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The tachinid fly Drino inconspicuoides (Diptera: Tachinidae) is an ovolarviparous endoparasitoid whose larvae develop in the host haemocoel and avoids the host immune system. In this study, we investigated the immune evasion mechanisms of this species during infestation in the host Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We discovered a unique ‘cloak’ that surrounded D. inconspicuoides larvae that penetrated into the host and determined through genomic polymerase chain reaction analysis that this structure originated from the host rather than the tachinid. The ‘cloak’ contained both haemocytes and fat body cells from the host, with the haemocytes assembling around the larvae first and the fat body cells then covering the haemocyte layer, following which the two mixed. Living D. inconspicuoides larvae that were wrapped in the ‘cloak’ were not melanized whereas encapsulated dead larvae were melanized, suggesting that this structure contributes to the avoidance of host immune reactions.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
Extensive reflection nebulae have been discovered around GGD27 IRS and around W75N IRS by mapping the infrared polarization in the K band.
It was found that the infrared radiation from both objects is extended at λ = 2.2 μm, by using the Agematsu 1-m, the UH 2.2-m, and the UKIR 3.8-m telescopes. We have carried out polarization mapping with the Kyoto polarimeter on the UKIRT in August 1985.
Metal Organic Decomposition (MOD)-made BaTiO3 (BT) thin films were prepared for Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) under various annealing conditions and investigated for improving the properties of bipolar-type resistive switching, focusing on the relation between oxygen vacancies and the behavior of resistive hysteresis. BT thin films with both pre- and final- annealing in nitrogen showed the resistive hysteresis of bipolar-type switching with current ON/OFF ratios of 2 orders of magnitude for both bias polarities. Finally they showed the endurance property with the 106 switching cycles. It was suggested that oxygen vacancies near the oxide surface (both interfaces at metal electrode/oxide and between layer-by-layered oxide layers) are increased by N2 annealing and enhanced the interface-type resistive switching. Pre-annealing in N2 was also found to be very effective to improve endurance properties, implying that not only the electrode/oxide interface but also the middle part of the film would contribute the interface-type mechanism.
We have simulated the 3D growth of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the expanding envelope of SN 1987A using the Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scheme utilizing a resolution of 4096−3. When the sinusoidal velocity perturbation amplitude is 10%, heavy element tongues of the He/H interface penetrate into the envelope with a high velocity.
Much attempts of statistical approach have been made to study the origin of heavy elements, distribution of dark matter and evolution of clusters of galaxies. Henry et al.(1991) reported a power-law relation; LX ∝ kTγ, γ ~ 2.7. Edge and Stwert(1991) found significant scatter in the correlation using 45 clusters. David at al.(1993) reported γ ~ 3.4 using 104 clusters.
ASCA, Japanese X-ray Sattelite, can obtain the spatial distribution of density and temperature of the intracluster medium at the same time and greatly improve the accuracy for the derivation of the Hubble constant using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Table 1 shows the results of ASCA observations of 4 distant clusters of galaxies. The parameters of the density distribution were obtained assuming the β model.
Based on the ASCA observations, the X-ray features like spatial extentions and spectral properties of their component were analyzed for nearby four compact groups of galaxies; HCG62, NGC2300 group, HCG42 and HCG48. We found wide variety in their X-ray features. One of the brightest source of HCG62 shows the presence of cool component and enhanced abundance at its center, while HCG42 shows less extention and low abundance ratio of α-element to iron. For NGC 2300 group, we also found interesting feature which may be related to galaxy-intragroup medium interaction.
Cosmic X-rays were observed with three sets of proportional counters covering the energy range between 0.15 and 20 keV. The detector born on a spinning rocket scanned a celestial region in which the galactic latitude bII changed from 30° to −55° across the galactic plane in the Cygnus-Cassiopeia region. The spectrum of Cyg XR-2 thus obtained is represented by a thermal bremsstrahlung of temperature 3.4 keV modified by the interstellar absorption for the hydrogen column density of 3 × 1021 cm−2. The diffuse component showed an interstellar absorption effect, which was however found much weaker than one would expect if the diffuse component were due entirely to be of extragalactic origin. The spectrum obtained in the highest latitude region is represented approximately by a power law E−1.8 but shows a possible trough at about 1 keV.
We present high resolution molecular line observations of dusty AGN and starburst in nearby luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), VV 114 (band 3/4/7) and NGC 1614 (band 3/6/7/9), with ALMA. Multi-frequency imaging from 4.8 GHz to 691 GHz of NGC 1614 allows us to study spatial properties of the radio-to-FIR continuum and multiple CO transitions, and we find the CO excitation up to Jupp = 6 can be explained by a single ISM model powered by nuclear starbursts. Our processing line imaging survey for VV 114 detected at least 30 molecular lines which show different chemical composition from region to region. Multi-molecule imaging helps us to diagnose the chemical differences of dusty ISM, while multi-transition imaging allows us to investigate gas physical conditions affected by nuclear activities directly.
We succeeded in photovoltaic power generation of p-i-n solar cells utilizing epitaxial ZnInON film with a wide band gap of 3.1 eV as the intrinsic layer, suitable for a top cell of tandem solar cells. The solar cell shows a high open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.68 V under solar simulator light irradiation of 3.2 mW/cm2. The solar cell performance becomes worse under 100 mW/cm2, which is mainly attributed to the leakage current caused by crystal defects and grain boundaries. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the ZnInON film has rather large tilt and twist angles and a high dislocation density of 7.62×1010 cm-2. Such low crystallinity is a bottleneck for high performance of the solar cells. Our results demonstrate a potential of epitaxial ZnInON films as an intrinsic layer of wide band gap p-i-n solar cells with a high Voc.
Effects of surface morphology of buffer layers on ZnO/sapphire heteroepitaxial growth have been investigated by means of “nitrogen mediated crystallization (NMC) method”, where the crystal nucleation and growth are controlled by absorbed nitrogen atoms. We found a strong correlation between the height distribution profile of NMC-ZnO buffer layers and the crystal quality of ZnO films. On the buffer layer with a sharp peak in height distribution, a single-crystalline ZnO film with atomically-flat surface was grown. Our results indicate that homogeneous and high-density nucleation at the initial growth stages is critical in heteroepitaxy of ZnO on lattice mismatched substrates.
Two typed bio-conjugated soft-interface for highly sensitive immunoassay was developed by integrating a phospholipid polymer. Nano-sphered surface with poly [2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-co-n-butyl methacrylate (BMA)-co-p-nitrophenyloxycarbonyl poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (MEONP)]: PMBN) was prepared by electrospray deposition (ESD) method. The three dimensional nano-sphered surface can be captured an antibody with high density around 860 ng/cm2. The theoretical amount of closest packed immobilized antibodies on flat surface is around 650 ng/cm2, thus large amount of antibodies were immobilized on the nano-sphere surface. The water stability of PMBN nanostructure was improved by crosslinking with 1,4-butylenediamine and by heating. Both heated and cross-linked PMBN nanostructure was not changed at all remaining high porosity after immersing in water. The specific signal in the immunoassay was enhanced with both heated and cross-linked PMBN nanostructure. The PMBN nanostructure which has high porosity and high water stability realized highly sensitive immunoassay.
As the other platform, we developed a novel soft-interface consisting of a well-defined phospholipid polymer surface on which Staphylococcal Protein A (SpA) was site-selectively immobilized. The phospholipid polymer platform was prepared on silicon substrates using the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) technique. Orientation-controlled antibodies were achieved using enzymatic reactions, and these antibodies captured 1.8 ± 0.1 antigens on average, implying that at least 80% of immobilized antibodies reacted with 2 antigens. Theoretical multivalent binding analysis further revealed that orientation-controlled antibodies had antigen-antibody reaction equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) as low as 8.6 × 10-10 mol/L, whereas randomly oriented and partially oriented antibodies showed Kd values of 2.0 × 10-7 mol/L and 1.2 × 10-7 mol/L, respectively. These findings support the significance of antibody orientation because controlling the orientation resulted in high reactivity and theoretical binding capacity.
