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A theoretically based relationship for the Darcy–Weisbach friction factor
for rough-bed open-channel flows is derived and discussed. The derivation procedure is based on the double averaging (in time and space) of the Navier–Stokes equation followed by repeated integration across the flow. The obtained relationship explicitly shows that the friction factor can be split into at least five additive components, due to: (i) viscous stress; (ii) turbulent stress; (iii) dispersive stress (which in turn can be subdivided into two parts, due to bed roughness and secondary currents); (iv) flow unsteadiness and non-uniformity; and (v) spatial heterogeneity of fluid stresses in a bed-parallel plane. These constitutive components account for the roughness geometry effect and highlight the significance of the turbulent and dispersive stresses in the near-bed region where their values are largest. To explore the potential of the proposed relationship, an extensive data set has been assembled by employing specially designed large-eddy simulations and laboratory experiments for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Flows over self-affine rough boundaries, which are representative of natural and man-made surfaces, are considered. The data analysis focuses on the effects of roughness geometry (i.e. spectral slope in the bed elevation spectra), relative submergence of roughness elements and flow and roughness Reynolds numbers, all of which are found to be substantial. It is revealed that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the roughness-induced and secondary-currents-induced dispersive stresses may play significant roles in generating bed friction, complementing the dominant turbulent stress contribution.
Introduction: Prompt defibrillation is critical during paediatric cardiac arrest. The main objective of this systematic review was to determine the initial defibrillation energy dose for ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT) that is associated with sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during paediatric cardiac arrest. Associations between initial defibrillation energy dose with any ROSC, survival and defibrillation-induced complications were also assessed. Methods: A systematic review was performed using four databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) (PROSPERO: CRD42016036734). Human studies (cohort studies or controlled trials) and animal model studies (controlled trials) of pediatric cardiac arrest involving assessment of external defibrillation energy dosing were considered. The primary outcome was sustained ROSC. Two researchers independently reviewed all the titles and abstracts of the retrieved citations, selected the studies and extracted the data using a standardized template. Risk of bias of human non-randomised studies were assessed using the ROBIN-I tool (formerly ACROBAT-NRSI) tool proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration group. Results: The search strategy identified 14,471 citations of which 232 manuscripts were reviewed. Ten human and 10 animal model studies met the inclusion criteria. Human studies were prospective (n = 6) or retrospective (n = 4) cohort studies and included between 11 and 266 patients (median = 46 patients). Sustained ROSC rates ranged from 0 to 61% (n = 7). No studies reported a statistically significant association between the initial defibrillation energy dose and the rate of sustained ROSC (n = 7) or survival (n = 6). No human studies reported defibrillation-induced complications. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to clinical heterogeneity. The overall risk of bias was moderate. All animal studies were randomized controlled trials with 8 and 52 (median = 27) piglets. ROSC was frequently achieved (more than 85%) with energy dose ranging from 2 to 7 joules/kg (n = 7). The defibrillation threshold varied according to the body weight and appears to be higher in infant models. Conclusion: Defibrillation energy doses and thresholds varied according to the body weight and trended higher for infants. No definitive association between initial defibrillation doses and the outcomes of sustained ROSC or survival could be demonstrated.
Introduction: This systematic scoping review aims to synthetize the available evidence on the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical characteristics, screening tools, prevention strategies, interventions and knowledge of health care providers regarding elder abuse in the emergency department (ED). Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using three databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library). Grey literature was scrutinized. Studies were considered eligible when they were observational studies or randomized control trials reporting on elder abuse in the prehospital and/or ED setting. Data extraction was performed independently by two researchers and a qualitative approach was used to synthetize the findings. Results: A total of 443 citations were retrieved from which 58 studies published between 1988 and 2018 were finally included. Prevalence of elder abuse following an ED visit varied between 0.01% and 0.03%. Reporting of elder abuse to proper law authorities by ED physicians varied between 2% to 50% of suspected cases. The most common reported type of elder abuse detected was neglect followed by physical abuse. Female gender was the most consistent factor associated with elder abuse. Cognitive impairment, behavioral problems and psychiatric disorder of the patient or the caregiver were also associated with physical abuse and neglect as well as more frequent ED consultations. Several screening tools have been proposed, but ED-based validation is lacking. Literature on prehospital- or ED-initiated prevention and interventions was scarce without any controlled trial. Health care providers were poorly trained to detect and care for older adults who are suspected of being a victim of elder abuse. Conclusion: Elder abuse in the ED is an understudied topic. It remains underrecognized and underreported with ED prevalence rates lower than those in community-dwelling older adults. Health care providers reported lacking appropriate training and knowledge with regards to elder abuse. Dedicated ED studies are required.
Spectroscopic data from a var iety of analyt ical techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) can be obtained from small areas of samples (< 1 mm2) through the use of microscope sampling accessories. If provisions are made to scan or translate the sample, then a spectrum that is characteristic of each region of interest can be obtained. Alternatively, selective area detectors eliminate the requirement for scanning the sample. Extract ion of information about a specific energy band from each spectrum allows elucidat ion of the spatial distribution of the feature giving rise to that band. For example, the distribution of a compound could be imaged by extracting the intensity of an IR band or XRD peak due to that compound. Peak posit ion and peak width are other parameters that can be extracted as a function of posit ion. Similarly, elemental distributions could be obtained using SIMS and EDX.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) recurrence ranges from 16% to 43% and presents significant challenges to clinicians, patients, and families. This comparative effectiveness research study aims to disseminate, implement and evaluate whether an existing intervention, consisting of decolonization and decontamination procedures, which has been determined to be effective in hospital intensive care unit settings, can be implemented by Community Health Workers (CHWs) or “promotoras” conducting home visits prevent recurrence of CA-MRSA and transmission within their households for patients presenting to primary care with SSTIs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In partnership with 3 Community Health Centers and 4 community hospitals in NYC, this study will recruit patients (n=278) with confirmed MRSA SSTIs and their household members. Participants are randomized to receive either a CHW/Promotora-delivered decolonization-decontamination intervention or usual care, which includes hygiene education. The highly engaged stakeholder team meets monthly to review interim results, identify areas for refinement and new research questions, and develop and implement strategies to improve participant engagement and retention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: MRSA and MSSA were found in 19% and 21.1% of wound cultures, respectively. 59.5% with MRSA+ wound culture had one or more MRSA+ surveillance culture; 67.8% with MSSA+ wound culture had one or more MSSA+ surveillance culture. The “warm handoff” approach, developed and implemented by the stakeholder team to engage patients from their initial consent to return of lab results and scheduling of the home visits, helped improve completion of baseline home visits by 14%, from 45% to 59% of eligible participants. Home visits have demonstrated that 60% of households had at least one surface contaminated with S. aureus. Of the surfaces that tested positive in the households, nearly 20% were MRSA and 81% were MSSA; 32.5% of household members had at least one surveillance culture positive for S. aureus (MRSA: 7.7%, MSSA: 92.3%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study aims to understand the systems-level, patient-level, and environmental-level factors associated with SSTI recurrence and household transmission, and to examine the interactions between bacterial genotypic and clinical/phenotypic factors on decontamination, decolonization, SSTI recurrence and household transmission. This study will evaluate the barriers and facilitators of implementation of home visits by CHWs in underserved populations, and aims to strengthen the weak evidence base for implementation of strategies to reduce SSTI recurrence and household transmission.
Organic carbon (OC) radiocarbon (14C) signatures in marine surface sediments are highly variable and the causes of this heterogeneity remain ambiguous. Here, we present results from a detailed 14C-based investigation of an Arabian Sea sediment, including measurements on organic matter (OM) in bulk sediment, specific grain size fractions, and OC decomposition products from ramped-pyrolysis-oxidation (RPO). Our results show that 14C ages of OM increase with increasing grain size, suggesting that grain size is an important factor controlling the 14C heterogeneity in marine sediments. Analysis of RPO decomposition products from different grain size fractions reveals an overall increase in age of corresponding thermal fractions from finer to coarser fractions. We suggest that hydrodynamic properties of sediment grains exert the important control on the 14C age distribution of OM among grain size fractions. We propose a conceptual model to account for this dimensionality in 14C variability that invokes two predominant modes of OM preservation within different grain size fractions of Arabian Sea sediment: finer (<63 µm) fractions are influenced by OM-mineral grain aggregation processes, giving rise to relatively uniform 14C ages, whereas OM preserved in coarser (>63 µm) fractions includes materials encapsulated within microfossils and/or entrained fossil (14C-depleted) OC hosted in detrital mineral grains. Our findings highlight the value of RPO for assessment of 14C age variability in sedimentary OC, and for assessing mechanisms of OM preservation in aquatic sediments.
