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The thermal conductivity of a molecular gas consists of the translational and internal parts. Although in continuum flows the total thermal conductivity itself is adequate to describe the heat transfer, in rarefied gas flows they need to be modelled separately, according to the relaxation rates of translational and internal heat fluxes in an homogeneous system. This paper is dedicated to quantifying how these relaxation rates affect rarefied gas dynamics. The kinetic model of Wu et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 763, 2015, pp. 24–50) is adapted to recover the relaxation of heat fluxes, which is validated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Then the model of Wu et al., which has the freedom to adjust the relaxation rates, is used to investigate the rate effects of thermal relaxation in problems such as the normal shock wave, creep flow driven by Maxwell's demon and thermal transpiration. It is found that the relaxation rates of heat flux affect rarefied gas flows significantly, even when the total thermal conductivity is fixed.
Inflammation might play a role in bipolar disorder (BD), but it remains unclear the relationship between inflammation and brain structural and functional abnormalities in patients with BD. In this study, we focused on the alterations of functional connectivity (FC), peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines and their correlations to investigate the role of inflammation in FC in BD depression.
In this study, 42 unmedicated patients with BD II depression and 62 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Resting-state-functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all participants and independent component analysis was used. Serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured in all participants. Correlation between FC values and IL-6 and IL-8 levels in BD was calculated.
Compared with the HCs, BD II patients showed decreased FC in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) implicating the limbic network and the right precentral gyrus implicating the somatomotor network. BD II showed increased IL-6 (p = 0.039), IL-8 (p = 0.002) levels. Moreover, abnormal FC in the right precentral gyrus were inversely correlated with the IL-8 (r = −0.458, p = 0.004) levels in BD II. No significant correlation was found between FC in the left OFC and cytokines levels.
Our findings that serum IL-8 levels are associated with impaired FC in the right precentral gyrus in BD II patients suggest that inflammation might play a crucial role in brain functional abnormalities in BD.
An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate and confront the putative functions of chitosan (CTS) and chitooligosaccharide (COS) in the growth and homoeostasis of distal intestine in juvenile turbots fed diets containing soyabean meal (SBM). Three isolipidic and isonitrogenous diets were formulated by supplemented basal diet (based on a 400 g/kg SBM) with 7·5 g/kg CTS or with 2·0 g/kg COS. Our results indicated that both CTS and COS supplementation could significantly improve (i) the growth performance and feed efficiency ratio; (ii) antioxidant activity driven by metabolic enzymes (i.e. catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase); (iii) glutathione levels; (iv) acid phosphatase and lysozyme activity and (v) IgM content. As a result, these two particular prebiotics were able to significantly attenuate the histological alterations due to local inflammation as well as to decrease the transcriptional levels of proinflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α) and major pathway effectors (i.e. activator protein-1 (AP-1), NF-кB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular regulated kinase). High-throughput sequencing data indicated that dietary CTS and COS could significantly decrease the diversity of intestinal bacteria but elevate the relative abundances of Bacillus, Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas genera. Altogether, these findings suggest that CTS and COS can improve growth of turbot, enhance intestinal immune and anti-oxidant systems and promote the balance of intestinal microbiota. The protective effects, elicited by these two prebiotics, against SBM-induced inflammation could be attributed to their roles in alleviating the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines by possibly down-regulating NF-кB, AP-1 and/or mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways.
Beryl from Xuebaoding, Sichuan Province, western China is known for its unusual tabular habit and W–Sn–Be paragenesis in a greisen-type deposit. The crystals are typically colourless transparent to pale blue, often with screw dislocations of hexagonal symmetry on the (0001) crystal faces. Combining electron microprobe analyses and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), correlated with Raman and micro-infrared (IR) spectroscopy and imaging, the crystal chemical characteristics are determined. The contents of Na+ (0.24–0.38 atoms per formula unit (apfu)) and Li+ up to 0.38 apfu are at the high end compared to beryl from other localities worldwide. Li+ substitution for Be2+ on the tetrahedral (T2) site is predominantly charge balanced by Na+ on the smaller channel (C2) site, with Na+ ranging from 91.5% to 99.7% (apfu) of the sum of all other alkali elements. Cs+ and minor Rb+ and K+ primarily charge balance the minor M2+ substitution for Al3+ at the A site; all iron at the A site is suggested to be trivalent. The a axis ranges from 9.2161(2) to 9.2171(4) Å, with unit-cell volume from 678.03(3) to 678.48(7) Å3. The c/a ratio of 1.0002–1.0005 is characteristic for T2-type beryl with unit-cell parameters controlled primarily by Be2+ substitution. Transmission micro-IR vibrational spectroscopy and imaging identifies coordination of one or two water molecules to Na+ (type IIs and type IId, respectively) as well as alkali free water (type I). Based on IR absorption cross section and XRD a C1 site water content of 0.4–0.5 apfu is derived, i.e. close to 50% site occupancy. Secondary crystal phases with a decrease in Fe and Mg, yet increase in Na, suggest early crystallisation of aquamarine, with goshenite being late. With similar crystal chemistry to beryl of columnar habit from other localities worldwide, the tabular habit of Xuebaoding beryl seems to be unrelated to chemical composition and alkali content.
A multicenter study of sharps injuries (SIs) and other blood or body fluid (OBBF) exposures was conducted among 33,156 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 175 hospitals in Anhui, China. In total, 12,178 HCWs (36.7%) had experienced at least 1 SI in the previous 12 months and 8,116 HCWs (24.5%) had experienced at least 1 OBBF exposure during the previous 12 months.
The research was to introduce the experience of doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defect (DCVSD) repaired through tricuspid approach.
From January, 2015 to September, 2019, 86 consecutive DCVSD paediatrics underwent repair via right subaxillary vertical incision (RAVI) through tricuspid approach. Perioperative and follow-up data were collected.
The age and weight at operation were 28.1 ± 18.5 (range: 7–101) months and 12.2 ± 4.2 (6–26.5) kg. There were two patients combined with discrete subaortic membrane, two patients with patent ductus arteriosus, one patient with atrial septal defect, and two patients with abnormal muscle bundle in right ventricular outflow tract. The mean size of ventricular septal defect was 7.0 ± 2.4 (3–13) mm. The defect was repaired with a piece of Dacron patch in 68 patients or directly with 1–2 pledgetted polypropylene sutures in 18 patients. The cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time were 46.2 ± 13.3 (23–101) minutes and 29.2 ± 11.5 (12–84) minutes. After 3.1 ± 2.4 (0–14) hours’ ventilator assist and 23.2 ± 32.1 (0–264) hours’ ICU stay, all patients were discharged safely. At the latest follow-up (27.9 ± 14.6 months), echocardiography showed trivial residual shunt in two patients. There was no malignant arrhythmia occurred and there was no chest deformity or asymmetrical development of the breast was found.
DCVSD repaired via right subaxillary vertical incision through tricuspid approach was safe and feasible, providing a feasible alternative to median sternotomy, and it can be performed with favourable cosmetic results.
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in Chinese residents’ psychological state and its influencing factors after the Wuhan shutdown on January 23, 2020.
Two surveys were conducted on February 1-5 and February 20-24, separately, using an online self-administrated questionnaire among 3145 and 3814 participants, respectively. Subjective indicators of daily-life changes include level of attention, risk of infection, impact of daily life, self-perceived health status, and mental health help-seeking. Individual scores on changes in anxiety, depression, and stress were generated by 6-item, 4-item, and 3-item questions. A multivariate regression model was fitted in each survey, separately and combined.
A total of 6959 residents participated in the study, with 32.78% male and 67.22% female, people living in Wuhan and other cities in Hubei Province accounted for 25.22% and 18.85%, respectively. One week after the Wuhan shutdown, their anxiety, depression, and stress had all increased. Compared with the first survey, the changes in the scores of anxiety, depression, and stress in the second survey were decreased (β = −1.220, −0.798, and −0.623, all P < 0.001). The level of attention, risk of infection, and self-perceived health status tended to be positively associated with the changes in the scores of anxiety, depression, and stress.
The study showed that the lives and psychological conditions of residents had undergone negative changes after the Wuhan shutdown, but the measures taken during this period were effective. These results may provide guidance for public health policies in other countries and regions.
High fibre intake is associated with reduced mortality risk in both general and chronic kidney disease populations. However, in dialysis patients, such data are limited. Therefore, the association between dietary fibre intake (DFI) and the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was examined in this study. A total of 1044 maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients from eight outpatient dialysis centres in China were included in this study. Data on DFI were collected using 24-h dietary recalls for 3 d in a week and were normalised to actual dry weight. The study outcomes included all-cause and CVD mortality. Over a median of 46 months of follow-up, 354 deaths were recorded, of which 210 (59 %) were due to CVD. On assessing DFI as tertiles, the CVD mortality risk was significantly lower in patients in tertiles 2–3 (≥0·13 g/kg per d; hazard ratio (HR) 0·71; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·97) compared with those in tertile 1 (<0·13 g/kg per d). A similar but non-significant trend was found for the association between DFI (tertiles 2–3 v. tertile 1; HR 0·83; 95 % CI 0·64, 1·07) and all-cause mortality. In summary, higher DFI was associated with lower CVD mortality risk among Chinese MHD patients. This study emphasises the significance of DFI in MHD patients and provides information that is critical for the improvement of dietary guidelines for dialysis patients.
The prognostic factor for in-hospital mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) care remains unclear. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted aiming to estimate the in-hospital mortality rate and the risk factors for mortality in a high-burden setting. All patients with culture-confirmed TB that were admitted to the ICU of the hospital between March 2012 and April 2019 were identified retrospectively. Data, such as demographic characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory measures and mortality, were obtained from medical records. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify prognostic factors that influence in-hospital mortality. A total of 82 ICU patients with confirmed TB were included in the analysis, and 22 deaths were observed during the hospital stay, 21 patients died in the ICU. In the multivariable model adjusted for sex and age, the levels of serum albumin and white blood cell (WBC) count were significantly associated with mortality in TB patients requiring ICU care (all P < 0.01), the hazard ratios were 0.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7–0.9) per 1 g/l and 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.2) per 1 × 109/l, respectively. In conclusion, in-hospital mortality remains high in TB patients requiring ICU care. Low serum albumin level and high WBC count significantly impact the risk of mortality in these TB patients in China.
Sepiolite powder was hydrothermally solidified into a cemented, designed to function both in humidity regulation and volatile organic compound (VOC) removal. The solidification process mimicked the cementation of sedimentary rocks. The formation of the calcium aluminium silicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) or Al-tobermorite enhanced the strength (maximum flexural strength >17 MPa) and improved the porosity of the solidified materials. Due to the low temperature of hydrothermal solidification (≤473.15 K), most sepiolite remained in the matrix of the solidified specimens. The cemented sepiolite aggregate shows outstanding humidity-regulating performance (moisture adsorption of 430 g m–2), and the synergistic effects of the residual sepiolite and neoformed Al-tobermorite exerted a positive influence on the humidity regulation performance of the material. Similarly to the behaviour of sepiolite, the solidified material also displayed good formaldehyde-removal capacity (60–68%). The pore dimensions controlled the humidity regulation and formaldehyde removal. The humidity regulation depends on the mesopores, which originate mainly from both the original sepiolite and the neoformed C-A-S-H phases and Al-tobermorite, while the formaldehyde removal depends on the micropores from the original sepiolite in the matrix. As such, the cemented sepiolite aggregate might be hydrothermally synthesized and might be used to improve the comfort and safety of indoor environments for human beings.