A novel allergy biosensor is designed and fabricated by using thin film bulk acoustic resonator (TFBAR) devices with shear mode ZnO piezoelectric thin films. To fabricate TFBAR devices, the off-axis RF magnetron sputtering method for the growth of piezoelectric ZnO piezoelectric thin films is adopted. The influences of the relative distance and sputtering parameters are investigated. In this report, the piezoelectric ZnO thin films with tilting angle are set by controlling the deposition parameters. The properties of the shear mode ZnO thin films are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The frequency response is measured using an HP8720 network analyzer with a CASCADE probe station. The resonance frequency of the shear mode is 796.75 MHz. The sensitivity of the shear mode is calculated to be 462.5 kHz·cm2/ng.
The sensor team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is an integrated multidisciplinary group that develops both core technologies as well as accessory tools for efficient biodetection. We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the efficient and ultra-sensitive, rapid detection of biological agents. We have previously demonstrated the use of this technology for the detection of biomarkers associated with many diseases. Herein, we present the preliminary data demonstrating the extension of this technology to the discovery and detection of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). TBI afflicts a significant percentage of US troops deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan, but is difficult to diagnose efficiently. Currently, only neuropsychological questionnaires are being used for the diagnosis of this condition, which can range from mild concussion to severe brain damage. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a rapid biomarker-based diagnostic for TBI in blood. However, this cannot be accomplished until a comprehensive repertoire of biomarkers secreted during brain injury is established. This requires an integrated biomarker discovery and detection approach that is sampled directly from human serum and cerebrospinal fluid.
The results reported here are preliminary steps in that direction wherein we aim to develop two different methods for the discovery of novel biomarkers of TBI in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as develop assays for two biomarkers on an ultra-sensitive waveguide-based platform that was developed at LANL. We were able to evaluate two different methods for biomarker discovery: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in serum samples. In addition to development of depletion protocols to remove abundant proteins in serum, we were also able to detect spiked TBI biomarkers using both methods. However, the results clearly show that for protein biomarkers, MALDI MS is much more sensitive than 2-DE. We also developed a sandwich immunoassay on a waveguide-based platform for a TBI biomarker, procalcitonin, using commercially available antibodies. We show with our methods that we were able to directly detect procalcitonin from human serum. While our discovery and detection methods show promising results, these methods need to be further optimized before we can apply it to clinically relevant samples.
A Xe flash lamp (FL) heating technique was applied to the post deposition annealing process (PDA) for HfAlOx/SiO2 gate insulator with poly-Si or W/TiN gate electrode in a gate last based process. In the case of W/TiN/HfAlOx/SiO2, CV hysteresis with less than 10mV was achieved using the FL-PDA. However, the FL-PDA increased hysteresis width up to over 100 mV when poly-Si was used as a gate electrode. That occurred also with low temperature (700 °C) rapid thermal PDA process. The lower thermal budget achieved by the flash lamp annealing and the metal gate is effective to suppress the interfacial reaction which causes the traps responsible for the hysteresis. Charge trapping in the W/TiN/HfAlOx/SiO2 was evaluated using CV hysteresis characteristics in the MISFETs and the MIS capacitors. Electron was major trapped charge of the HfAlOx.
We have studied the local motion of hydrogen in the neighborhood of carbon and platinum impurities by observing the stress-induced reorientation and subsequent recovery of two H-related (H-C and Pt-H2) complexes in Si, using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) under uniaxial compressive stress. We notice two interesting differences in hydrogen motion around carbon and platinum atoms. The first one is a difference in the temperature where stress-induced reorientation occurs. That of the H-C complex occurs at high temperatures above 250 K, while it occurs at low temperatures around 80 K for the Pt-H2 complex. The second difference is the effect of charge state of the complexes on their stress-induced reorientation and subsequent recovery. It occurs preferentially when an electron occupies the level of the H-C complex, but the Pt- H2 complex has the reverse effect of level occupancy. These differences are discussed from viewpoint of different atomic configurations and electronic states of two H-related complexes.