Inland water bodies contain significant amounts of carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) derived from a mixture of modern atmospheric and pre-aged sources, which needs to be considered in radiocarbon-based dating and natural isotope tracer studies. While reservoir effects in hardwater lakes are generally considered to be constant through time, a comparison of recent and historical DI14C data from 2013 and 1969 for Lake Constance reveals that this is not a valid assumption. We hypothesize that changes in atmospheric carbon contributions to lake water DIC have taken place due to anthropogenically forced eutrophication in the 20th century. A return to more oligotrophic conditions in the lake led to reoxygenation and enhanced terrigenous organic matter remineralization, contributing to lake water DIC. Such comparisons using DI14C measurements from different points in time enable nonlinear changes in lake water DIC source and signature to be disentangled from concurrent anthropogenically induced changes in atmospheric 14C. In the future, coeval changes in lake dynamics due to climate change are expected to further perturb these balances. Depending on the scenario, Lake Constance DI14C is projected to decrease from the 2013 measured value of 0.856 Fm to 0.54–0.62 Fm by the end of the century.
Acute respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality accounting for 5.8 million deaths worldwide. In Australia, influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as cough, fever and fatigue is a common presentation in general practice and results in reduced productivity and lost working days. Little is known about the epidemiology of ILI in working-age adults. Using data from the ASPREN influenza surveillance network in Australia (2010–2013) we found that working-age adults made up 45.2% of all ILI notifications with 55% of samples positive for at least one respiratory virus. Viruses most commonly detected in our study included influenza A (20.6%), rhinovirus (18.6%), influenza B (6.2%), human meta-pneumovirus (3.4%), respiratory syncytial virus (3.1%), para-influenza virus (2.6%) and adenovirus (1.3%). We also demonstrated that influenza A is the predominant virus that increases ILI (by 1.2% per month for every positive influenza A case) in working-age adults during autumn–winter months while other viruses are active throughout the year. Understanding the epidemiology of viral respiratory infections through a year will help clinicians make informed decisions about testing, antibiotic and antiviral prescribing and when the beginning of the ‘flu season’ can be more confidently predicted.
This study aims to investigate the climate–malaria associations in nine cities selected from malaria high-risk areas in China. Daily reports of malaria cases in Anhui, Henan, and Yunnan Provinces for 2005–2012 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Generalized estimating equation models were used to quantify the city-specific climate–malaria associations. Multivariate random-effects meta-regression analyses were used to pool the city-specific effects. An inverted-U-shaped curve relationship was observed between temperatures, average relative humidity, and malaria. A 1 °C increase of maximum temperature (Tmax) resulted in 6·7% (95% CI 4·6–8·8%) to 15·8% (95% CI 14·1–17·4%) increase of malaria, with corresponding lags ranging from 7 to 45 days. For minimum temperature (Tmin), the effect estimates peaked at lag 0 to 40 days, ranging from 5·3% (95% CI 4·4–6·2%) to 17·9% (95% CI 15·6–20·1%). Malaria is more sensitive to Tmin in cool climates and Tmax in warm climates. The duration of lag effect in a cool climate zone is longer than that in a warm climate zone. Lagged effects did not vanish after an epidemic season but waned gradually in the following 2–3 warm seasons. A warming climate may potentially increase the risk of malaria resurgence in China.
A quantity of Romano-British material was found in the course of excavation and although most of this was from disturbed contexts an attempt was made to define the nature and period of occupation which it represents.
The principal features dated to this period by material from primary positions are a number of long straight ditches, F138, F225, F225a and F255, running roughly north-east to south-west, and an irregular D-shaped enclosure, F170 (Fig 12). It is suggested that the ditches form the boundaries of a fairly large-scale layout of fields. From the discrepancies of alignment in ditches lying close together it appears that the boundaries silted and were re-cut without much exactitude. Very little stratified pottery could be associated with these ditches: a Flavian sherd from F138 and late Roman wares from F255.
Knowledge of the genetic and phenotypic relationships for muscle fibre characteristics with meat and eating quality in pigs is required by the pig breeding industry for two reasons. Muscle fibre traits, determined from muscle biopsy, could be used as genetic predictors of meat and eating quality traits and, secondly, if responses in meat and eating quality traits are partially due to changes in muscle fibre traits, then selection criteria can be designed to compensate for such responses. The current study estimated the genetic and phenotypic relationships for muscle fibre traits with meat and eating quality traits.
The study consisted of 160 Large White pigs from lines divergently selected for lean growth rate on ad-libitum or restricted feeding regimes, lean food conversion ratio and daily food intake for seven generations in the Edinburgh lean growth selection experiment. Within each selection line, there were 10 pairs of full-sibs. Boars and gilts were tested from 30 kg, individually penned and fed a diet consisting of 224 g CP/kg DM and 15.9 MJ DE/kg DM.
A 40.9 m ice core was recovered from Far East Rongbuk Glacier (FER), Qomolangma (Mount Everest), Himalaya, and an 80.4 m core from neighboring East Rongbuk Glacier (ER). Both are dated by seasonal variations of δ18O and major-ionic profiles, together with references of β-activity peaks. In this paper we compare the chemical records of these two cores to show post-depositional modification processes. The smoothed β18O profiles of the two cores show a similar trend. However, the mean β18O value of the FER core for the period 1954—96 is 3.12%o less than that of the corresponding part of the ER core, and the major-ionic profiles of the two cores differ considerably. We suggest that melting-away of the snow layer deposited during the pre-monsoon season may account for lower β18O values of the FER than of the ER core, and higher terrestrial ion concentrations in the FER core for the period 1957-63 may contribute to changes by chemical reactions in the presence of snowmelting. The significantly decreased NH4 and, to a lesser degree, SO42 concentrations in the FER core could be caused by the ion elution process that moved most chemicals away with runoff.
The albedo of seasonal snow cover plays an important role in the global climate system due to its influence on Earth's radiation budget and energy balance. Volunteer Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, and Snow-Albedo (CoCoRaHS-Albedo) observers collected 3249 individual daily albedo, snow depth and density measurements using standardized techniques at dozens of sites across New Hampshire, USA over four winter seasons. The data show that albedo increases rapidly with snow depth up to ~0.14 m. Multiple linear regression models using snowpack age, snow depth or density, and air temperature provide reasonable approximations of surface snow albedo during times of albedo decay. However, the linear models also reveal systematic biases that highlight an important non-linearity in snow albedo decay. Modeled albedo values are reasonably accurate within the range of 0.6–0.9, but exhibit a tendency to overestimate lower albedo values and underestimate higher albedo values. We hypothesize that rapid reduction in high albedo fresh snow results from a decrease in snow specific surface area, while during melt-events the presence of liquid water in the snowpack accelerates metamorphism and grain growth. We conclude that the CoCoRaHS-Albedo volunteer observer network provides useful snow albedo, depth and density measurements and serves as an effective model for future measurement campaigns.
Correlation between glaciochemical time Series from an ice core collected on Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut, Canada, and gridded time Series of Sea-ice concentrations reveals Statistically Significant inverse relationships between Sea-salt concentrations (mainly Na+, Mg2+ and Cl–) in the ice core and Sea-ice cover in Baffin Bay over the period 1980–97. An empirical orthogonal function (Eof) analysis performed on all major ions Shows that the dominant mode of glaciochemical variability (Eof1) represents a Sea-salt Signal, which correlates best with Sea-ice concentration in Baffin Bay. On a Seasonal basis, the Strongest and most Spatially extensive anticorrelations are found in Baffin Bay during the fall, followed by Spring, Summer and winter. These results Support the notion that increased open-water conditions in Baffin Bay during the Stormy Seasons (fall and Spring) promote increased production, transport and deposition of Sea-salt aerosols on Devon Ice Cap. Comparison of ice-core time Series of Eof1, δ18O and melt percentage, with air temperatures recorded in Upernavik, Greenland, Suggests that ice-cover variations in Baffin Bay over the past ∽145 years were dynamically rather than thermodynamically controlled, with periods of Strengthened cyclonic circulation leading to increased open-water conditions, and a greater Sea-salt flux on Devon Ice Cap.
