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The purpose of this paper is twofold: we present some matrix inequalities of log-majorization type for eigenvalues indexed by a sequence; we then apply our main theorem to generalize and improve the Hua–Marcus’ inequalities. Our results are stronger and more general than the existing ones.
To estimate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among Tibetan adolescents aged 12-17 years.
Shigatse city of Tibet municipality, with an average altitude of more than 4000 m.
Study participants included 2,642 adolescents aged 12-17 years selected from 6 schools using a convenient cluster sampling method.
The prevalence of thinness/overweight/obesity among Tibetan adolescents was 9.4%/5.4%/1.4% (China definition), 14.7%/4.4%/0.7% (IOTF definition), and 2.8%/5.7%/0.9% (WHO definition). The prevalence of thinness and overweight was significantly different between both sexes based on each of three BMI classification criteria (P <0.001). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of obesity between both sexes according to each of three BMI criteria. There was no clear trend in the prevalence of thinness across ages according to the China or IOTF definition (both P >0.05), whereas an upward trend was observed for thinness in boys according to the IOTF definition (P for trend <0.05). In contrast, the prevalence of thinness tended to decrease with increasing age in girls according to the IOTF definition, and in total sample according to the WHO definition (P for trend <0.05).
Among Tibetan adolescents, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is relatively low, while the prevalence of thinness is high, especially in boys. These data suggest urgent attention is needed to control adolescent thinness in Tibet.
In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
Little is known about poverty trends in people with severe mental illness (SMI) over a long time span, especially under conditions of fast socioeconomic development.
This study aims to unravel changes in household poverty levels among people with SMI in a fast-changing rural community in China.
Two mental health surveys, using ICD-10, were conducted in the same six townships of Xinjin county, Chengdu, China. A total of 711 and 1042 people with SMI identified in 1994 and 2015, respectively, participated in the study. The Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty index was adopted to measure the changes in household poverty. These changes were decomposed into effects of growth and equity using a static decomposition method. Factors associated with household poverty in 1994 and 2015 were examined and compared by regression analyses.
The proportion of poor households, as measured by the headcount ratio, increased significantly from 29.8% in 1994 to 39.5% in 2015. Decomposition showed that poverty in households containing people with SMI had worsened because of a redistribution effect. Factors associated with household poverty had also changed during the study period. The patient's age, ability to work and family size were of paramount significance in 2015.
This study shows that the levels of poverty faced by households containing people with SMI has become more pressing with China's fast socioeconomic development. It calls for further integration of mental health recovery and targeted antipoverty interventions for people with SMI as a development priority.
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread to over 213 countries and territories. We sought to describe the clinical features of fatalities in patients with severe COVID-19.
We conducted an Internet-based retrospective cohort study through retrieving the clinical information of 100 COVID-19 deaths from nonduplicating incidental reports in Chinese provincial and other governmental websites between January 23 and March 10, 2020.
Approximately 6 of 10 COVID-19 deaths were males (64.0%). The average age was 70.7 ± 13.5 y, and 84% of patients were elderly (over age 60 y). The mean duration from admission to diagnosis was 2.2 ± 3.8 d (median: 1 d). The mean duration from diagnosis to death was 9.9 ± 7.0 d (median: 9 d). Approximately 3 of 4 cases (76.0%) were complicated by 1 or more chronic diseases, including hypertension (41.0%), diabetes (29.0%) and coronary heart disease (27.0%), respiratory disorders (23.0%), and cerebrovascular disease (12.0%). Fever (46.0%), cough (33.0%), and shortness of breath (9.0%) were the most common first symptoms. Multiple organ failure (67.9%), circulatory failure (20.2%), and respiratory failure (11.9%) are the top 3 direct causes of death.
COVID-19 deaths are mainly elderly and patients with chronic diseases especially cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. Multiple organ failure is the most common direct cause of death.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
A coaxial-output rolled strip pulse-forming line (RSPFL) with a dry structure is researched for the purpose of miniaturization and all-solid state of pulse-forming lines (PFL). The coaxial-output RSPFL consists of a coaxial-output electrode (COE) and a rolled strip line (RSL). The COE is characterized by quasi-coaxial structure, making the output pulse propagate along the axial direction with a small output inductance. The RSL is rolled on the COE, whose transmission characteristics are analyzed theoretically. It shows that the RSL can be regarded as a planar strip line when the rolling radius of the strip line is larger than 60 times of the thickness of the insulation dielectric layer of RSL. CST modeling was carried out to simulate the discharging characteristic of the coaxial-output RSPFL. It shows that the coaxial-output RSPFL can deliver a discharging pulse with a rise time <6 ns when the impedance of the RSL matches that of the COE, which confirms the theoretical analysis. A prototype of the coaxial-output RSPFL was developed. A 49-kV discharging pulse on a matched load was achieved when it was charged to 100 kV. The discharging waveform has a pulse width of 32 ns, with a rise time of 6 ns, which is consistent with the simulation waveform. An energy-storage density of 1.9 J/L was realized in the coaxial-output RSPFL. By the method of multi-stage connection in series, a much higher output voltage is convenient to be obtained.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
New discoveries of the early Cambrian yiliangellinine trilobite Zhangshania typica Li and Zhang in Kunming preserve almost all instars from early postembryonic (protaspid) to mature (holaspid) phases in articulated state, in addition to mature specimens with antennae bearing paired spines on the basal articles. The ontogenetic series shows protarthrous development with some, but likely not all, early holaspid instars expressing additional pygidial segments, gradual rearward migration of the location of the longest pleural spines on the trunk segments, and striking positive allometry of the genal spines. It also reveals Parazhangshania sichuanensis Li and Zhang, 1990 to be the holaspid stage 3 of Z. typica, and therefore its junior synonym. This new find in the Hongjingshao Formation provides species-based regional correlation across the South China block and Z. typica may provide an important biostratigraphic marker for the base of the traditional Tsanglangpuan Stage.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver malignancy that mainly occurs in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Risk factors for HCC include hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the specific role of HBV infection in HCC development is not yet completely understood. In order to reveal the effects of HBV on HCC, we compare the genes of HCC patients infected with HBV with those who are not infected.
We encoded the genes of these two types of HCC in databases using enrichment scores of Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway terms. A random forest algorithm was employed in order to distinguish these two types in the classifier, and a series of feature selection approaches was used in order to select their optimal features. Novel HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC genes were predicted, respectively, based on their optimal features in the classifier. A shortest-path algorithm was also employed in order to find all of the shortest-paths genes connecting the known related genes.
A total of 54 different features between HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC genes were identified. In total, 1236 and 881 novel related genes were predicted for HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC, respectively. By integrating the predicted genes and shortest path genes in their gene interaction network, we identified 679 common genes involved in the two types of HCC.
We identified the significantly different genetic features between two types of HCC. We also predicted related genes for the two types based on their specific features. Finally, we determined the common genes and features that were involved in both of these two types of HCC.
A novel dual-band planar antenna with a low profile for mobile communication system is proposed in this paper. The antenna is composed of one shorted patch with two radiating notches for low frequency resonance and one square patch for high frequency resonance. The low profile is achieved via the shorting patch, which introduces the parallel electrical field between the reflector and antenna. A step-impedance microstrip line is used to feed the antenna. The coupling between the square patch and microstrip line cancels out the inductance of shorting probe, which increases the working bandwidth of proposed antenna. A prototype with a low profile of 0.0286λ is fabricated and measured. The antenna achieves dual impedance bandwidths of 1.6% for the low frequency band and 60% for the high frequency band, covering the frequency range 851–865 MHz and 1.97–3.65 GHz, respectively. The measured results show good agreements with the simulated ones.
A number of prospective cohort studies have investigated the associations between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and the risk of hypertension, CHD and stroke, but revealed mixed results. In the present study, we aimed to perform a dose–response meta-analysis of these prospective studies to clarify these associations. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed and Embase databases up to 5 May 2014. Random- or fixed-effects models were used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI for the highest compared with the lowest category of SSB consumption, and to conduct a dose–response analysis. A total of six prospective studies (240 726 participants and 80 411 incident cases of hypertension) from four publications on hypertension were identified. A total of four prospective studies (194 664 participants and 7396 incident cases of CHD) from four publications on CHD were identified. A total of four prospective studies (259 176 participants and 10 011 incident cases of stroke) from four publications on stroke were identified. The summary RR for incident hypertension was 1·08 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·12) for every additional one serving/d increase in SSB consumption. The summary RR for incident CHD was 1·17 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·24) for every serving/d increase in SSB consumption. There was no significant association between SSB consumption and total stroke (summary RR 1·06, 95 % CI 0·97, 1·15) for every serving/d increase in SSB consumption. The present meta-analysis suggested that a higher consumption of SSB was associated with a higher risk of hypertension and CHD, but not with a higher risk of stroke.
A method to design the composite insulation structures in pulsed power systems is proposed in this paper. The theoretical bases for this method include the Weibull statistical distribution and the empirical insulation formula. A uniform formula to describe the reliability (R) for different insulation media such as solid, liquid, gas, vacuum, and vacuum surface is derived. The dependence curves of the normalized applied field on R are also obtained. These curves show that the normalized applied field decreases rapidly as R increases but the declining rates corresponding to different insulation media are different. In addition, if R is required to be higher than a given level, the normalized applied field should be smaller than a certain value. In practical design, the common range of the applied fields for different insulation media should be chosen to meet a global reliability requirement. In the end, the proposed method is demonstrated with a specific coaxial high-voltage vacuum insulator.
This article reports on microstructure and dielectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5Ti1−3y/2WyO3 ceramics. Dielectric peaks of the Ba0.5Sr0.5Ti1−3y/2WyO3 ceramics were markedly suppressed, broadened, and shifted to low temperature with increasing content of W. The limit of W incorporating into the barium strontium titanate (BST) lattice was y = 0.02. Two second phases (BaWO4 and Ba2Ti5O12) were formed above the solid solution limit of W in BST. The doping mechanism represents a new approach to develop microwave tunable materials. Dielectric properties of the Ba0.5Sr0.5Ti1−3y/2WyO3 ceramics could be optimized by the content of W. The sample with y = 0.05 had ε′ of 431, quality factor of 365 (at 2.111 GHz), and tunability of 11.5%, which makes a potential candidate for tunable microwave device applications in the wireless communication.
Depression is one of the most pervasive and debilitating psychiatric diseases, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of depression have not been elucidated. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in synaptic plasticity underlying learning, memory, and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether Cdk5 participates in the development of depressive diseases has not been examined. Using the chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure, we examined the effects of Cdk5/p35 activity in the hippocampus on depressive-like behaviour in rats. We found that CMS increased Cdk5 activity in the hippocampus, accompanied by translocation of neuronal-specific activator p35 from the cytosol to the membrane in the dentate gyrus (DG) subregion. Inhibition of Cdk5 in DG but not in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) or CA3 hippocampal subregions inhibited the development of depressive-like symptoms. Overexpression of p35 in DG blocked the antidepressant-like effect of venlafaxine in the CMS model. Moreover, the antidepressants venlafaxine and mirtazapine, but not the antipsychotic aripiprazole, reduced Cdk5 activity through the redistribution of p35 from the membrane to the cytosol in DG. Our results showed that the development of depressive-like behaviour is associated with increased Cdk5 activity in the hippocampus and that the Cdk5/p35 complex plays a key role in the regulation of depressive-like behaviour and antidepressant actions.
During diabetes, structural and functional changes in the alimentary tract are known to take place resulting in an increased absorption of intestinal glucose and alterations in the activities of brush-border disaccharidases. To elucidate the effect of administrating polysaccharide from Gynura divaricata (PGD) on disaccharidase activities, the specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases, namely sucrase, maltase and lactase, were measured in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Normal control and diabetic rats were treated by oral administration with PGD. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes, and amelioration of the activities of sucrase and maltase during diabetes was clearly visible by the treatment with PGD. However, the increased activity of lactase during diabetes mellitus was remarkably alleviated by the administration of PGD only in the duodenum. Meanwhile, oral sucrose tolerance tests demonstrated that PGD alleviated the hyperglycaemia during diabetes mellitus, resulting from the amelioration in the activities of intestinal disaccharidases. The present investigation suggests that PGD exerted an anti-diabetic effect partly via inhibiting the increased intestinal disaccharidase activities of diabetic rats. This beneficial influence of administration of PGD on intestinal disaccharidases clearly indicates their helpful role in the management of diabetes.
Molecular films have been extensively used for crystal growth. The Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique allows the oriented molecules film to be produced in a controllable manner. By controlling the LB film surface pressure and tuning quenching temperature of the supersaturated solution, single NaCl (100) crystal planes are successfully produced under the surface pressure of 30 mN/m with quenching temperature 5 °C of the NaCl supersaturated solution. The mechanism of single NaCl (100) crystal growth can be further explained based on the best matching between NaCl (100) crystal plane distance and the lattice parameter of LB film among all other crystal planes.
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity is highly related to the undesirable browning of wheat-based end products. In this study, wheat PPO sequences (mRNA) were searched/BLASTed in the NCBI database and aligned using DNAMAN software. The results showed that wheat PPO genes could be divided into two clusters (I and II) and that three genes (‘i’) of cluster II seemed not to be located on chromosomes 2A and 2D. Ninety-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected between two haplotypes of the PPO gene on chromosome 2D. Eighty of these were found in the coding region (coding (c) SNPs) and 36 were non-synonymous cSNPs, which could affect the PPO amino acid sequence. Primers (STS-H) were designed at some non-synonymous cSNPs sites and were used to investigate the correlations between allelic variants and PPO activity of seeds – a total of 130 common wheat varieties were evaluated in 2 years. The results showed that STS-H could amplify a 460 bp DNA fragment in most cultivars with high PPO activity, while no PCR product was detected in most cultivars with low PPO activity. To improve the selection efficiency of a single dominance molecular marker, the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system of STS-H and STS01 markers was also studied, based on the complementary between them.
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