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Adults with significant childhood trauma and/or serious mental illness may exhibit persistent structural brain changes within limbic structures, including the amygdala. Little is known about the structure of the amygdala prior to the onset of SMI, despite the relatively high prevalence of trauma in at-risk youth.
Data were gathered from the Canadian Psychiatric Risk and Outcome study. A total of 182 youth with a mean age of 18.3 years completed T1-weighted MRI scans along with clinical assessments that included questionnaires on symptoms of depression and anxiety. Participants also completed the Childhood Trauma and Abuse Scale. We used a novel subfield-specific amygdala segmentation workflow as a part of FreeSurfer 6.0 to examine amygdala structure.
Participants with higher trauma scores were more likely to have smaller amygdala volumes, particularly within the basal regions. Among various types of childhood trauma, sexual and physical abuse had the largest effects on amygdala subregions. Abuse-related differences in the right basal region mediated the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, even though no participants met criteria for clinical diagnosis at the time of assessment.
The experience of physical or sexual abuse may leave detectable structural alterations in key regions of the amygdala, potentially mediating the risk of psychopathology in trauma-exposed youth.
Serotonin receptors blockade is the major basis for the action of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Genetic factors affecting the density and/or function of serotonergic receptors, transporters and enzymes may therefore affect antipsychotic response. This exploratory study investigates the effect of ten polymorphisms from HTR1A, HTR1D, HTR2A, HTR3A, HTR3B, HTR4, HTR6, SLC6A4, TPH1, TPH2 genes on antipsychotic response in a sample of 289 patients with DSM-diagnosis of schizophrenia. Clinical Response was assessed using Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Response was determined as 20% reduction improvement of BPRS compared to baseline. Selection of the biological relevant interactions, regardless the phenotype was performed using different statistics strategies regardless the phenotype to investigate epistasis within the serotonin system. the test for relevant interaction selection showed that 5HT4 and 5HT6 can be in epistatic relationship. the single locus analysis of these two receptor polymorphisms showed no significant results and the logistic regression model incorporating both genes, the clinical and demographic variables was not significant. Even this result is not significant, this strategy aimed to investigate the epistatic effect among genes could be useful for finding relevant biological interaction among genetic variants. Furthermore we are currently analyzing the methylation level of HTR2A in responders and non-responders, this epigenetic analysis will be very valuable in adding more information to the classic pharmacogenetic studies.
Childhood trauma (CT) is known to impact brain structure and function and is a major risk factor for most of the psychiatric conditions. However, there are few multimodal studies allowing an integrated perspective. Our goal was thus to study the effects of CT on the limbic network using multimodal MRI.
We obtained multimodal MRI (T1, diffusion weighted, and resting state fMRI) data from 55 healthy subjects. We performed correlational analyses between Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) subscores and anatomo-functional measurements of the limbic network (hippocampal and amygdala volumes, functional connectivity between hippocampus or amygdala with ventromedial prefrontal cortex and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the Uncinate Fasciculus (UF).
Significant associations of CTQ subscores were found with changes in limbic anatomy, functional and structural connectivity. We observed a positive correlation between CTQ subscores and left amygdala volumes, negative correlations with right amygdala and hippocampus (bilateral) volumes as well negative correlations with left prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity and with FA in right UF fibers.
The present study provides new evidences that childhood adversity may be associated with structure and connectivity of the limbic system. Future longitudinal studies may be valuable to further understand the timing effects of CT on the limbic structures and also to obtain a more precise insight about the relation among CT, limbic alterations and the etiology of psychiatric disorders.
Although the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is the most cultivated native fish species in Brazil, estimated breeding values for growth traits are rarely used for selection of superior individuals in commercial fingerling production. This study aimed to estimate the (co)variance components of growth traits. Body weight, length and width of 2500 tambaqui were determined at tagging and at 6 and 12 months after tagging in a commercial breeding programme in Brazil. Heritability estimates were low for traits measured at tagging (0.10 to 0.19) and moderate to high for traits measured at 6 and 12 months (0.23 to 0.81). Common full-sib effects were high at tagging (>73%), low at 6 months and negligible at 12 months. Positive genetic correlations were found among growth traits at 12 months (0.84 to 0.99) and between growth traits at 6 and 12 months (0.80 to 0.92). These results show that animal selection can be performed at 6 months after tagging. Expected genetic gains for growth traits ranged from 8% to 31%. A simulation of the sex ratio was performed, as individuals did not reach sexual maturity during the experimental period. Because of the sexual dimorphism, more accurate heritability estimates were obtained when considering the female proportion to be 90% in the high-weight group. The findings indicate that it is possible to obtain considerable genetic gains in growth by selecting for growth traits. The development of a tool to determine the sex of animals at early stages can improve the response to selection in tambaqui.
