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The use of product-service systems business models is increasing in today's economy. Because the products that provide the service to the customers incur cost during their lifetime, the method of lifecycle costing finds wide-spread use. However, this paper shows the current methods have some inaccuracies when determining lifecycle costs. The methods do not consider the required number of products necessary to provide the offered service to the customers. This paper describes a new framework for lifecycle costing that includes these cost components.
Complementary feeding (CF) and overweight relationships during early childhood are inconsistent in the literature. We described the association of CF during the first year of life with risk of overweight at 24 months of age in the population-based 2004 and 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohorts (2004c and 2015c). CF introduction was evaluated at the 3 and 12 months’ follow-ups by asking mothers using a list of foods. Risk of overweight at 24 months of age was BMI-for-age z-score above +1sd from the median of the WHO 2006 growth standards. Our analyses included 3823 (2004c) and 3689 (2015c) children. Early introduction CF (before 6 months of age) prevalence in 2004c was 93·3 (95 % CI 92·5, 94·1) % and in 2015c was 87·2 (95 % CI 86·1, 88·2) %. Tea was the item introduced earlier in both 2004c (68·8 %) and 2015c (55·7 %). At 6 months of age, vegetable mash was the most introduced food in 2004c (33·5 %) and 2015c (47·9 %). Between 2004c and 2015c, the introduction of fresh milk decreased 82·1 to 60·5 % and yogurt from 94·4 to 78·1 % during the first year. Risk of overweight prevalence at 24 months was 33·0 (95 % CI 31·6, 34·5) % in 2004c and 32·0 (95 % CI 30·5, 33·5) % in 2015c. In 2015c, the adjusted odds of risk of overweight at 24 months were increased 1·66 and 1·50 times with the early introduction of fresh/powdered milk: plus water, tea or juice, and plus semi-solid/solid food groups, respectively. It is essential to reinforce the adherence to global recommendations on timely feeding introduction and encourage exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months of age to prevent child overweight.
Aim was to evaluate influencing factors of response and symptomatic remission in first-episode schizophrenia patients treated with risperidone or haloperidol.
229 first-episode schizophrenic patients were examined within a double blind controlled trial of the German Study Group on first-episode schizophrenia with biweekly PANSS ratings. Response was defined according to the definition by Lieberman et al. (2003) and symptomatic remission as the severity component of the consensus remission criteria by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group. Sociodemographic, psychopathological and functional variables as well as the treatment applied were evaluated regarding their potential predictive validity for treatment outcome. Univariate tests, logistic regression and CART-analyses were consulted as statistical methods.
126 patients (55%) achieved response and 118 patients (52%) symptomatic remission at discharge with no significant differences between the risperidone (51%) and haloperidol (49%) treated patients. Better baseline functioning, early treatment response, less depressive symptoms and a shorter duration of untreated psychosis were revealed significant predictors of response. Patients with symptomatic remission also had a significantly shorter duration of untreated psychosis and significantly less depressive symptoms at baseline. Logistic regression and CART-analyses revealed low general psychopathology, early treatment response and a high score in the Strauss-Carpenter-Prognostic-Scale at admission to be significantly positive predictive for symptomatic resolution.
Early treatment response, depressive symptoms and the level of psychosocial functioning were revealed to significantly predict outcome, with no significant differences between risperidone and haloperidol. The importance of an early adequate symptom control and the implementation of early intervention programs is highlighted.
A growing body of evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity is involved in addictive behaviour and nicotine dependence (ND). Neurotrophic factors, such as neurotrophin 3 (NT3) play a key role in modulating neuronal plasticity. Therefore, an association between nicotine, smoking and neurotrophic factors has been suggested. However, the role of NT3 in ND has not been thoroughly investigated in humans so far.
We investigated the influence of chronic (long-term smoking) and acute nicotine administration on the plasma level of NT3. We measured plasma NT3 levels at baseline and then 15 and 45 minutes after nicotine or placebo administration using an enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent-assay (ELISA). Smokers showed higher NT3 level than non-smokers at baseline. Interestingly, 15 minutes after acute nicotine injection, plasma level of NT3 in both smokers and non-smokers decreased significantly and went back to baseline levels after 30 minutes. We found that plasma nicotine and NT3 levels were positively correlated in smokers at baseline.
There is a direct interaction of nicotine with NT3, which is different in acute and chronic exposure. Interestingly, the concentration of NT3 is correlated and up-regulated in smokers. We propose that neuroplasticity, which plays a role in addictive behaviour such as smoking or nicotine dependence (ND) might be mediated by these interactions of nicotine and NT3. We speculate that these might even play a part in the so called “self-medicating” with cigarettes that is often seen in patients with certain mental disorders.
Hypersexuality is an uncommon behavioral complication associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) involving lesions to frontal basal, temporal, or diencephalic structures. Experimental brain injury in animals has produced hypersexual behaviors; however, there is comparative paucity of knowledge in humans. TBI with hypersexuality offers insights into neurological basis of aberrant sexual behaviors as well as potential treatments. This case report describes social/sexual disinhibition in a patient following neurosurgery for self-inflicted TBI.
Case analysis with literature review.
32-year-old male was admitted with TBI following an unsuccessful suicide attempt, self-inflicted nail gun injury to the occiput. CT scan revealed 6.5cm nail that had entered the skull in right occiput, right parasagittal location with nail head right of vein of Galen, coursing through splenium of corpus callosum, right thalamus-hypothalamus-midbrain, with its tip at the suprasellar cistern. Occipital craniotomy with retrieval of foreign body was performed eleven days after admission. From post-operative day eight through twenty-seven, patient made inappropriate sexual comments to female medical student: asking her out repetitively, describing her physical appearance, enquiring about her suitors, and requesting her to call him upon his discharge. Prior psychiatric history was pertinent for major depression and social anxiety (especially women) with psychotropic noncompliance. During admission, patient was diagnosed with recurrent major depression, social anxiety by history, and impulse control disorder nos. On sertraline titrated to 100mg qhs, depression resolved with increased control over newly acquired sexual/social disinhibition noted.
TBI can lead to social disinhibition and hypersexuality. Sertraline may be a beneficial treatment.
Attempts to reduce high utilisation of psychiatric inpatient care by targeting the critical time of hospital discharge have been rare. In Germany, until now no such intervention has been implemented, let alone subjected to a clinical trial.
“Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Needs-Oriented Discharge Planning and Monitoring for High Utilisers of Psychiatric Services” (NODPAM) is a multicentre RCT conducted in five psychiatric hospitals in Germany (Günzburg, Düsseldorf, Regensburg, Greifswald, and Ravensburg). Subjects asked to provide informed consent to participate have to be of adult age with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia or affective disorder, and a defined high utilisation of psychiatric care during two years prior to the current admission. Subjects are asked to provide detailed outcome data at four measurement points during a period of 18 months. Recruitment (which started in April 06) is still ongoing. Thus, baseline data of about 350 participants will be presented.
Recruitment has been quite successful and the study has been generally well accepted by participating patients and their clinicians in in- and outpatient treatment settings. Subjects showed substantial initial impairment on outcome measures (e.g. needs, psychopathology, quality of life, and level of functioning) and high utilisation of mental health care. Further results on conduct and feasibility of the trial will be presented.
The first phase of this mulicentre trial was promising. The potential of this study to strengthen the integration of mental health care provision in Germany will be discussed.
Recent investigations into motor cortex excitability with paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation technique (ppTMS), have shown inhibition deficits in ADHD which correlate with the clinical symptomatology. Methylphenidate effects on cortical excitability in adults with ADHD are contradictory. Therefore, we use long-acting methylphenidate (LA-Mph) to consider cortical excitability effects under stable medication conditions.
