Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effects of the snow cover on Antarctic sea ice and potential modulation of its response to climate change

  • Hajo Eicken (a1), Holger Fischer (a1) and Peter Lemke (a1)

Abstract

Based on presented field data, it is shown that snow contributes roughly 8% to the total mass of ice in the Weddell Sea. Snow depth averages 0.16 m on first-year ice (average thickness 0.75 m) and 0.53 m on second-year ice (average thickness 1.70 m). Due to snow loading, sea ice is depressed below water level and flooded by sea water. As a result of flooding, snow ice forms through congelation of sea water and brine in a matrix of meteoric ice (i.e. snow). Sea-ice growth has been simulated with a one-dimensional model, treating the evolution of salinity, porosity and thermal properties of the ice. Simulations demonstrate that in the presence of a snow cover, ice growth is significantly reduced. Brine volumes increase by a factor of 1.5–2, affecting properties such as ice strength. Snow-ice formation depends on the evolution of freeboard and ice permeability. Effects of accumulation-rate changes have been assessed, for the Weddell Sea with a large-scale sea-ice model accounting for snow-ice formation. Results for different scenarios are presented and compared with field data and one-dimensional simulations. The role of snow in modulating the response of Antarctic sea ice to climate change is discussed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effects of the snow cover on Antarctic sea ice and potential modulation of its response to climate change
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effects of the snow cover on Antarctic sea ice and potential modulation of its response to climate change
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effects of the snow cover on Antarctic sea ice and potential modulation of its response to climate change
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Anderson, E.A. 1976. A point energy and mass balance model of a snow cover. NOAA Tech. Rep. NWS-19.
Budd, W.F. and Simmonds., I. 1991. The impact of global warming on the Antarctic mass balance and global sea level. In Weller, G. , Wilson, C.L. andSeverin, B.A.B. eds. International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change: proceedings… June 11–15, 1990 at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Vol. 2. Fairbanks, AΚ, University of Alaska, 489494.
Cox, G.F.N. and Weeks., W.F. 1988. Numerical simulations of the profile properties of undeformed first-year sea ice during the growth season. J. Geophys. Res., 93(C10), 12,44912,460.
Eicken., H. 1992. Salinity profiles of Antarctic sea ice: field data and model results. J. Geophys. Res., 97(C10), 15,54515,557.
Eicken, H., Lange., M.A. Hubberten, H. -W. and Wadhams., P. 1994. Characteristics and distribution patterns of snow and meteoric ice in the Weddell Sea and their contribution to the mass balance of sea ice. Annales Geophysicae, 12(1), 8093.
Fischer., H. and Lemke., P. 1994. On the required accuracy of atmospheric forcing fields for driving dynamic–thermodynamic sea ice models. In Johannessen, O.M., Muench, R.D. and Overland., J.E. eds., The polar oceans and their rule in shaping the global environment, Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 373381. (Geophysical Monograph, 85)
Gloersen, P., Campbell., W.J. Cavalieri, D. J. Comiso., J.C. Parkinson, C.L. and Zwally., H.J. 1992. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, 1978–1987: satellite passive-microwave observations and analysis. Washington, DC, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (NASA SP-511.)
Gordon, A.L. and Huber., B.A. 1990. Southern Ocean winter mixed layer. J. Geophys. Res., 95(C7), 11,65511,672.
Hibler, W.D. III., 1979. A dynamic thermodynamic sea ice model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9(4), 815846.
Jeffries, M.O., Shaw., R.A. Morris, K. Veazey, A.L. and Krouse., H.R. 1994. Crystal structure, stable isotopes (δ18O), and development of sea ice in the Ross, Amundsen, and Bellingshausen seas, Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res., 99(C1), 985995.
Kipfstuhl., J. 1991. zur Entstehung von Unterwassereis und das Wachstum und die Energiebilanz des Meereises in der Atka Bucht, Antarktis. Ber. Polarforsch. 85.
Lange, M.A., Schlosser, P. Ackley., S.F. Wadhams, P. and Dieckmann., G.S. 1990. 18O concentrations in sea ice of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 36(124), 315323.
Lemke, P., Owens, W.B. and Hibler., W.D. III. 1990. A coupled sea ice mixed layer-pycnocline model for the Weddell Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 95(C6), 95139525.
Leppärama, M. 1983. A growth model for black ice, snow ice and snow thickness in subarctic basins. Nord. Hydrol., 14(2), 5970.
Loth, B., Graf, H. -F. and Oberhuber., J.M. 1993. Snow cover model for global climatic simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 98(D6), 10,45110,464.
Maykut, G.A. and Untersteiner., N. 1971. Some results from a time- dependent thermodynamic model of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 76(6), 15501575.
Mellor., M. 1986. Mechanical behavior of sea ice. In Untersteiner, N. , ed. The geophysics of sea ice. New York, Plenum Press, 165281. (NATO ASI Series. Ser. B. Physics, Vol. 146.)
Mitchell, J.F.B., Manabe, S. Meleshko, V. and Tokioka., T. 1990. Equilibrium climate change — and its implications for the future. In Houghton, J.T., Jenkins., G.J. Ephraums, J. J. eds. Climate change — the IPCC scientific assessment. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 131172.
Ono., N. 1975. Thermal properties of sea ice. IV. CRREL Draft Translation 467.
Owens, W.B. and Lemke, P. 1990. Sensitivity studies with a sea ice–mixed layer–pycnocline model in the Weddell Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 95(C6), 95279538.
Parkinson, C.L. and Washington., W.M. 1979. A large-scale numerical model of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 84(C1), 311337.
Semtner, A.J. Jr., 1976. A model for the thermodynamic growth of sea ice in numerical investigations of climate. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 379389.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Effects of the snow cover on Antarctic sea ice and potential modulation of its response to climate change

  • Hajo Eicken (a1), Holger Fischer (a1) and Peter Lemke (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.