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Understanding how and why exotic species use their habitats is crucial for defining effective conservation strategies. We aimed to investigate habitat use by an exotic population of squirrel monkeys living in an Atlantic Forest fragment and identify factors associated with their habitat preferences. Over 6 months of scan sampling observations, we collected data on native and exotic plants consumed by the squirrel monkeys, food availability, and interactions between the squirrel monkeys and the native common marmosets. We also georeferenced the estimated centroid point of the study group during each scan. Squirrel monkeys used Secondary Old Forest habitats more often than the other habitats available. The consumption of native and exotic plants and the association with common marmoset appear to have influenced the habitat use of the exotic squirrel monkeys; however, the choice habitat did not demonstrate to be associated with food availability. The exotic squirrel monkeys preferred to use less disturbed habitats to consume a high amount of food (often associated with the common marmoset), potentially optimizing their food intake. Our findings demonstrated the adaptive success of an exotic primate in its non-natural habitat and the key role of the plant community in maintaining this population.
Dairy cattle breeding has historically focused on relatively small numbers of elite bulls as sires of sons. In recent years, even if generation intervals were reduced and more diverse sires of sons could have been selected, genomic selection has not fundamentally changed the fact that a large number of individuals are being analyzed. However, a relatively small number of elite bulls are still siring those animals. Therefore inbreeding-derived negative consequences in the gene pool have brought concern. The detrimental effects of non-additive genetic changes such as inbreeding depression and dominance have been widely disseminated while seriously affecting bioeconomically important parameters because of an antagonistic relationship between dairy production and reproductive traits. Therefore, the estimation of benefits and limitations of inbreeding and variance of the selection response deserves to be evaluated and discussed to preserve genetic variability, a significant concern in the selection of individuals for reproduction and production. Short-term strategies for genetic merit improvement through modern breeding programs have severely lowered high-producing dairy cattle fertility potential. Since the current selection programs potentially increase long-term costs, genetic diversity has decreased globally as a consequence. Therefore, a greater understanding of the potential that selection programs have for supporting long-term genetic sustainability and genetic diversity among dairy cattle populations should be prioritized in managing farm profitability. The present review provides a broad approach to current inbreeding-derived problems, identifying critical points to be solved and possible alternative strategies to control selection against homozygous haplotypes while maintaining sustained selection pressure. Moreover, this manuscript explores future perspectives, emphasizing theoretical applications and critical points, and strategies to avoid the adverse effects of inbreeding in dairy cattle. Finally, this review provides an overview of challenges that will soon require multidisciplinary approaches to managing dairy cattle populations, intending to combine increases in productive trait phenotypes with improvements in reproductive, health, welfare, linear conformation, and adaptability traits into the foreseeable future.
The notion of lifelong learning can break down barriers and expectations about age-related categories, such as child and adult, that designate when learning happens. Breaking down these barriers can open possibilities for understanding oneself and for participating in democratic and economic institutions. A concern, however, is that lifelong learning functions to render persons amenable and adaptable to contextual demands, making them governable. Lifelong learning is not just about learning through the lifespan, which persons arguably do, but is about rendering persons effective, efficient, and productive in relation to technological, economic, and democratic changes. Persons must develop the disposition, aspirations, and competencies to respond to changing contexts. They must be flexible, adaptable, and responsible in order for their consumption of knowledge and experiences to be relevant and useful. Lifelong extends institutional power beyond formal K-12 experience to persons’ lifespan in order to make them responsiveness to structural conditions.
Within the past three decades, there has been a burgeoning interest in exploring control over emotions. The discourse on emotion regulation is informed by the idea that emotions affect learning in adaptive and maladaptive ways. Students can be taught to strategically manage their emotions in order to support their adaptability to schooling contexts. The process of regulating emotions itself is entangled in neoliberal values. What was once thought to be an unmanageable and private human experience has been placed under the scientist’s microscope and dissected for the purpose of a type of self-management. Furthermore, valued emotional displays are aligned with neoliberal values. Regardless of conditions and contexts, students must remain optimistic, calm, happy, and feel safe so they can respond in adaptive ways to modern economic arrangements. There are emotion rules that align with neoliberal values for selfhood and function to make neoliberal relationships tolerable.
