. (1969). Die Kreatininbestimmung mit der Jaffé-Reaktion. Ärztliche Laboratorium 15, 3439.
Short, R. V. (1984). Oestrous and menstrual cycles. In Reproduction in Mammals: 3. Hormonal Control of Reproduction, 2nd edn (ed. Austin, C. R. and Short, R. V.), pp. 115152. Cambridge University Press.
Signoret, J. P. (1972). The mating behaviour of the sow. In Pig Production (ed. Cole, D. J. A.), pp. 295313. London: Butterworths.
Signoret, J. P., Baldwin, B. A., Frazer, D. & Hafez, E. S. E. (1975). The behaviour of swine. In The Behaviour of Domestic Animals, 3rd edn. (ed. Hafez, E. S. E.), pp. 295329. London: Bailliere Tindall.
Wiel, D. F. M.Van De, Erkens, J., Koops, W., Vos, E. & Landeghem, A. A. J. Van (1981). Perioestrus and midluteal time courses of circulating LH, FSH, prolactin, oestradiol-17β and progesterone in the domestic pig. Biology of Reproduction 24, 223233.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed