To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has been proposed to replace the term non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 2020. The association between micronutrients and MAFLD has not been reported. Therefore, this study aims to explore the association between micronutrients intake and MAFLD. This was a cross-section study based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The dietary intake of copper, zinc, iron, and selenium was evaluated using the 24-h dietary recall interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between micronutrients and MAFLD, and the results were shown as odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 5976 participants were finally included for analysis, with 3437 participants in the MAFLD group. After adjusting potential confounders, copper intake at quartile Q3 (OR = 0⋅68, 95 % CI 0⋅50, 0⋅93) and Q4 (OR = 0⋅60, 95 % CI 0⋅45, 0⋅80) was found to be associated with lower odds of MAFLD. Iron intake at Q2 (OR = 0⋅64, 95 % CI 0⋅45, 0⋅92) and Q3 (OR = 0⋅61, 95 % CI 0⋅41, 0⋅91) was associated with the lower odds of MAFLD. Our findings found that high intake of copper and adequate intake of iron were associated with MAFLD, which may provide guidance for the management of MAFLD.
To investigate the effects of combination therapy with and without batroxobin, and the frequency of batroxobin use on the prognosis of profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Hearing recovery in the batroxobin group (231 patients) and non-batroxobin group (56 patients) was compared. The correlation between the number of times batroxobin was used and hearing recovery was analysed.
The decrease in hearing threshold and overall improvement rate in the batroxobin group with hearing loss exceeding 100 dB HL was significantly higher than that in the non-batroxobin group. There was no linear correlation between the number of times batroxobin was used and the overall improvement rate. Using batroxobin two to three times achieved a therapeutic effectiveness plateau.
Batroxobin can improve the efficacy of combination therapy for profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss exceeding 100 dB HL, and using batroxobin two to three times yields the maximum overall improvement rate.
We previously reported that dual injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice constitute a valuable tool for investigating the contribution of inflammation to psychotic disorders. The present study investigated how immune activation affects the kynurenine pathway and rat behaviour of relevance for psychotic disorders.
Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with either dual injections of LPS (0.5 mg/kg + 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or dual injections of saline. Twenty-four hours after the second injection, behavioural tests were carried out, including locomotor activity test, fear conditioning test, spontaneous alternation Y-maze test, and novel object recognition test. In a separate batch of animals, in vivo striatal microdialysis was performed, and tryptophan, kynurenine, quinolinic acid, and kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the dialysate were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).
Dual-LPS treatment decreased spontaneous locomotion, exaggerated d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, and impaired recognition memory in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In vivo microdialysis showed that dual-LPS treatment elicited metabolic disturbances in the kynurenine pathway with increased extracellular levels of kynurenine and KYNA in the striatum.
The present study further supports the feasibility of using the dual-LPS model to investigate inflammation-related psychotic disorders and cognitive impairments.
Findings from observational studies have suggested a possible association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and preeclampsia (PE). However, the results of these studies were inconclusive. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to illuminate this association. Systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus and other databases from inception until January 2023. The qualities of included studies were assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Nine studies (seven cohort, two case–control) were included in the meta-analysis, including 11 423 participants from five different countries. The meta-analysis indicated that a 1-unit increase in the DII score, representing pro-inflammatory diet, was associated with 13 % higher risk of GDM (OR = 1·13; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·25, I2 = 68·4 %, P = 0·004) and 24 % higher risk of PE (OR = 1·24; 95 % CI 1·14, 1·35, I2 = 52·0 %, P = 0·125). Subgroup analysis found that this association was evident among studies with Chinese populations (OR = 1·16; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·28) and studies with mid pregnancy (OR = 1·20; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·34). The findings indicate that pro-inflammatory diet can increase the risk of GDM and PE. Considering some limitations in this study, more studies are needed to verify this association.
Compared with nitrogen and argon, helium is lighter and can better reduce the beam loss caused by angular scattering during beam transmission. The molecular dissociation cross-section in helium is high and stable at low energies, which makes helium the prevalent stripping gas in low-energy accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To study the stripping behavior of 14C ions in helium at low energies, the charge state distributions of carbon ion beams with −1, +1, +2, +3, and +4 charge states were measured at energies of 70–220 keV with a compact 14C-AMS at Guangxi Normal University (GXNU). The experimental data were used to analyze the stripping characteristics of C-He in the energy range of 70–220 keV, and new charge state yields and exchange cross-sections in C-He were obtained at energies of 70–220 keV.