The isotopic and chemical signatures for ice-age and Holocene ice from Summit, Greenland, and Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, are compared. the usual pattern of low δ18O, high Ca2+ and high Cl– is presented in the Summit records, but Penny Ice Cap has lower than present Cl– in its ice-age ice. A simple extension of the Hansson model (Hansson, 1994) is developed and used to simulate these signatures. the low ice-age Cl– from Penny Ice Cap is explained by having the ice-age ice originating many thousands of km inland near the centre of the Laurentide ice sheet and much further from the marine sources. Summit’s flowlines all start close to the present site. the Penny Ice Cap early-Holocene δ18O’s had to be corrected to offset the Laurentide meltwater distortion. the analysis suggests that presently the Summit and Penny Ice Cap marine impurity originates about 500 km away, and that presently Penny Ice Cap receives a significant amount of local continental impurity.
Samples collected from four snow pits at Eclipse Icefield, Yukon, Canada, were analyzed for stable isotopes and major ions to assess seasonal and spatial variability in snow chemistry. Accumulation since the end of the 2001 summer season over the 0.1 km2 area sampled ranges from 0.77 to 1.16mw.e. Snow-pit stratigraphy and chemical records demonstrate that the low accumulation at pit 3 is due to an under-representation of winter snow accumulation at that site. For all major-ion species, chemical concentrations are independent of snow accumulation rate. Seasonal variations are evident in the major-ion records and can be divided between sea-salt species (Na+, Cl−) that peak in late fall to winter, and dust (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+) and other species (NH4+, NO3−, SO42–, C2O22–) that peak in late spring to summer. The signal common to all four snow pits identified by empirical orthogonal function analysis ranges from 49% of the total variance for Na+ and Cl− to as high as 80% of the total variance for SO42–. There is greater spatial variability in species associated with coarse-mode particles (Na+, Cl−, Ca2+, Mg2+) than in species present mainly in accumulation-mode aerosols (SO42–, NH4+) or in the gas phase (NO3−).
High-resolution chemical records from an 80.4m ice core from the central Himalaya demonstrate climatic and environmental changes since 1844. the chronological net accumulation series shows a sharp decrease from the mid-1950s, which is coincident with the widely observed glacier retreat. A negative correlation is found between the ice-core δ18O record and the monsoon precipitation for Indian region 7. the temporal variation of the terrestrial ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) is controlled by both the monsoon precipitation for Indian regions 3,7 and 8, located directly south and west of the Himalaya, and the dust-storm duration and frequency in the northern arid regions, such as the Taklimakan desert, China. the NH4+ profile is fairly flat until the 1940s, then substantially increases until the end of the 1980s, with a slight decrease during the 1990s which may reflect new agricultural practices. the SO42– and NO3– profiles show an apparent increasing trend, especially during the period 1940s–80s. Moreover, SO42– concentrations for the East Rongbuk Glacier core are roughly double that of the nearby Dasuopu core at Xixabangma, Himalaya, due to local human activity including that of climbing teams who use gasoline for cooking, energy and transport.
Comparison of the terminus locations of Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Everest, measured in 1966 and 1997 shows that in the past 30 years the glacier has retreated 170–270 m equivalent to a retreat speed of 5.5–8.7 m a–1 . During summer 1997, a 15 m firn core was recovered from Dasuopu glacier (28°23’ N, 85°44’ E; 7000 m a.s.D on the northwest margin of Xixabangma Feng, Xizang (Tibet). The seasonal variations of δ18O values in the core indicate that monsoon signals are clearly recorded in the glacier. δ18O values are controlled by the amount effect in the monsoon season; more negative δ18O is representative of the monsoon season in snow layers. Analysis of the relationship between ice-core δ18O, sampled from 6500 m a.s.l. on the north side of Mount Everest, and instrumental series representing regional-scale precipitation, atmospheric circulation and temperature suggests a change in the relative influence of these parameters on δ18O since the 1940s. The results of the comparison add to and lengthen the sparse array of instrument data available for the Tibetan (Qinghai-Xizang) Plateau and demonstrate a recent decline in moisture flux for at least the southern part of the plateau. Glacier retreat, associated with a recent increase in temperature in the region, is coincident with this period of decreased moisture flux.