Since behavioural adjustments are an important line of defence against thermal stress, either due to their energy efficiency or to efficiency at preventing overheating, we aimed to evaluate whether broilers fed different maize particle sizes adjusted their behaviour to deal with heat stress challenges. At several times a day, the behaviour of 220 naked neck broilers was evaluated. These broilers were fed with isonutritive diets containing maize with different geometric mean diameters (GMD): 605 and 2280 μm. The thermal environment was monitored during the experiment. Panting and open wings were the only behaviours that showed differences between the times of day (P < 0.05). However, GMD showed a significant effect on feed intake and panting (P < 0.05). The interaction between GMD and time of day was significant only on panting (P < 0.05). Although no daily variation was observed, the highest feed intake was observed in broilers fed the diet containing maize with a GMD of 2280 μm. Less than 5% of the broilers were observed drinking water during the day. Open wings was the behavioural adjustment most used by broilers from 10:00 h, and remained elevated until 14:00 h for both GMDs. The birds panted more when fed the diet containing maize with a GMD of 2280 μm. In conclusion, broilers adjust their behaviour to dissipate excess body heat from the environment and as a result of feed intake. Coarse particles of maize in the diet increase the thermal challenge of broilers since the environment also provides stressful thermal conditions.
This study evaluated the effects of rosuvastatin in vivo on toxoplasmosis chronic infection. Thirty-five Swiss mice were orally infected (ME-49 strain). After 50 days, the mice were separated into five groups: GI – non-infected, GII – infected, GIII – infected and treated with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine (12.5 + 50 mg kg−1 body weight day−1), GIV and GV – infected and treated with rosuvastatin 10 and 40 mg kg−1 body weight day−1, respectively. After 21 days, we collected blood, liver, lungs, femoral biceps and brain were removed for Toxoplasma gondii DNA quantification by qPCR and histopathological analysis. GIV and GV did not present premature death or clinical changes, and the hepatic enzyme levels were lower compared to GI. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected mainly in brain and muscle, but the parasite load was significantly lower in GV compared to GII brains (P < 0.05). Histopathological changes were observed in brains, with T. gondii cysts as well as an inflammatory condition, including necrosis areas in GII and GIII. These data confirm active infection with tissue injury. This inflammatory condition was attenuated in the groups treated with rosuvastatin, especially R40 (GV). Our findings demonstrated the in vivo action of rosuvastatin in reducing cerebral parasitic load and indicate that this drug may interfere in chronic toxoplasmosis.
This Prospective covers an overview of the injection molding process and the importance of mold design and tooling considerations, important material requirements and thermal properties for molds, polymer material requirements for injection molding, mold flow analysis, and the promise of using the 3D printing process for mold fabrication. The second part demonstrates the injection molding process using 3D-printed polymer molds and its suitability for low-run productions. 3D-printed molds using stereolithography and fused filament fabrication have been injected with polylactic acid, and the quality of the injected parts was assessed in terms of dimensional accuracy and the damage mechanisms during fabrication.
Cipo Canastero Asthenes luizae is a relict ovenbird restricted to rocky outcrops at high elevations within the campo rupestre vegetation of the Espinhaço Range in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. This poorly known species is considered ‘Near Threatened’, but recent studies have suggested that it should be listed under a higher category of threat. To contribute to the knowledge of this species and its conservation assessment and related planning, we compiled all literature records of the species distribution (n = 16 locations), collected new data on its occurrence (n = 72 locations), and calculated its geographic range using four different approaches. First, we defined the sky islands where the species occurs (nine units) using the lowest elevation value recorded (1,100 m asl) as a cut-off. Second, we performed species distribution modelling (SDM) across the sky islands and identified an area of 2,225.21 km2. Third, we measured the species’ extent of occurrence (EOO = 24,555.85 km2) and used SDM to estimate its upper limit (EOOup = 30,697.58 km2). Fourth, we measured the area of occupancy (AOO = 228 km2) and used SDM to estimate its upper limit (AOOup = 1,827.39 km2). We analysed the Cipo Canastero sky islands in terms of landscape metrics including size, isolation, protected area coverage, shape index, core area index, and proportion covered by SDM. We observed a very fragmented distribution, especially in the North sector of the species distribution, composed of small and isolated populations (separated by up to 112 km); the South sector is the core of its distribution and is composed of larger, more connected patches with differences in shape complexity that are not strongly influenced by an edge effect. The range sizes calculated, along with other reported information regarding population and habitat trends, justifies the inclusion of the species in at least the ‘Vulnerable’ category.
