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X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of Trace Metals in the Annual Growth Layers of Freshwater Mussel Shells

  • William E. Maddox (a1), Leon Duobinis-Gray (a1), David A. Owen (a1) and James B. Sickel (a1)

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Freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Unionidae) are filter feeders that are relatively immobile, widely distributed and are known to concentrate trace metals in their shells (1,2,3). These characteristics make them good candidates for monitoring metal pollution in lakes and rivers. Another characteristic of mussels that make them particularly attractive as pollution monitors is the fact the shell is deposited in distinctive, annual growth layers. The concentrations of metals in these shell layers may provide a history ol the metals present in the environment where the mussel was collected.

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1. Sickel, James B. and Chandler, Carol C., “Commercial Mussel and Asiatic Clam Fishery Evaluation”, Report to Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Frankfort, Kentucky. Project No. 2-367-R. 77 pp, 1982.
2. Girardi, F. and Merlini, Margaret, “Studies on the Distribution of Trace Elements in a Mollusk from a Freshwater Environment by Activation Analysis”. EURATOM: EUR 474.e., 25 pp, 1963.
3. Nelson, D.J., “High-Purity Calcium Carbonate in Freshwater Clam Shell”. Science. 152(3727), 13681370, 1966.
4. Nelson, D.J., “Deposition of Sr in Relation to Morphology of Clam Shells”, Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 55: 898902, 1964.
5. Maddox, W.E., “Application of a Polarized X-Ray Spectrometer for Analysis of Ash from a Refuse-Fired Steam Generating Facility,“ Advances in X-Ray Analysis. Vol. 17, pp. 519526, 1984.
6. Owen, David A. and York, Keith A., “A Study of the Forms, Concentrations, and Interphase Dynamics of Iron and Manganese in Northern Kentucky Lake Benthic Waters, Elutriates, Sediments, and Other Lacustrine-Based Matrices”, Report to Center for Reservoir Research, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky. 39 pp., 1988.

X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of Trace Metals in the Annual Growth Layers of Freshwater Mussel Shells

  • William E. Maddox (a1), Leon Duobinis-Gray (a1), David A. Owen (a1) and James B. Sickel (a1)

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