Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-d8fc5 Total loading time: 0.485 Render date: 2021-09-18T05:32:29.338Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation: Part II. Developmental origins of newborn neurobehavior

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 May 2019

Brendan D. Ostlund
Department of Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Robert D. Vlisides-Henry
Department of Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Sheila E. Crowell
Department of Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
K. Lee Raby
Department of Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Sarah Terrell
Department of Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Mindy A. Brown
Department of Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Ruben Tinajero
Department of Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Nila Shakiba
Department of Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Catherine Monk
Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
Julie H. Shakib
Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Karen F. Buchi
Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Elisabeth Conradt*
Department of Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Author for Correspondence: Elisabeth Conradt, Department of Psychology, University of Utah, 380 South 1530 East, Behavioral Sciences 502, Salt Lake City, UT 84112; E-mail:


We investigated whether neurobehavioral markers of risk for emotion dysregulation were evident among newborns, as well as whether the identified markers were associated with prenatal exposure to maternal emotion dysregulation. Pregnant women (N = 162) reported on their emotion dysregulation prior to a laboratory assessment. The women were then invited to the laboratory to assess baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA in response to an infant cry. Newborns were assessed after birth via the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. We identified two newborn neurobehavioral factors—arousal and attention—via exploratory factor analysis. Low arousal was characterized by less irritability, excitability, and motor agitation, while low attention was related to a lower threshold for auditory and visual stimulation, less sustained attention, and poorer visual tracking abilities. Pregnant women who reported higher levels of emotion dysregulation had newborns with low arousal levels and less attention. Larger decreases in maternal RSA in response to cry were also related to lower newborn arousal. We provide the first evidence that a woman's emotion dysregulation while pregnant is associated with risks for dysregulation in her newborn. Implications for intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation are discussed.

Special Issue Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ablow, J. C., Marks, A. K., Feldman, S. S., & Huffman, L. C. (2013). Associations between first-time expectant women's representations of attachment and their physiological reactivity to infant cry. Child Development, 84, 13731391.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alder, P. J., Fink, N., Bitzer, J., Hösli, I., & Holzgreve, W. (2007). Depression and anxiety during pregnancy: A risk factor for obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcome? A critical review of the literature. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 20, 189209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amiel-Tison, C., Cabrol, D., Denver, R., Jarreau, P. H., Papiernik, E., & Piazza, P. V. (2004). Fetal adaptation to stress: Part I. Acceleration of fetal maturation and earlier birth triggered by placental insufficiency in humans. Early Human Development, 78, 1527.Google ScholarPubMed
Balzarotti, S., Biassoni, F., Colombo, B., & Ciceri, M. R. (2017). Cardiac vagal control as a marker of emotion regulation in healthy adults: A review. Biological Psychology, 130, 5466.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beauchaine, T. P. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray's motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beauchaine, T. P. (2015a). Future directions in emotion dysregulation and youth psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44, 875896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchaine, T. P. (2015b). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: A transdiagnostic biomarker of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. Current Opinion in Psychology, 3, 4347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchaine, T. P., & Crowell, S. E. (Eds.). (in press). Oxford handbook of emotion dysregulation. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchaine, T. P., Gatzke-Kopp, L., & Mead, H. K. (2007). Polyvagal theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74, 174184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchaine, T. P., & Thayer, J. F. (2015). Heart rate variability as a transdiagnostic biomarker of psychopathology. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98, 338350.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beauchaine, T. P., & Zisner, A. (2017). Motivation, emotion regulation, and the latent structure of psychopathology: An integrative and convergent historical perspective. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 117, 108111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bohlin, G., & Hagekull, B. (2009). Socio-emotional development: From infancy to young adulthood. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50, 592601.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boukydis, C. F. Z., Bigsby, R., & Lester, B. M. (2004). Clinical use of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale. Pediatrics, 113, 679689.Google ScholarPubMed
Braeken, M. A., Jones, A., Otte, R. A., Widjaja, D., Van Huffel, S., Monsieur, G. J., … Van den Bergh, B. R. H. (2015). Anxious women do not show the expected decrease in cardiovascular stress responsiveness as pregnancy advances. Biological Psychology, 111, 8389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christian, L. M. (2012). Psychoneuroimmunology in pregnancy: Immune pathways linking stress with maternal health, adverse birth outcomes, and fetal development. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 350361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D. (1984). The emergence of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6, 284290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cicchetti, D. (2008). A multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective on research in development and psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (pp. 2757). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D. (2016). Socioemotional, personality, and biological development: Illustrations from a multilevel developmental psychopathology perspective on child maltreatment. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 187211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, P. M., Hall, S. E., & Hajal, N. J. (2013). Emotion dysregulation as a risk factor for psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 341373). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Cole, P. M., Martin, S. E., & Dennis, T. A. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75, 317333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conradt, E., Adkins, D., Crowell, S., Raby, K. L., Diamond, L., & Ellis, B. (2018). Incorporating epigenetic mechanisms to advance fetal programming theories. Development and Psychopathology, 30, 807824.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conradt, E., Lester, B. M., Appleton, A. A., Armstrong, D. A., & Marsit, C. J. (2013). The roles of DNA methylation of NR3C1 and 11β-HSD2 and exposure to maternal mood disorder in utero on newborn neurobehavior. Epigenetics, 8, 13211329.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conradt, E., Sheinkopf, S. J., Lester, B. M., Tronick, E., LaGasse, L. L., Shankaran, S., … Hammond, J. A. (2013). Prenatal substance exposure: Neurobiologic organization at 1 month. Journal of Pediatrics, 163, 989994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crowell, S. E., Baucom, B. R., Yaptangco, M., Bride, D., Hsiao, R., McCauley, E., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2014). Emotion dysregulation and dyadic conflict in depressed and typical adolescents: Evaluating concordance across psychophysiological and observational measures. Biological Psychology, 98, 5058.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crowell, S. E., Puzia, M. E., & Yaptangco, M. (2015). The ontogeny of chronic distress: Emotion dysregulation across the life span and its implications for psychological and physical health. Current Opinion in Psychology, 3, 9199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crowell, S. E., Yaptangco, M., & Turner, S. L. (2016). Coercion, invalidation, and risk for self-injury and borderline personality traits. In Dishion, T. J. & Snyder, J. J. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of coercive relationship dynamics (pp. 182193). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
DeSantis, A., Harkins, D., Tronick, E., Kaplan, E., & Beeghly, M. (2011). Exploring an integrative model of infant behavior: What is the relationship among temperament, sensory processing, and neurobehavioral measures? Infant Behavior & Development, 34, 280292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Weerth, C., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2005). Physiological stress reactivity in human pregnancy—A review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 295312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DiPietro, J. A., Costigan, K. A., & Gurewitsch, E. D. (2003). Fetal response to induced maternal stress. Early Human Development, 74, 125138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DiPietro, J. A., Costigan, K. A., Nelson, P., Gurewitsch, E. D., & Laudenslager, M. L. (2008). Fetal responses to induced maternal relaxation during pregnancy. Biological Psychology, 77, 1119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DiPietro, J. A., Kivlighan, K. T., Costigan, K. A., Rubin, S. E., Shiffler, D. E., Henderson, J. L., & Pillion, J. P. (2010). Prenatal antecedents of newborn neurological maturation. Child Development, 81, 115130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doyle, C., & Cicchetti, D. (2018). Future directions in prenatal stress research: Challenges and opportunities related to advancing our understanding of prenatal developmental origins of risk for psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 30, 721724.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisenberg, N., Sadovsky, A., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Losoya, S. H., Valiente, C., … Shepard, S. A. (2005). The relations of problem behavior status to children's negative emotionality, effortful control, and impulsivity: Concurrent relations and prediction of change. Developmental Psychology, 41, 193211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Entringer, S., Buss, C., Shirtcliff, E. A., Cammack, A. L., Yim, I. S., Chicz-DeMet, A., … Wadhwa, P. D. (2010). Attenuation of maternal psychophysiological stress responses and the maternal cortisol awakening response over the course of human pregnancy. Stress, 13, 258268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernandez, K. C., Jazaieri, H., & Gross, J. J. (2016). Emotion regulation: A transdiagnostic perspective on a new RDoC domain. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40, 426440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C., Yando, R., & Bendell, D. (2003). Pregnancy anxiety and comorbid depression and anger: Effects on the fetus and neonate. Depression and Anxiety, 17, 140151.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Figueiredo, B., Pinto, T. M., Pacheco, A., & Field, T. (2017). Fetal heart rate variability mediates prenatal depression effects on neonatal neurobehavioral maturity. Biological Psychology, 123, 294301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gartstein, M. A., Putnam, S. P., & Rothbart, M. K. (2012). Etiology of preschool behavior problems: Contributions of temperament attributes in early childhood. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 197211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glover, V. (2014). Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome; what needs to be done. Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 28, 2535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gluckman, P. D., & Hanson, M. A. (2004). Maternal constraint of fetal growth and its consequences. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 9, 419425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gluckman, P. D., Hanson, M. A., Cooper, C., & Thornburg, K. L. (2008). Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 359, 6173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glynn, L. M., Dunkel Schetter, C., Hobel, C. J., & Sandman, C. A. (2008). Pattern of perceived stress and anxiety in pregnancy predicts preterm birth. Health Psychology, 27, 4351.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graignic-Philippe, R., Dayan, J., Chokron, S., Jacquet, A. Y., & Tordjman, S. (2014). Effects of prenatal stress on fetal and child development: A critical literature review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 43, 137162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 4154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallgren, K. A. (2012). Computing inter-rater reliability for observational data: An overview and tutorial. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 8, 2334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ham, J., & Tronick, E. Z. (2006). Infant resilience to the stress of the still-face and reunion: Infant and maternal psychophysiology are related. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 297302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hammen, C. (2005). Stress and depression. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 293319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hammen, C., Adrian, C., Gordon, D., Burge, D., Jaenicke, C., & Hiroto, D. (1987). Children of depressed mothers: Maternal strain and symptom predictors of dysfunction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 190198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herbell, K. (in press). Identifying psychophysiological stress targets for the promotion of mental health in pregnant women. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing.Google Scholar