We investigate the slat narrowband peak noise generating mechanism. Unsteady flow data were generated by a lattice-Boltzmann-based commercial code for four configurations, accounting for variations of the airfoil angle of attack and slat overlap. Comparison with experimental results indicates that the aspects of the flow field relevant for the generation of the narrowband peaks were accurately captured. Frequency-domain proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to identify dominant large-scale structures in the frequency range dominated by the peaks. The combined use of the two POD metrics, namely, the turbulent kinetic energy in the turbulent flow region and the acoustic pressure in the far field, demonstrated that the structures most correlated with the noise resemble spanwise coherent Kelvin–Helmholtz vortices which dominate the slat cove only at the frequency of the narrowband peaks. Time evolution of the structures educed using the acoustic pressure correlation provides detailed evidence of the hydrodynamic and acoustic steps of a Rossiter-like feedback mechanism between the slat cusp and trailing edge. The combined analysis of results for the different slat configurations provides an explanation for the effect of the slat configuration on the amplitude of the narrowband peaks observed in previous studies, particularly the influence of the main-element suction peak.
The University of São Paulo Twin Panel (Painel USP de Gêmeos), based at the Institute of Psychology of the University of São Paulo, started formally in 2017. Our registry is new, but in only two years of formal existence, it comprises a volunteer sample of 4826 registered individuals (98% twins and 2% higher-order multiples), recruited at the University of São Paulo and by social media campaigns. Our main aim is to conduct and promote research with twins on psychological processes and behavior. The University of São Paulo is the largest higher education and research institution in South America, and the Painel USP de Gêmeos has great potential for fostering research on twin-related issues from a psychological perspective in Brazil and South America.
Replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize typically increases feed efficiency in maize-silage-based diets. However, little is known about optimal carbohydrate supplementation in sugarcane silage-based diets. The objective was to quantify the effect of partially replacing GM with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels (600 or 800 g/kg DM) in sugarcane-based diets on feeding behaviour, performance and blood parameters of finishing Nellore bulls. One hundred and eight young bulls were allocated to 36 pens in a randomized block design and fed for 84 d. Feeding 800 g/kg concentrate decreased time spending eating and ruminating, but improved G:F ratio, hot carcass weight and carcass dressing, compared to 600 g/kg concentrate. Bulls fed SRM and PCP diets with 600 g/kg concentrate had lower intake compared to GM. Both final weight and average daily gain decreased when bulls were fed PCP and SRM with 600 g/kg concentrate compared to GM diets, and when fed with PCP and 800 g/kg concentrate. Substituting PCP for GM decreased gain efficiency, carcass weight, rumination time and intake efficiency, indicating that the bulls consumed less feed per hour spent eating. Substituting SRM for GM increased backfat thickness and blood urea concentration. In conclusion, the replacement of GM with PCP reduces intake and enhances selection against large particles, decreasing rumination, performance and final carcass weight and dressing. Replacement of GM with SRM increases blood urea and fat deposition, with no impact on performance.
Perinatal maternal high-fat diet (HFD) increases susceptibility to obesity and fatty liver diseases in adult offspring, which can be attenuated by the potent hypolipidaemic action of fish oil (FO), an n-3 PUFA source, during adult life. Previously, we described that adolescent HFD offspring showed resistance to FO hypolipidaemic effects, although FO promoted hepatic molecular changes suggestive of reduced lipid accumulation. Here, we investigated whether this FO intervention only during the adolescence period could affect offspring metabolism in adulthood. Then, female Wistar rats received isoenergetic, standard (STD: 9 % fat) or high-fat (HFD: 28·6 % fat) diet before mating, and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring received the standard diet; and from 25 to 45 d old they received oral administration of soyabean oil or FO. At 150 d old, serum and hepatic metabolic parameters were evaluated. Maternal HFD adult offspring showed increased body weight, visceral adiposity, hyperleptinaemia and decreased hepatic pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio, suggestive of hepatic leptin resistance. FO intake only during the adolescence period reduced visceral adiposity and serum leptin, regardless of maternal diet. Maternal HFD promoted dyslipidaemia and hepatic TAG accumulation, which was correlated with reduced hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1a content, suggesting lipid oxidation impairment. FO intake did not change serum lipids; however, it restored hepatic TAG content and hepatic markers of lipid oxidation to STD offspring levels. Therefore, we concluded that FO intake exclusively during adolescence programmed STD offspring and reprogrammed HFD offspring male rats to a healthier metabolic phenotype in adult life, reducing visceral adiposity, serum leptin and hepatic TAG content in offspring adulthood.