Systematic evaluation of the effects of LA-Mph on motor cortex excitability in adult patients with ADHD with the ppTMS technique.
Investigation of the putative influence of LA-Mph on motor inhibition and facilitation in adults with ADHD.
Thirteen drug naïve adult ADHD patients were included in this ppTMS study. Measurements took place before and under treatment with LA-Mph (30–54 mg daily dose). Statistical analyses were performed to investigate treatment effects and correlations with clinical symptomatology.
LA-Mph significantly decreased the relative short intracortical motor inhibition (SICI) magnetically evoked potential (MEP) amplitude at 3ms interstimulus interval (conditioned/ unconditioned MEP amplitude: 0.84 ± 0.76 drug-free vs. 0.29 ± 0.19 with LA-Mph; p = 0.020). The relative intracortical facilitation (ICF) MEP amplitude at 11ms interstimulus interval (conditioned/ unconditioned MEP amplitude: 1.51 ± 0.92 drug-free vs. 1.79 ± 0.95 with LA-Mph) was not significantly increased. The decrease of the relative SICI MEP amplitude with LA-Mph correlated significantly with the improvement of the psychopathological ADHD self-rating total scores (p = 0.034) and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscores (p = 0.029). These results show that in adult patients with ADHD, LA-Mph significantly improves motor disinhibition without influencing motor facilitation.
LA-Mph might have differential stabilizing effects on motor hyperexcitability in adults with ADHD and correlates with the clinical improvements.
We investigated the contribution of polymorphisms shown to moderate transcription of serotonin transporter (5HTT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) to the development of violence, and furthermore to test for gene x environment interactions. To do so, a cohort of 184 adult male volunteers referred for forensic assessment were assigned to a violent or non-violent group. 45% of violent, but only 30% of non-violent individuals carried the low-activity, short MAOA allele. In the violent group, carriers of low-function variants of 5HTT were found in 77%, as compared to 59%. Logistic regression was performed and the best fitting model revealed a significant, independent effect of childhood environment and MAOA genotype. A significant influence of an interaction between childhood environment and 5HTT genotype was found (Fig. 1). MAOA thus appears to be independently associated with violent crime, while there is a relevant 5HTT x environment interaction.
Negative computer attitude has been shown to be a possible co-variable in computerized examinations of psychiatric patients, affecting patient-computer interaction as well as reliability and validity of assessment (Weber et al. 2002, Acta Psychiatr.Scand., 105, 126-130).
It remains still uncertain if the psychological construct of computer attitude can be dependably measured in acute psychiatric inpatients or whether it is impeded by the effects of mental illness. For that reason a German translation of the Groningen Computer Attitude Scale (GCAS) was evaluated in 160 acute psychiatric inpatients under naturalistic conditions.
General test criteria (internal structure, item analysis, internal consistency, split half reliability) to a large extent corresponded to those formerly found in healthy subjects and psychiatric outpatients. The mean GCAS score was calculated as 56.2 ± 10.8 points and a significantly better computer attitude was found in male, better educated and younger patients. Some diverging correlation patterns were found in diagnostic subgroups, indicating a possible minor impact of mental disorder on computer attitude.
Overall, the GCAS was found to be a suitable instrument for measuring computer attitude in acute psychiatric inpatients. It should be used in identifying patients with a negative attitude to computers in order to ensure reliability and validity of computerized assessment.
The use of coercion in emergency psychiatry is discussed controversially.
Concerning the constraint of coerced medication there were changes of the German Civil Code in 2012 (XII ZB 99/12) and the Saxon Law on Aid and Accommodation for Mental Diseases in early 2013 (2 BvR 228/12)
Against the background of the issue ’Coercive Treatment’, we aimed on monitoring the effects of these amendments on our 18-bedded closed psychiatric ward.
We performed a pre-post-comparison (pre: 2010, post: 1st half of 2013) by using descriptive and test statistics.