Over the last few years, the concept of agility has become increasingly popular in organizations. Companies are hoping to foster speed, adaptability, and innovation by rolling out an agile strategy, implementing agile methods, and creating an agile mind-set among leaders and employees. There is, however, much ambiguity about what the concept of agility entails and how it can be successfully implemented in an organization. The purpose of this practice-focused paper is to organize the extant agility literature for readers by giving an overview of different definitions of agility; outlining evidence-based factors that contribute to agility at the individual, team, and organizational levels; and describing three practical examples at a large German car company. Finally, the authors suggest steps that organizations can take to increase agility in their workforce.
In education and society, resilience and mindfulness are valued more for their instrumental benefits, than for their moral value. They both assist specifically with the evasion of what are seen as negative and harmful emotions, and with the related development of positive emotions and behaviours, for functioning in schools and in society. Yet while resilience and mindfulness are regarded as educational assets today, there are also problematic aspects of their promotion and cultivation in schools and society. Additionally, these qualities can be cultivated for good or ill use, as with other emotional virtues explored here. This chapter examines each of these traits in turn, tracing from philosophical, psychological, and political perspectives how they are framed in relation to emotional virtues, and approached within education and society. As with the emotional virtues explored here thus far, resilience and mindfulness may be useful for the emotional development of young people, but there are also limitations to promoting them, particularly in relation to education for social justice.
The FA, like every political party organization in a democratic context, has a tension between choosing policies and candidates that are closer to the preferences of the median voter versus those that are closer to members´ preferences. This chapter analyzes the role that the organizational structure exerts over the party in opposition and the party in government. The chapter presents observational evidence concerning the influence of the party on crucial policy issues and on the government’s decision-making. Also, it briefly details the process of ideological transformation of the FA. The chapter shows that the FA organizational structure limits the leaders’ and government’s room to maneuver. It limits party leaders´ incentives to moderate their positions because major decisions need to have the organization´s explicit support, or at least an absence of opposition. When the FA is in government, the party organization also constrains government action concerning substantive and crucial policy issues. The lesson from the analysis in this chapter is that the party´s organizational structure can present challenges for strategic adaptation but provides insurance against the risk of brand dilution.
William B. Long offers a critique of prevailing assumptions on early modern acting and suggests how professional players transferred plays that originated on large public stages to palace rooms of various sizes. The actors were talented and very competent professionals. Elizabethan schooling was highly dependent upon rote memorization. Small boys had to memorize correctly and extensively, or they would have been caned. Young and adult players must have continued to memorize their lines almost effortlessly because that is the way they were trained. What did these players, accustomed as they were to playing in large public theatres, do when they moved to generally smaller areas allotted them at court? If they wished to avoid ludicrous displays of awkwardness, they adapted. For professional actors who were used to playing in varying venues when they toured provincial towns and cities, a stage platform of a few feet deeper or shallower would not have been of great consequence. Fortunately for us, a number of the rooms of court venues still exist intact. The surviving court playing venues are Hampton Court, St. James’ Windsor, and the Queen’s House Greenwich.
This chapter examines how memory function enables agency and how memory dysfunction disables agency. Because some memory systems mediating goal-directed behavior may be intact while others are dysfunctional, neurological and psychiatric disorders that impair some of these systems can impair agency to varying degrees. The chapter also analyzes the role of memory in personal identity. Updating the content of episodic memories is necessary to adapt to the environment. But adaptability may come at the expense of identity over an extended period. The chapter discusses precedent autonomy in dementia. It discusses whether the ethical and legal force of an advance directive about medical care in a demented state holds from the time when a person is competent to a time when she is no longer competent and no longer the same person.
Due to global climatic changes, water and soil salinization is an increasing worldwide phenomenon, thus creating new threats for farm animal production. The present study was designed to investigate the adaptation capacity of goats towards sodium chloride (NaCl) in drinking water. Twelve non-pregnant Boer goats with an average body weight of 50.5 ± 9.0 kg were kept in individual pens. The study was conducted in four phases applying a two-choice preference test. In the control phase (phase 1) only fresh water was supplied in two containers. In phase 2, water with different salt concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25% and 1.5%) was offered in one container and tap water in the other (sensitivity test). During the third phase (adaptation), goats were stepwise habituated to saline water by offering only saline water with different increasing concentrations (between 0% and 1.5% NaCl) in both containers. Subsequently, in phase 4 (sensitivity re-test) the same treatment as in phase 2 was repeated. Goats had ad libitum access to hay, water and a mineral licking block. Individual water and feed intake were recorded daily, while body weight and body condition score were measured every 2nd week. Body weight was not affected by saline water intake, whereas dry matter intake and body condition scores decreased significantly during the experiment. Water intake was significantly (P<0.001) higher in phase 2 (sensitivity test) and phase 3 (adaptation), compared to phase 1 (control) and phase 4 (sensitivity re-test). Total sodium intake followed the same pattern. In phase 2, when goats had the choice between fresh and saline water for the first time they preferred higher salt concentrations and consumed significantly (P<0.001) higher amounts of saline water (75.4 ± 53.2 g/kg BW0.82 per day) than in the re-test (40.4 ± 34.0 g/kg BW0.82 per day) after the habituation period. Thus, salt discrimination rejection thresholds were lowered to 1.25% in phase 4 compared to 1.5% in phase 2. The results suggest that a stepwise adaptation to saline drinking water in goats is an effective method to habituate the animals to saline water intake when concentrations were below 1.5%. Goats reacted more sensitively to the salinity of drinking water after prolonged exposure to saline water indicating flexible regulation mechanisms depending on the total sodium balance of the animal.