The aim of this study was to compare different concentrations of soy lecithin (LEC0.01%, LEC0.05% and LEC0.1%) with egg yolk (Control) in cooling extenders during the storage of semen at 5ºC for 5 days. Twelve dogs (n = 12) were selected, and semen was cooled and assessed after 2, 24, 48, 72, 96 or 120 h. At each time point, sperm were analyzed for kinetic patterns (using computer-assisted sperm analysis), mitochondrial activity (3′3- diaminobenzidine assay), lipid peroxidation (TBARS assay), DNA fragmentation (SCSA®) and plasma and acrosome membrane integrity (eosin/nigrosin and fast green/rose Bengal stains, respectively). The Control group (1814.4 ± 197.2) presented the highest rates of lipid peroxidation at 120 h. Conversely, progressive motility (42.8 ± 4%), linearity (45.4 ± 1%), and VAP (88 ± 3%) were higher in the Control group. In addition, there was lower mitochondrial activity in the Control group at 72 h. Therefore, our data show that lecithin used at these concentrations was not able to maintain sperm viability at as high qualities as would egg yolk. Moreover, the decrease in high mitochondrial activity and the persistence of sperm motility may indicate a compensatory mechanism in canine spermatozoa (i.e., glycolytic pathway). Furthermore, these higher lipid peroxidation indexes could indicate the necessity for future therapy using extenders and antioxidants over a long cooling time for dog sperm.
The objective of the current paper was to apply mixed models to adjust the growth curve of quail lines for meat and laying hens and present the rates of instantaneous, relative and absolute growth. A database was used with birth weight records up to the 148th day of female quail of the lines for meat and posture. The models evaluated were Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz and the types of residues were constant, combined, proportional and exponential. The Gompertz model with the combined residue presented the best fit. Both strains present a high correlation between the parameters asymptotic weight (A) and average growth rate (k). The two strains presented a different growth profile. However, growth rates allow greater discernment of growth profiles. The meat line presented a higher growth rate (6.95 g/day) than the lineage for laying (3.65 g/day). The relative growth rate was higher for lineage for laying (0.15%) in relation to the lineage for meat (0.13%). The inflection point of both lines is on the first third of the growth curve (up to 15 days). All results suggest that changes in management or nutrition could optimize quail production.
Due to the lack of basic information on water required by maize (Zea mays L.) in Brazil, the large amount of water applied usually exceeds crop requirements, wasting water and energy. In this study, we measured crop evapotranspiration (ETc) as evaporative heat flux from a centre pivot-irrigated maize plantation in Southern Brazil during winter and summer seasons, using the Bowen ratio method to evaluate how the degree of canopy-atmosphere coupling affects crop water needs and irrigation management. Irrigation requirements were determined by comparing ETc with reference evapotranspiration (ETo), derived from the Penman–Monteith equation and expressed as the ETc/ETo (Kc) ratio. In this study, the average Kc values obtained were 1.31 and 0.90 for the winter and summer, respectively. Using aerodynamic and canopy resistance measurements, the decoupling factor (Ω) was computed. Ω values tending to zero (0.09 and 0.20 for winter and summer, respectively) showed that strong coupling of maize plants to the atmosphere and sensitivity to high air temperatures, vapour pressure deficits and wind speed caused variations in Kc in relation to ETo ranges. During the experimental period, the Kc value ranged from 0.92 when the ETo exceeded 4 mm d−1 to 1.64 when the ETo was less than 2 mm d−1.
