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We prove that for a discrete determinantal process the BK inequality occurs for increasing events generated by simple points. We also give some elementary but nonetheless appealing relationships between a discrete determinantal process and the well-known CS decomposition.
We introduce a notion of barycenter of a probability measure related to the symmetric mean of a collection of non-negative real numbers. Our definition is inspired by the work of Halász and Székely, who in 1976 proved a law of large numbers for symmetric means. We study the analytic properties of this Halász–Székely barycenter. We establish fundamental inequalities that relate the symmetric mean of a list of non-negative real numbers with the barycenter of the measure uniformly supported on these points. As consequence, we go on to establish an ergodic theorem stating that the symmetric means of a sequence of dynamical observations converge to the Halász–Székely barycenter of the corresponding distribution.
A
$D_{\infty }$
-topological Markov chain is a topological Markov chain provided with an action of the infinite dihedral group
$D_{\infty }$
. It is defined by two zero-one square matrices A and J satisfying
$AJ=JA^{\textsf {T}}$
and
$J^2=I$
. A flip signature is obtained from symmetric bilinear forms with respect to J on the eventual kernel of A. We modify Williams’ decomposition theorem to prove the flip signature is a
$D_{\infty }$
-conjugacy invariant. We introduce natural
$D_{\infty }$
-actions on Ashley’s eight-by-eight and the full two-shift. The flip signatures show that Ashley’s eight-by-eight and the full two-shift equipped with the natural
$D_{\infty }$
-actions are not
$D_{\infty }$
-conjugate. We also discuss the notion of
$D_{\infty }$
-shift equivalence and the Lind zeta function.
In this paper, we study the images of multilinear graded polynomials on the graded algebra of upper triangular matrices
$UT_n$
. For positive integers
$q\leq n$
, we classify these images on
$UT_{n}$
endowed with a particular elementary
${\mathbb {Z}}_{q}$
-grading. As a consequence, we obtain the images of multilinear graded polynomials on
$UT_{n}$
with the natural
${\mathbb {Z}}_{n}$
-grading. We apply this classification in order to give a new condition for a multilinear polynomial in terms of graded identities so that to obtain the traceless matrices in its image on the full matrix algebra. We also describe the images of multilinear polynomials on the graded algebras
$UT_{2}$
and
$UT_{3}$
, for arbitrary gradings. We finish the paper by proving a similar result for the graded Jordan algebra
$UJ_{2}$
, and also for
$UJ_{3}$
endowed with the natural elementary
${\mathbb {Z}}_{3}$
-grading.
For a not-necessarily commutative ring $R$ we define an abelian group $W(R;M)$ of Witt vectors with coefficients in an $R$-bimodule $M$. These groups generalize the usual big Witt vectors of commutative rings and we prove that they have analogous formal properties and structure. One main result is that $W(R) := W(R;R)$ is Morita invariant in $R$. For an $R$-linear endomorphism $f$ of a finitely generated projective $R$-module we define a characteristic element $\chi _f \in W(R)$. This element is a non-commutative analogue of the classical characteristic polynomial and we show that it has similar properties. The assignment $f \mapsto \chi _f$ induces an isomorphism between a suitable completion of cyclic $K$-theory $K_0^{\mathrm {cyc}}(R)$ and $W(R)$.
Every transitive family of subspaces of a vector space of finite dimension
$n\ge 2$
over a field
$\mathbb {F}$
contains a subfamily which is transitive but has no proper transitive subfamily. Such a subfamily is called minimally transitive. Each has at most
$n^2-n+1$
elements. On
${{\mathbb {C}}}^n, n\ge 3$
, a minimally transitive family of subspaces has at least four elements and a minimally transitive family of one-dimensional subspaces has
$\tau $
elements where
$n+1\le \tau \le 2n-2$
. We show how a minimally transitive family of one-dimensional subspaces arises when it consists of the subspaces spanned by the standard basis vectors together with those spanned by
$0$
–
$1$
vectors. On a space of dimension four, the set of nontrivial elements of a medial subspace lattice has five elements if it is minimally transitive. On spaces of dimension
$12$
or more, the set of nontrivial elements of a medial subspace lattice can have six or more elements and be minimally transitive.
We study the classical Hermite–Hadamard inequality in the matrix setting. This leads to a number of interesting matrix inequalities such as the Schatten p-norm estimates
Let $F$ be an infinite field of positive characteristic $p > 2$ and let $G$ be a group. In this paper, we study the graded identities satisfied by an associative algebra equipped with an elementary $G$-grading. Let $E$ be the infinite-dimensional Grassmann algebra. For every $a$, $b\in \mathbb {N}$, we provide a basis for the graded polynomial identities, up to graded monomial identities, for the verbally prime algebras $M_{a,b}(E)$, as well as their tensor products, with their elementary gradings. Moreover, we give an alternative proof of the fact that the tensor product $M_{a,b}(E)\otimes M_{r,s}(E)$ and $M_{ar+bs,as+br}(E)$ are $F$-algebras which are not PI equivalent. Actually, we prove that the $T_{G}$-ideal of the former algebra is contained in the $T$-ideal of the latter. Furthermore, the inclusion is proper. Recall that it is well known that these algebras satisfy the same multilinear identities and hence in characteristic 0 they are PI equivalent.