Socio-demographic patient data and performance data remained stable. Regarding the main diagnoses [ICD 10] F19* (pre11.0%, post 22.0%; p<0.001), F2*(pre 11.9%, post 17.6; p<0.01) and F10.* -F18.* (pre 31.2%, post 18.8%; p<0.001) there were significant changes in distribution. We measured a significant reduction of the administration of emergency medication, except for the intramuscular injection of Zuclopenthixol, Olanzapin and Diazepam, and for the oral application of benzodiazepines and antipsychotics after acute crisis. At the same time the ratios of assaults/self-injuries/property damages per patient day (pre 0.005, post 0.018; p<0.001), physically restrained (pre 22.3%, post 28.7%; p<0.05) and involuntary committed patients (pre 15.5%, post 24.1%, p<0.01) augmented significantly. The average duration of involuntary commitment (excl. outliers) remained unaltered, but the variance of average duration increased (p<0.001).
The reduction of administered benzodiazepines and antipsychotics seems to correlate with an increase of aggressive behaviour and alternative use of other coercive measures. Further research and a social discussion on this issue are required.
The self or identity is often seriously challenged by the emergence of psychotic symptoms. A first reason for that is most likely due to the traumatic experience caused by the sudden emergence of hallucinations or persecutory ideas that challenge both the representation of oneself and that of the world and others. A second reason is linked to the social consequences of having a mental illness and of being assigned with the label of “mentally ill or disabled person”. A third relates to the patients’ cognitive impairment that alters their ability to take distance from these self-challenging events, to give a meaning to these experiences and to build coherent narratives of their life that integrate a great variety of personal experiences such as turning points or unpleasant events. For these reasons, recovering from a severe mental illness is a process through which the self evolves by integrating the lessons of past personal events, building new representations of oneself and looking to new directions for future projects. Excerpts of patients’ narratives collected in experimental setting will be presented in order to illustrate how indexes of recovery can be measured in self-narratives and how they help identifying the steps of self-recovery that have been identified in qualitative research on patients with schizophrenia .
Regarding the patient clientele with main diagnosis (MD) F19.*[ICD 10] new needs have been seen to emerge. The increase in the number of consumers of N-methylamphetamine (by 29 % in 2011) in Saxony correlates with an impressive increase of the number of inpatients and emphasizes the need of adapted treatment offers.
In this context, in 2009 an open-door ward (8 beds) for detoxification and motivation treatment for adults at age between 18-40 years with MD F19.* was opened which pursues an integrative therapeutic concept including both addiction-specific group- and talking therapy orientation and behavioral therapy approaches.
By using a pre-post study (pre: 2008, post I: 2010, post II: 2011, post III: 2012) selected key figures such as length of stay, readmission rate and kind of discharge, trends in individual substance-related detoxification motivation and associated mental disorders (F19.5) were monitored.
A continuous growing number of patients with MD F19.* has been achieved, marked by an increase of treated cases (pre: 77, post III: 156) and planned admissions (pre: 58 %, post III: 72%). Other data (length of stay, readmissions, treatment discontinuations) showed no significant changes. Individual detoxification motivation data point to a trend in favour of N-methylamphetamine. The number of patients with MD F19.5 (psychotic disorder) increased by >100 %.
The results refer to the necessity of identifying and monitoring valid quality indicators regarding our treatment concept. Therefore, those as yet evaluated indicators may act as a preliminary basis. Further projects are planned.
Increasing evidence suggests that clock genes may be implicated in a spectrum of psychiatric diseases, including sleep and mood related disorders as well as schizophrenia. The bHLH transcription factors SHARP1/DEC2/BHLHE41 and SHARP2/DEC1/BHLHE40 are modulators of the circadian system and SHARP1/DEC2/BHLHE40 has been shown to regulate homeostatic sleep drive in humans.