Eight bryozoan species are described from the Hanchiatien Formation (lower Silurian, Telychian) of southern Chongqing, South China. Four species are new: the trepostomes Asperopora sinensis n. sp., Trematopora jiebeiensis n. sp., and Trematopora tenuis n. sp., and the fenestrate Moorephylloporina parvula n. sp. One species, the cystoporate Hennigopora sp. indet., is described in open nomenclature. Moorephylloporina parvula n. sp. is eurytopic, occurring in all types of facies within the bioherms. Erect Moorephylloporina Bassler, 1952, Trematopora Hall, 1852, and Leioclema Ulrich, 1882 formed pioneering communities on weakly cemented substrata, whereas encrusting Fistulipora M‘Coy, 1849, Hennigopora Bassler, 1952, and Asperopora Owen, 1969 occurred on hardgrounds and formed densely compact framestones. Robust branched Trematopora and Leioclema tend to occur out of the reef core (framework) where they could have formed reef-flank thickets in more agitated conditions. The generic composition of the studied fauna correlates with other localities in South China, and they show general paleobiogeographic relations to Siberia and Indiana, USA.
Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
The construction of halloysite spherical capsules (halloysite aerogels) was reported for the first time in our previous work. The excellent performance of the microcapsule in functional carrying was also found in our further research. In this work, the anti-icing surface was fabricated by using halloysite nanotubes and halloysite spherical microcapsules. The fabrication of the anti-icing coating was investigated, and the ice nucleation behavior of droplet on the coating surface was studied. The modified halloysite nanotubes (F-HNTs) and the modified halloysite microcapsules (F-HAs) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric, and pore size distribution. The results show that the introduction of F-HNTs and F-HAs have successfully formed a micro-nano structure on the coating surface with superhydrophobicity performance. The icing temperature of the coating has decreased 2.3 °C compared with bare glass, and the ice adhesion strength has decreased 82%. According to the ice dynamic mechanics, the ice nucleation rate on the coating is significantly reduced, thus the halloysite microcapsule coating has good icephobic performance.
To reveal the thermal shock resistance of double-layer thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), two types of TBCs were prepared via atmospheric plasma spraying, i.e., Gd2Zr2O7/yttria-stabilized zirconia (GZ/YSZ) TBCs and La2Zr2O7 (LZ)/YSZ TBCs, respectively. Subsequently, thermal cycling tests of the two TBCs were conducted at 1100 °C and their thermal shock resistance and failure mechanism were comparatively investigated through experiments and the finite element method. The results showed that the thermal shock failure of the two TBCs occurred inside the top ceramic coating. However, the GZ/YSZ TBCs had longer thermal cycling life. It was the mechanical properties of the top ceramic coating, and the thermal stresses arising from the thermal mismatch between the top ceramic coating and the substrate that determined the thermal cycling life of the two TBCs together. Compared with the LZ layer in the LZ/YSZ TBCs, the GZ layer in the GZ/YSZ TBCs had smaller elastic modulus, larger fracture toughness, and smaller thermal stresses, which led to the higher crack propagation resistance and less spallation tendency of the GZ/YSZ TBCs. Therefore, the GZ/YSZ TBCs exhibited superior thermal shock resistance to the LZ/YSZ TBCs.