Motivated by considerations of the quadratic orthogonal bisectional curvature, we address the question of when a weighted graph (with possibly negative weights) has nonnegative Dirichlet energy.
Let
$\mathbf{X}$
be a
$p\times n$
random matrix whose entries are independent and identically distributed real random variables with zero mean and unit variance. We study the limiting behaviors of the 2-normal condition number k(p,n) of
$\mathbf{X}$
in terms of large deviations for large n, with p being fixed or
$p=p(n)\rightarrow\infty$
with
$p(n)=o(n)$
. We propose two main ingredients: (i) to relate the large-deviation probabilities of k(p,n) to those involving n independent and identically distributed random variables, which enables us to consider a quite general distribution of the entries (namely the sub-Gaussian distribution), and (ii) to control, for standard normal entries, the upper tail of k(p,n) using the upper tails of ratios of two independent
$\chi^2$
random variables, which enables us to establish an application in statistical inference.
We show that the elements of the dual of the Euclidean distance matrix cone can be described via an inequality on a certain weighted sum of its eigenvalues.
This short note refines a noncommutative (nc) Oka–Weil theorem by using a characterization of free compact nc sets based on the notion of dilation hulls. A consequence of it is that any free holomorphic function can be represented as a free polynomial on each free compact nc set.
Let A be a semisimple, unital, and complex Banach algebra. It is well known and easy to prove that A is commutative if and only $e^xe^y=e^{x+y}$ for all $x,y\in A$. Elaborating on the spectral theory of commutativity developed by Aupetit, Zemánek, and Zemánek and Pták, we derive, in this paper, commutativity results via a spectral comparison of $e^xe^y$ and $e^{x+y}$.
In set theory without the Axiom of Choice (
$\mathsf {AC}$
), we investigate the open problem of the deductive strength of statements which concern the existence of almost disjoint and maximal almost disjoint (MAD) families of infinite-dimensional subspaces of a given infinite-dimensional vector space, as well as the extension of almost disjoint families in infinite-dimensional vector spaces to MAD families.
A celebrated theorem of Douglas Lind states that a positive real number is equal to the spectral radius of some integral primitive matrix, if and only if, it is a Perron algebraic integer. Given a Perron number p, we prove that there is an integral irreducible matrix with spectral radius p, and with dimension bounded above in terms of the algebraic degree, the ratio of the first two largest Galois conjugates, and arithmetic information about the ring of integers of its number field. This arithmetic information can be taken to be either the discriminant or the minimal Hermite-like thickness. Equivalently, given a Perron number p, there is an irreducible shift of finite type with entropy
$\log (p)$
defined as an edge shift on a graph whose number of vertices is bounded above in terms of the aforementioned data.
We prove an analogue of Alon’s spectral gap conjecture for random bipartite, biregular graphs. We use the Ihara–Bass formula to connect the non-backtracking spectrum to that of the adjacency matrix, employing the moment method to show there exists a spectral gap for the non-backtracking matrix. A by-product of our main theorem is that random rectangular zero-one matrices with fixed row and column sums are full rank with high probability. Finally, we illustrate applications to community detection, coding theory, and deterministic matrix completion.
We investigate a class of generalised stochastic complex matrices constructed from the class of all doubly stochastic matrices and a special class of circulant matrices. We determine the exact values of the structured singular values of all matrices in the class in terms of the constant row (column) sum.
We continue our investigation of the real space H of Hermitian matrices in $${M_n}(\mathbb{C})$$ with respect to norms on $${\mathbb{C}^n}$$. We complete the commutative case by showing that any proper real subspace of the real diagonal matrices on $${\mathbb{C}^n}$$ can appear as H. For the non-commutative case, we give a complete solution when n=3 and we provide various illustrative examples for n ≥ 4. We end with a short list of problems.
By making use of the Cauchy double alternant and the Laplace expansion formula, we establish two closed formulae for the determinants of factorial fractions that are then utilised to evaluate several determinants of binomial coefficients and Catalan numbers, including those obtained recently by Chammam [‘Generalized harmonic numbers, Jacobi numbers and a Hankel determinant evaluation’, Integral Transforms Spec. Funct.30(7) (2019), 581–593].
We provide a description of the spectrum and compute the eigenvalues distribution of circulant Hankel matrices obtained as symmetrization of classical Toeplitz circulant matrices. Other types of circulant matrices such as simple and Cesàro circulant matrices are also considered.