Beneficial effects of probiotics have been reported on body weight, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammatory state and oxidative stress in healthy subjects and in many metabolic and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on inflammatory state and nitro-oxidative stress in patients with and without the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The usual diets of the thirty-three subjects were supplemented with probiotic milk for 90 d. Inflammatory markers and oxidative measurements were performed. In relation to the baseline values, subjects in both groups showed a decrease in homocysteine (P=0·02 and P=0·03, respectively), hydroperoxides (P=0·02 and P=0·01, respectively) and IL-6 levels (P=0·02). Increases in adiponectin (P=0·04) and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx, P=0·001) levels were only seen in the group with the MetS in relation to the baseline values, whereas only the individuals without the MetS had increases in total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter levels (P=0·002). In conclusion, B. lactis HN019 have several beneficial effects on inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers in healthy subjects and the MetS patients. Patients with the MetS showed a specific improvement in adiponectin and NOx levels, whereas a specific favourable effect was shown in the antioxidant defenses in healthy subjects. If the results obtained in the present study are confirmed, supplementation of fermented milk with probiotics in healthy subjects and patients with the MetS must be further discussed.
The anti-leishmania effects of HIV peptidase inhibitors (PIs) have been widely reported; however, the biochemical target and mode of action are still a matter of controversy in Leishmania parasites. Considering the possibility that HIV-PIs induce lipid accumulation in Leishmania amazonensis, we analysed the effects of lopinavir on the lipid metabolism of L. amazonensis promastigotes. To this end, parasites were treated with lopinavir at different concentrations and analysed by fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorimetry, using a fluorescent lipophilic marker. Then, the cellular ultrastructure of treated and control parasites was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the lipid composition was investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Finally, the sterol content was assayed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). TEM analysis revealed an increased number of lipid inclusions in lopinavir-treated cells, which was accompanied by an increase in the lipophilic content, in a dose-dependent manner. TLC and GC–MS analysis revealed a marked increase of cholesterol-esters and cholesterol. In conclusion, lopinavir-induced lipid accumulation and affected lipid composition in L. amazonensis in a concentration–response manner. These data contribute to a better understanding of the possible mechanisms of action of this HIV-PI in L. amazonensis promastigotes. The concerted action of lopinavir on this and other cellular processes, such as the direct inhibition of an aspartyl peptidase, may be responsible for the arrested development of the parasite.
Perinatal maternal high-fat (HF) diet programmes offspring obesity. Obesity is associated with overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in adult subjects, but the role of the ECS in the developmental origins of obesity is mostly unknown. The ECS consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors (cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) and cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2)) and metabolising enzymes. We hypothesised that perinatal maternal HF diet would alter the ECS in a sex-dependent manner in white and brown adipose tissue of rat offspring at weaning in parallel to obesity development. Female rats received standard diet (9 % energy content from fat) or HF diet (29 % energy content from fat) before mating, during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring were killed for tissue harvest. Maternal HF diet induced early obesity, white adipocyte hypertrophy and increased lipid accumulation in brown adipose tissue associated with sex-specific changes of the ECS’s components in weanling rats. In male pups, maternal HF diet decreased CB1 and CB2 protein in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In female pups, maternal HF diet increased visceral and decreased subcutaneous CB1. In brown adipose tissue, maternal HF diet increased CB1 regardless of pup sex. In addition, maternal HF diet differentially changed oestrogen receptor across the adipose depots in male and female pups. The ECS and oestrogen signalling play an important role in lipogenesis, adipogenesis and thermogenesis, and we observed early changes in their targets in adipose depots of the offspring. The present findings provide insights into the involvement of the ECS in the developmental origins of metabolic disease induced by inadequate maternal nutrition in early life.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can induce deleterious changes in the modulatory ability of the vascular endothelium, contributing to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in the long term. However, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Emerging evidence has suggested the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vascular health and repair. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of IUGR on vascular reactivity and EPCs derived from the peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) in vitro. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed an ad libitum diet (control group) or 50% of the ad libitum diet (restricted group) throughout gestation. We determined vascular reactivity, nitric oxide (NO) concentration, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression by evaluating the thoracic aorta of adult male offspring from both groups (aged: 19–20 weeks). Moreover, the amount, functional capacity, and senescence of EPCs were assessed in vitro. Our results indicated that IUGR reduced vasodilation via acetylcholine in aorta rings, decreased NO levels, and increased eNOS phosphorylation at Thr495. The amount of EPCs was similar between both groups; however, IUGR decreased the functional capacity of EPCs from the PB and BM. Furthermore, the senescence process was accelerated in BM-derived EPCs from IUGR rats. In summary, our findings demonstrated the deleterious changes in EPCs from IUGR rats, such as reduced EPC function and accelerated senescence in vitro. These findings may contribute towards elucidating the possible mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction induced by fetal programming.