Although the thermal conductivity of molecular gases can be measured straightforwardly and accurately, it is difficult to experimentally determine its separate contributions from the translational and internal motions of gas molecules. Yet, this information is critical in rarefied gas dynamics as the rarefaction effects corresponding to these motions are different. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology to extract the translational thermal conductivity (or equivalently, the translational Eucken factor) of molecular gases from the Rayleigh–Brillouin scattering (RBS) experimental data. From the numerical simulation of the Wu et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 763, 2015, pp. 24–50) model we find that, in the kinetic regime, in addition to bulk viscosity, the RBS spectrum is sensitive to the translational Eucken factor, even when the total thermal conductivity is fixed. Thus it is not only possible to extract the bulk viscosity, but also the translational Eucken factor of molecular gases from RBS light scattering spectra measurements. Such experiments bear the additional advantage that gas–surface interactions do not affect the measurements. By using the Wu et al. model, bulk viscosities (due to the rotational relaxation of gas molecules only) and translational Eucken factors of
are simultaneously extracted from RBS experiments.
After 2008, a movement opposing waste incinerators swept across many cities in China. At the time, there was already a conflictual relationship between L waste incinerator in Guangdong and surrounding residents, but the ‘Panyu incident’ caused what was originally a small local conflict to become an issue of wider and even national concern. The list of ‘cancer victims’ that circulated on the internet, and related media reports, gradually convinced the public that the waste incinerator plant was responsible for high rates of lung cancer among residents. However, our investigations found that there were numerous errors in the information about the incidence of lung cancer. The chapter discusses what we discovered about the complex background to this case, and the reasons why rumours and misinformation spread so easily at this time.
Keywords: cancer villages, rural industrial pollution, environmental conflict, internet rumours, social structure
Along with rapid economic development, urbanization and improving living standards, the amount of municipal household waste in China has been steadily increasing. Although investment in waste treatment facilities has also been rising, it is still hard to keep up with the demand. Because landfills require quite a lot of land, and can easily create secondary pollution, finding sites for them is becoming increasingly difficult. Incineration effectively reduces waste, takes up less space, and has clear technological and economic advantages. However, in recent years, there have been continuous mass incidents opposing waste incineration power plants in China. In 2009, in particular, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Wujiang, and other areas all saw ‘anti-incineration’ movements. Strong public opposition caused some waste incineration power plant projects (we will abbreviate to ‘incinerators’ hereafter) to be stopped or postponed during the feasibility, planning or construction stage. Of these, the ‘Panyu Incident’ in Guangzhou had the biggest social impact. Continuous coverage of the incident in the media over several months, and fierce arguments and relentless debate between ‘pro-incineration’ and ‘anti-incineration’ groups suddenly pushed the issue of waste incineration to the centre of public debate.
Birth weight influences not only brain development, but also mental health outcomes, including depression, but the underlying mechanism is unclear.
The phenotypic data of 12,872–91,009 participants (59.18–63.38% women) from UK Biobank were included to test the associations between the birth weight, depression, and brain volumes through the linear and logistic regression models. As birth weight is highly heritable, the polygenic risk scores (PRSs) of birth weight were calculated from the UK Biobank cohort (154,539 participants, 56.90% women) to estimate the effect of birth weight-related genetic variation on the development of depression and brain volumes. Finally, the mediation analyses of step approach and mediation analysis were used to estimate the role of brain volumes in the association between birth weight and depression. All analyses were conducted sex stratified to assess sex-specific role in the associations.
We observed associations between birth weight and depression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.968, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.957–0.979, p = 2.29 × 10−6). Positive associations were observed between birth weight and brain volumes, such as gray matter (B = 0.131, p = 3.51 × 10−74) and white matter (B = 0.129, p = 1.67 × 10−74). Depression was also associated with brain volume, such as left thalamus (OR = 0.891, 95% CI = 0.850–0.933, p = 4.46 × 10−5) and right thalamus (OR = 0.884, 95% CI = 0.841–0.928, p = 2.67 × 10−5). Additionally, significant mediation effects of brain volume were found for the associations between birth weight and depression through steps approach and mediation analysis, such as gray matter (B = –0.220, p = 0.020) and right thalamus (B = –0.207, p = 0.014).
Our results showed the associations among birth weight, depression, and brain volumes, and the mediation effect of brain volumes also provide evidence for the sex-specific of associations.