Framed in cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions (Lazarus, 1999), this study aimed to test how coping mediated the relationship between competitive anxiety and sport commitment in a sample of adolescent athletes. Five-hundred adolescents (M = 16.42; SD = 1.54) participated in our study. Participants completed competitive anxiety, coping, and sport commitment measures. We defined the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling; and compared two different models of mediation (i.e., total and partial mediation) using structural equation modeling. Results favored partial mediation model where cognitive anxiety factors predicted sport commitment. Results from this model suggest direct and mediated structural relations between concepts. Somatic anxiety had a weak influence on sport commitment (total effects = 0.090 [–.131, .311]). Worry showed a positive influence on sport commitment (total effects = .375 [.262, .486]) through direct and mediated effects. Concentration disruption showed a negative impact on sport commitment (total effects = –.544 [–.724, –.363]) trough mediated effects only, showing a negative path on task-oriented coping and a positive path on disengagement-oriented coping. As a whole, our findings identify task coping efforts undertaken by adolescent athletes as a key element in the relationship between competitive anxiety and sport commitment. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the design of coping interventions in adolescents.
Free-range laying hen systems are increasing within Australia. The pullets for these systems are typically reared indoors before being provided first range access around 21 to 26 weeks of age. Thus, the rearing and laying environments are disparate and hens may not adapt well to free-range housing. In this study, we reared 290 Hy-Line® Brown day-old chicks divided into two rooms each with feed, water and litter. In the enriched room, multiple structural, manipulable, visual and auditory stimuli were also provided from 4 to 21 days, the non-enriched room had no additional objects or stimuli. Pullets were transferred to the laying facility at 12 weeks of age and divided into six pens (three enriched-reared, three non-enriched-reared) with identical indoor resources and outdoor range area. All birds were first provided range access at 21 weeks of age. Video observations of natural disturbance behaviours on the range at 22 to 23 and 33 to 34 weeks of age showed no differences in frequency of disturbance occurrences between treatment groups (P=0.09) but a decrease in disturbance occurrences over time (P<0.0001). Radio-frequency identification tracking of individually tagged birds from 21 to 37 weeks of age showed enriched birds on average, spent less time on the range each day (P<0.04) but with a higher number of range visits than non-enriched birds from 21 to 24 weeks of age (P=0.01). Enriched birds accessed the range on more days (P=0.03) but over time, most birds in both treatment groups accessed the range daily. Basic external health scoring showed minimal differences between treatment groups with most birds in visibly good condition. At 38 weeks of age all birds were locked inside for 2 days and from 40 to 42 weeks of age the outdoor range was reduced to 20% of its original size to simulate stressful events. The eggs from non-enriched birds had higher corticosterone concentrations following lock-in and 2 weeks following range reduction compared with the concentrations within eggs from enriched birds (P<0.0001). Correspondingly, the enriched hens showing a greater increase in the number of visits following range area reduction compared to non-enriched hens (P=0.02). Only one rearing room per treatment was used but these preliminary data indicate 3 weeks of early enrichment had some long-term effects on hen ranging behaviour and enhanced hen’s adaptability to environmental stressors.
The multitude of corporate scandals has prompted research that examines factors that influence an individual’s engagement in unethical behavior. This article extends previous research by examining the psychological processes through which unethical behavior may occur. We develop and test a model that uses self-regulation theory to explain and predict how and under what circumstances individuals are likely to engage in unethical behavior. Results from data collected from 107 professionals at two points in time and 205 employees from various industries confirm that job insecurity increases emotional exhaustion, which subsequently impairs an employee’s ability to activate self-regulating processes to avoid engaging in unethical behavior. However, the link between job insecurity and emotional exhaustion as well as the mediated relationship between job insecurity and unethical behavior through emotional exhaustion are weaker for employees who have high adaptability and stronger for employees who are highly embedded in their organization.