In this study, we characterized Sharp1 and Sharp2 double mutant mice (S1/2-/-) using online EEG recordings in living animals, behavioral assays, global gene expression profiling and bioinformatic modeling. Gene expression in human brains samples was performed with qRT-PCR.
EEG recordings revealed attenuated sleep/wake amplitudes and alterations of theta oscillations. Increased sleep in the dark phase is paralleled by reduced voluntary activity and cortical gene expression signatures reveal associations with psychiatric diseases. S1/2-/- mice display alterations in novelty induced activity, anxiety and curiosity. Moreover, mutant mice exhibit impaired working memory and deficits in prepulse inhibition resembling symptoms of psychiatric diseases. Network modeling indicates a connection between neural plasticity and clock genes, particularly for SHARP1 and PER1, which are also significantly downregulated in the frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients.
Our findings support the hypothesis that abnormal sleep and certain (endo)phenotypes of psychiatric diseases may be caused by common mechanisms involving components of the molecular clock including SHARP1 and SHARP2
Recent research in bipolar disorder points at the relevance and persistence of cognitive deficits in bipolar patients (BPD) even beyond acute episodes of depression or mania. Impairments were found in attention, processing speed, memory and executive functioning. Up to now, the mechanisms, why some BPD do not reach their former level of cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning, while others are remitted completely, is not understood. In this study we aimed to identify a’deficit vs. nondeficit subgroup’ within BPD. For this purpose, we investigated the association between demographic and disease specific variables and the cognitive performance of BPD. The test performance of 70 remitted outpatients (Bipolar-Type I and II) was compared to 70 healthy controls (HC). Participants performed an extensive neuropsychological test battery.
As expected our sample of euthymic BPD performed significantly worse than HCs in three of eight cognitive domains, namely Planning, Cognitive Flexibility and Divided Attention. In line with previous findings, more than a half of the euthymic BPD did not have any neuropsychological deficits. We found no significant correlations between test performance and clinical variables. But interestingly, we revealed significant associations between subthreshold depressive symptomatology and psychomotor slowing, impaired long term and working memory.
In sum, these results suggest the presence of cognitive subgroups in bipolar disorder. However, we found no evidence of underlying etiologies: Clinical characteristics seem to have no influence. However, our results indicate that cognitive deficits found in euthymic BPD could result from a subdepressive syndrome and not per se by disease characteristics.
Detoxification treatment of adults at younger ages suffering from polysubstance dependence on our department pursues an integrative therapeutic concept. In addition to addiction-specific, topic-centred group and talk therapy orientation also behavioural therapy elements are included: a penalty points system provides negative sign stimuli for undesirable behaviour.
Since 2010, both rate of psychotic disorders and number of N-methylamphetamine consumers (P < 0.001) have been growing impressively while the proportion of repeated admissions amounted to > 55%. Dissatisfying trends were identified by longitudinal measurement, e.g. regarding ALOS, kind of discharge, bed occupancy.
Targeted changes in treatment were established in the 2nd half of 2014. In particular, the penalty point system was adapted towards less restrictive rules, combined with slightly reduced therapeutic intensity in order to come better on the disorder-related needs of the patients. Staffing level and structure remained stable.
Key figures including quality criteria and performance data such as LOS, kind of admission and discharge, service intensity, and bed occupancy were evaluated by a pre-post study (pre: 1st half of 2014, N = 76/post: 1st half of 2015, N = 77) using descriptive and test statistics.
Socio-demographic patient data remained stable. Regarding selected key figures there were significant changes (LOS > 21 days: P < 0.05; bed occupancy: P < 0.001; therapeutic contacts < 25 min: P < 0.001) and positive trends, e.g. decreased ratio of non-regular discharges.
Our data suggest that punishment-oriented interventions impede addressing specific needs of inpatients with multiple substance use whereas more need-oriented interventions may lead to improvements. Further evaluation including patient satisfaction is indispensable.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.