Two kinetic models are proposed for high-temperature rarefied (or non-equilibrium) gas flows with internal degrees of freedom and radiation. One of the models uses the Boltzmann collision operator to model the translational motion of gas molecules, which has the ability to capture the influence of intermolecular potentials, while the other adopts the relaxation time approximations, which has higher computational efficiency. In our kinetic model equations, not only the transport coefficients such as the shear/bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity but also their underlying relaxation processes are recovered. The non-equilibrium dynamics of gas flow and radiation are tightly coupled, where the transport properties of gas molecules and photons are correlatively dependent. The proposed kinetic models are validated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method in several non-radiative rarefied gas flows (e.g. the normal shock wave, Fourier flow, Couette flow and the creep flow driven by the Maxwell demon), and the experimental data of planar heat transfer and normal shock waves in nitrogen. Then, the rarefied gas flows with strong radiation are studied based on the kinetic models, not only in the above one-dimensional gas flows, but also in the two-dimensional radiative hypersonic flow passing a cylinder. The characteristics of heat transfer in the tightly coupled fields of gas and radiation are systematically investigated, particularly the influence of the non-equilibrium photon transport and their interactions with gas molecules are revealed. It is found that the radiation makes a profound contribution to the total heat transfer in radiative hypersonic flow at an intermediate photon Knudsen number.
A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (GXNU-AMS) developed for radiocarbon and tritium measurements was installed and commissioned at Guangxi Normal University in 2017. After several years of operational and methodological upgrades, its performance has been continuously improved and applied in multidisciplinary fields. Currently, the measurement sensitivity for radiocarbon and tritium is 14C/12C ∼ (3.14 ± 0.05) ×10–15 and 3H/1H ∼ (1.23 ± 0.17)×10–16, respectively, and the measurement accuracy is ∼0.6%, which can meet the measurement requirements in the nuclear, earth, environmental and life science fields. This study presents the performance characteristics of GXNU-AMS and several interesting application studies.
The relationships between childhood weight self-misperception and obesity-related factors particularly health markers have not been extensively discussed. This study aims to examine the associations between weight self-misperception and obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, lifestyles and cardio-metabolic markers among Chinese paediatric population.
Data sourced from a national survey in Chinese seven provinces in 2013.
Children and adolescents aged 5–19 years.
Of the total 14 079 participants, there were 14·5 % and 2·2 % participants over-estimated and under-perceived their weight, respectively. Multi-variable logistic regression was applied to calculate OR and 95 % CI (95 % Cl) of obesity-related behaviours and cardio-metabolic markers by actual and perceived weight status. Individuals who perceived themselves as overweight/obese were more likely to have prolonged screen time, insufficient dairy intake and over sugar-sweetened beverages consumption (all P < 0·05), regardless of their weight. Furthermore, actual overweight/obese individuals had higher odds of abnormal cardio-metabolic markers, but a smaller magnitude of association was found among weight under-estimators. Among non-overweight/obese individuals, weight over-estimation was positively associated with abdominal obesity (OR: 10·49, 95 % CI: 7·45, 14·76), elevated blood pressure (OR: 1·30, 95 % CI: 1·12, 1·51) and dyslipidemia (OR: 1·43, 95 % CI: 1·29, 1·58).
Weight over-perception was more prevalent than under-estimation, particularly in girls. Weight over-estimators tended to master better knowledge but behave more unhealthily; both weight over-perception and actual overweight/obesity status were associated with poorer cardio-metabolic markers. Future obesity intervention programmes should additionally pay attention to the population with inaccurate estimation of weight who were easily overlooked.
The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) sensing nutritional signals (amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, etc.) are not fully understood. In this research, we used transcriptome sequencing to analyse differentially expressed genes (DEG) in mouse mammary gland tissues at puberty, lactation and involution stages, in which eight GPCR were selected out and verified by qRT-PCR assay. It was further identified the role of GPR110-mediating nutrients including palmitic acid (PA) and methionine (Met) to improve milk synthesis using mouse mammary epithelial cell line HC11. PA but not Met affected GPR110 expression in a dose-dependent manner. GPR110 knockdown decreased milk protein and fat synthesis and cell proliferation and blocked the stimulation of PA on mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation and sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) expression. In summary, these experimental results disclose DEG related to lactation and reveal that GPR110 mediates PA to activate the mTOR and SREBP-1c pathways to promote milk protein and fat synthesis.
The oscillatory Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) instability of a planar liquid sheet was experimentally investigated in the presence of an axial oscillating gas flow. An experimental system was initiated to study the oscillatory K–H instability. The surface wave growth rates were measured and compared with theoretical results obtained using the authors’ early linear method. Furthermore, in a larger parameter range experimentally studied, it is interesting that there are four different unstable modes: first disordered mode (FDM), second disordered mode (SDM), K–H harmonic unstable mode (KHH) and K–H subharmonic unstable mode (KHS). These unstable modes are determined by the oscillating amplitude, oscillating frequency and liquid inertia force. The frequencies of KHH are equal to the oscillating frequency; the frequency of KHS equals half the oscillating frequency, while the frequencies of FDM and SDM are irregular. By considering the mechanism of instability, the instability regime maps on the relative Weber number versus liquid Weber number (Werel–Wel) and the Weber number ratio versus the oscillating frequency (Werel/Wel–$\varOmega$s2) were plotted. Among these four modes, KHS is the most unexpected: the frequency of this mode is not equal to the oscillating frequency, but the surface wave can also couple with the oscillating gas flow. Linear instability theory was applied to divide the parameter range between the different unstable modes. According to linear instability theory, K–H and parametric unstable regions both exist. However, note that all four modes (KHH, KHS, FDM and SDM) corresponded primarily to the K–H unstable region obtained from the theoretical analysis. Nevertheless, the parametric unstable mode was also observed when the oscillating frequency and amplitude were relatively low, and the liquid inertia force was relatively high. The surface wave amplitude was small but regular, and the evolution of this wave was similar to that of Faraday waves. The wave oscillating frequency was half that of the surface wave.
Today, technological developments are ever-growing yet fragmented. Alongside inconsistent digital approaches and attitudes across city administrations, such developments have made it difficult to reap the benefits of city digital twins. Bringing together experiences from five research projects, this paper discusses these digital twins based on two digital integration methodologies—systems and semantic integration. We revisit the nature of the underlying technologies, and their implications for interoperability and compatibility in the context of planning processes and smart urbanism. Semantic approaches present a new opportunity for bidirectional data flows that can inform both governance processes and technological systems to co-create, cross-pollinate, and support optimal outcomes. Building on this opportunity, we suggest that considering the technological dimension as a new addition to the trifecta of economic, environmental, and social sustainability goals that guide planning processes, can aid governments to address this conundrum of fragmentation, interoperability, and compatibility.
Fat deposition and lipid metabolism are closely related to the morphology, structure and function of mitochondria. The morphology of mitochondria between fusion and fission processes is mainly regulated by protein posttranslational modification. Intermittent fasting (IF) promotes high expression of Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) and induces mitochondrial fusion in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, the mechanism by which Sirt3 participates in mitochondrial protein acetylation during IF to regulate mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics remains unclear. This article demonstrates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function in HFD mouse inguinal white adipose tissue. Proteomic sequencing revealed that IF increased protein deacetylation levels in HFD mice and significantly increased Sirt3 mRNA and protein expression. After transfecting with Sirt3 overexpression or interference vectors into adipocytes, we found that Sirt3 promoted adipocyte mitochondrial fusion and improved mitochondrial function. Furthermore, Sirt3 regulates the JNK-FIS1 pathway by deacetylating malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) to promote mitochondrial fusion. In summary, our study indicates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function by upregulating the high expression of Sirt3 in HFD mice, promoting deacetylation of MDH2 and inhibiting the JNK-FIS1 pathway. This research provides theoretical support for studies related to energy limitation and animal lipid metabolism.
As optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has been widely adopted for the generation of extreme intensity laser sources, nonlinear crystals of large aperture are demanded for high-energy amplifiers. Yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCa4O(BO3)3, YCOB) is capable of being grown with apertures exceeding 100 mm, which makes it possible for application in systems of petawatt scale. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge, an ultra-broadband non-collinear optical parametric amplifier with YCOB for petawatt-scale compressed pulse generation at 800 nm. Based on the SG-II 5 PW facility, amplified signal energy of approximately 40 J was achieved and pump-to-signal conversion efficiency was up to 42.3%. A gain bandwidth of 87 nm was realized and supported a compressed pulse duration of 22.3 fs. The near-field and wavefront aberration represented excellent characteristics, which were comparable with those achieved in lithium triborate-based amplifiers. These results verified the great potential for YCOB utilization in the future.
In the Three Gorges and adjacent areas, there are three planation surfaces and five terraces along the Yangtze River that record the evolution history of the river system. Here, we used diagnostic heavy minerals, U-Pb geochronology, and trace elements of detrital zircons from one planation surface, two terraces, and a modern point bar to reconstruct the evolution history of the upper Yangtze River, specifically the Chuan River in the Sichuan Basin. The sediments in the lowest planation surface had different felsic source rocks derived from east of the Three Gorges, which indicated that before the disintegration of the lowest planation surface (0.75 Ma), there were two paleorivers: the westward-flowing paleo-Chuan River and eastward-flowing paleo-Yangtze River separated by the Huangling Dome. At 0.75–0.73 Ma, the dominant detrital zircons from the Sichuan Basin in the sediments of terrace T5 (the highest terrace) confirmed that the paleo-Yangtze River cut through the Three Gorges and captured the paleo-Chuan River, and the Daliang Mountains became the new drainage divide. Finally, the appearance of materials from the upper Jinsha River in terrace T2 indicated that the paleo-Yangtze River progressively captured the paleo-Jinsha River, and the modern upper Yangtze River formed before 0.05 Ma. These river capture events of the upper Yangtze River confirmed the Quaternary uplift of the SE Tibetan Plateau.
Instrument delivery is critical part in vascular intervention surgery. Due to the soft-body structure of instruments, the relationship between manipulation commands and instrument motion is non-linear, making instrument delivery challenging and time-consuming. Reinforcement learning has the potential to learn manipulation skills and automate instrument delivery with enhanced success rates and reduced workload of physicians. However, due to the sample inefficiency when using high-dimensional images, existing reinforcement learning algorithms are limited on realistic vascular robotic systems. To alleviate this problem, this paper proposes discrete soft actor-critic with auto-encoder (DSAC-AE) that augments SAC-discrete with an auxiliary reconstruction task. The algorithm is applied with distributed sample collection and parameter update in a robot-assisted preclinical environment. Experimental results indicate that guidewire delivery can be automatically implemented after 50k sampling steps in less than 15 h, demonstrating the proposed algorithm has the great potential to learn manipulation skill for vascular robotic systems.
The popularity of the online social media in China promotes a dynamic digital drive for both global and glocalised communications, facilitating the emergence of more connected intercultural language practices unimaginable in the past. Social media also creates a vast community where pervasive translanguaging practices take place daily. Translanguaging hybrids coined by Chinese university students on WeChat are exactly a case in point. WeChat is a free platform launched in 2011 by Tencent. Well established in China and the world over, Tencent provides multimodal instant messaging services. Open to world cultures, these students show ingenuity in translanguaging linguistic play in their daily text messages; meanwhile, their creative coinage of translanguaging hybrids influences the entire WeChat community. Written language in the WeChat community, often amounting to a new form of speech, deserves serious scholarly inquiry.