Recent understanding of education and human development recognises the importance of psychosocial factors, particularly personal resiliency, in the academic success of children and youth. This article presents the examination of resiliency within school settings for the purpose of preventive screening, intervention and outcomes assessment. The Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (Prince-Embury, 2007) is described as an example of an instrument developed specifically for this purpose. This description identifies developmentally sound factors of personal resiliency that are relevant for children and youth in school settings. Also addressed are criteria of psychometric soundness required for universal screening and impact tracking, norm-based profiles of personal resiliency and summary indices of resource and vulnerability for use in screening.
Adaptability has been recently proposed as cognitive, behavioural, and emotional regulation assisting individuals to effectively respond to change, uncertainty and novelty. Given students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have known impairments with regulatory functions, they may be at particular disadvantage as they seek to navigate change, uncertainty, and novelty in their academic lives. This discussion summarises current research of adaptability as relevant to students with ADHD, presents preliminary exploration of data that suggests evidence for the difficulties students with ADHD face with regards to adaptability (particularly in regards to cognitive and behavioural regulation), and concludes with suggestions for counselling, psychological, and educational practices aimed at enhancing the adaptability of students with ADHD.
Individuals in organizations must frequently enact a series of ongoing decisions in real-time dynamic contexts. Despite the increasing need for individuals to manage dynamic decision-making demands, we still understand little about individual differences impacting performance in these environments. This paper proposes a new construct applicable to adaptation in such real-time dynamic environments. Cognitive agility is a formative construct measuring the individual capacity to exhibit cognitive flexibility, cognitive openness and focused attention. This study predicts that cognitive agility will impact adaptive performance in a real-time dynamic decision-making microworld computer game called the Networked Fire Chief; a simulation developed to study and train Australian fire fighters. Cognitive agility, operationalized through three distinct methods (performance measures, self-reports and external-rater reports), explained unique variance beyond measures of general intelligence on the total score of adaptive performance in the microworld.
Adaptability can have many different definitions: reliability, robustness, survivability, and changeability (adaptability to requirements change). In this research, we focused entirely on the last type. We discuss two alternative approaches to requirements change adaptability. One is the valuation approach that is based on utility and cost of design changes in response to modified requirements. The valuation approach is theoretically sound because it is based on utility and decision theory, but it may be difficult to use in the real world. The second approach is based on examining product architecture characteristics that facilitate changes that include modularity, hierarchy, interfaces, performance sensitivity, and design margins. This approach is heuristic in nature but more practical to use. If calibrated, it could serve as a surrogate for real adaptability. These measures were incorporated in a software tool for exploring alternative configurations of fractionated space satellite systems.
Rangelands provide the main forage resource for livestock in many parts of the world, but maintaining long-term productivity and providing sufficient income for the rancher remains a challenge. One key issue is to maintain the rangeland in conditions where the rancher has the greatest possibility to adapt his/her management choices to a highly fluctuating and uncertain environment. In this study, we address management robustness and adaptability, which increase the resilience of a rangeland. After reviewing how the concept of resilience evolved in parallel to modelling views on rangelands, we present a dynamic model of rangelands to which we applied the mathematical framework of viability theory to quantify the management adaptability of the system in a stochastic environment. This quantification is based on an index that combines the robustness of the system to rainfall variability and the ability of the rancher to adjust his/her management through time. We evaluated the adaptability for four possible scenarios combining two rainfall regimes (high or low) with two herding strategies (grazers only or mixed herd). Results show that pure grazing is viable only for high-rainfall regimes, and that the use of mixed-feeder herds increases the adaptability of the management. The management is the most adaptive with mixed herds and in rangelands composed of an intermediate density of trees and grasses. In such situations, grass provides high quantities of biomass and woody plants ensure robustness to droughts. Beyond the implications for management, our results illustrate the relevance of viability theory for addressing the issue of robustness and adaptability in non-equilibrium environments.
We define two notions of discrete dimension based on the Minkowski and Hausdorff
dimensions in the continuous setting. After proving some basic results illustrating these
definitions, we apply this machinery to the study of connections between the Erdős and
Falconer distance problems in geometric combinatorics and geometric measure theory,