High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) contribute to dough elasticity and bread baking quality in wheat. In this study, wheat varieties were classified based on their HMW-GS composition into three groups: 1Dx5 (5 + 10, Gaoyou 8901, Xinmai 28, Xinmai 19, Xinmai 26 and Jinbaoyin), 1Dx2 (2 + 12, Zhoumai 24, Xinmai 9 and Yumai) and 1Dx4 (4 + 12, Aikang 58). Sequence analysis showed that 1Dx-GY8901, 1Dx-XM28, 1Dx-XM19 and 1Dx-XM26 were similar to the 1Dx5 gene and clustered on the same branch, while 1Dx-AK58, 1Dx-ZM24, 1Dx-JBY, 1Dx-YM, 1Dx-XM9 and 1Dx-JBY were more similar to the 1Dx2 gene and clustered on the same branch with 1Dx.2.2. There was a mutation of Ser to Cys at position S2, for an extra Cys in the repeat regions of 1Dx-XM19, 1Dx-XM26, 1Dx-XM28 and 1Dx-GY8901. The wheat HMW-GS genes exhibited similar percentages of α-helix, extended strand, β-turn and random coil structure, with ranges of 13.33–13.59, 4.77–5.78, 7.08–9.18 and 72.3–73.94%, respectively. Sequence conservation and the composition of HMW-GS subunits were also analysed for a series of strong gluten wheat varieties, Xinmai 9 (1, 7 + 8, 2 + 12), Xinmai 19 (1, 7 + 9, 5 + 10), Xinmai 26 (1, 7 + 8, 5 + 10) and Xinmai 28 (1, 7 + 9, 5 + 10). The results of this work should facilitate future breeding efforts and provide the theoretical basis for wheat quality improvement.
The differential impact of depression across different periods in life on mortality remains inconclusive. We aimed to examine the association of depression that occurs at different age with all-cause mortality, and to explore the roles of dementia, as well as genetic and early-life environmental factors, in this association.
From the Swedish Twin Registry, 44,919 twin individuals were followed for up to 18 years. Depression was ascertained using the National Patient Registry and categorized as early-life (<45 years), midlife (45–64 years), and late-life (≥65 years) depression according to the age of the first diagnosis. Deaths were identified through the Cause of Death Register. Generalized estimating equation, generalized structural equation, and conditional logistic regression were used for unmatched, mediation, and co-twin matched analyses, respectively.
In unmatched analyses, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality were 1.71 (1.46–2.00) for depression at any age, 1.72 (1.36–2.17) for early-life, 1.51 (1.19–1.90) for midlife, and 4.10 (2.02–8.34) for late-life depression. Mortality was significantly higher in individuals with late-life depression than those with earlier-life depression (p < 0.05). The mediation analysis showed that 59.83% of the depression-mortality association was mediated by dementia. No significant difference in ORs between the unmatched and co-twin matched analyses was observed (p = 0.09).
Depression is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, and dementia mediates approximately 60% of the impact of depression on mortality in late life. Genetic and early-life environmental factors may not play a significant role in the depression-mortality association.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid v. solid) and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15 538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline (2013–2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95 % CI for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4·2 years, 3476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history and overall diet quality, the multivariable HR of NAFLD risk were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32) for total added sugars, 1·20 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·33) for liquid added sugars and 0·96 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.
This study presents zircon U–Pb geochronology and Hf and O isotope data for granitic rocks in the Zijinshan ore field, southwestern Fujian Province, China. The intrusive rocks comprise monzogranite, granite and granodiorite. The magmatic zircon U–Pb ages from these granitic rocks can be divided into four episodes: episodes 1 (157.9–159.9 Ma) and 2 (141 Ma) in the Late Jurassic and episodes 3 (108.1–103.2 Ma) and 4 (97.5–99.7 Ma) in the Middle and Late Cretaceous, respectively. Patterns of rare-earth elements (REE) show enrichment in light REE and obvious negative Eu anomalies. These rocks are also enriched in Rb, Th, U, La, Ce, Nd and Hf, and depleted in Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The increasing La/Yb ratio and decreasing heavy REE content with decreasing age may imply an increasing contribution of mantle-derived materials from the Late Jurassic to Cretaceous. The zircon ϵHf(t) and δ18O values, ranging from −37.7 to −2.8 and 12.0 ‰ to 6.3 ‰, respectively, indicate that the lower crust is an important source of granitic rocks. There was a significant increase in ϵHf(t) values and a decrease in δ18O values in the younger magmatic episodes (3 and 4), which ranged from −11.4 to −0.6 and 10.7 to 6.3 ‰, respectively. This suggests an increasing contribution of mantle-derived magma to the crustal melts from the Late Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous in response to the changing regional tectonic setting from compression to extension and an increasing interaction between the crust and mantle.