Herts, K. L., McLaughlin, K. A., & Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2012). Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking stress exposure to adolescent aggressive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 11111122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill-Soderlund, A. L., Mills-Koonce, W. R., Propper, C., Calkins, S. D., Granger, D. A., Moore, G. A., … Cox, M. A. (2008). Parasympathetic and sympathetic responses to the strange situation in infants and mothers from avoidant and securely attached dyads. Developmental Psychobiology, 50, 361376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinshaw, S. P. (2017). Developmental psychopathology as a scientific discipline. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (3rd ed., pp. 332). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Insel, T., Cuthbert, B., Garvey, M., Heinssen, R., Pine, D., Quinn, K., … Wang, P. (2010). Research domain criteria (RDoC): Toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry Online, 167, 748751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, M. H., Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (1991). Components of visual orienting in early infancy: Contingency learning, anticipatory looking, and disengaging. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 3, 335344.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kinsella, M. T., & Monk, C. (2009). Impact of maternal stress, depression and anxiety on fetal neurobehavioral development. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 52, 425440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K. M., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). The “Trier Social Stress Test”–A tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28, 7681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klinkenberg, A. V., Nater, U. M., Nierop, A., Bratsikas, A., Zimmermann, R., & Ehlert, U. (2009). Heart rate variability changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women during standardized psychosocial stress. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 88, 7782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Law, K. L., Stroud, L. R., LaGasse, L. L., Niaura, R., Liu, J., & Lester, B. M. (2003). Smoking during pregnancy and newborn neurobehavior. Pediatrics, 111, 13181323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lester, B. M., Bagner, D. M., Liu, J., LaGasse, L. L., Seifer, R., Bauer, C. R., … Das, A. (2009). Infant neurobehavioral dysregulation: Behavior problems in children with prenatal substance exposure. Pediatrics, 124, 13551362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lester, B. M., Miller, R. J., Hawes, K., Salisbury, A., Bigsby, R., Sullivan, M. C., & Padbury, J. F. (2011). Infant neurobehavioral development. Seminars in Perinatology, 35, 819.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lester, B. M., & Tronick, E. Z. (2004). History and description of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale. Pediatrics, 113, 634640.Google ScholarPubMed
Lester, B. M., Tronick, E. Z., & Brazelton, T. B. (2004). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale procedures. Pediatrics, 113, 641667.Google ScholarPubMed
Lester, B. M., Tronick, E. Z., LaGasse, L., Seifer, R., Bauer, C. R., Shankaran, S., … Finnegan, L. P. (2002). The maternal lifestyle study: Effects of substance exposure during pregnancy on neurodevelopmental outcome in 1-month-old infants. Pediatrics, 110, 11821192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, J., Bann, C., Lester, B., Tronick, E., Das, A., Lagasse, L., … Bada, H. (2010). Neonatal neurobehavior predicts medical and behavioral outcome. Pediatrics, 125, e90e98.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lucas, A., Fewtrell, M. S., & Cole, T. J. (1999). Fetal origins of adult disease—The hypothesis revisited. British Medical Journal, 319, 245249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matthews, K. A., & Rodin, J. (1992). Pregnancy alters blood pressure responses to psychological and physical challenge. Psychophysiology, 29, 232240.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGraw, K. O., & Wong, S. P. (1996). Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients. Psychological Methods, 1, 3046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Mennin, D. S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: A prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 544554.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Monk, C., Fifer, W. P., Myers, M. M., Sloan, R. P., Trien, L., & Hurtado, A. (2000). Maternal stress responses and anxiety during pregnancy: Effects on fetal heart rate. Developmental Psychobiology, 36, 6777.3.0.CO;2-C>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Monk, C., & Hane, A. A. (2016). Fetal and infant neurobehavioral development: Basic processes and environmental influences. In Wenzel, A. (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of perinatal psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Monk, C., Lugo-Candelas, C., & Trumpff, C. (in press). Prenatal developmental origins of future psychopathology: Mechanisms and pathways. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology.Google Scholar
Monk, C., Myers, M. M., Sloan, R. P., Ellman, L. M., & Fifer, W. P. (2003). Effects of women's stress-elirefd physiological activity and chronic anxiety on fetal heart rate. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 24, 3238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Monk, C., Spicer, J., & Champagne, F. A. (2012). Linking prenatal maternal adversity to developmental outcomes in infants: The role of epigenetic pathways. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 13611376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Monroe, S. M. (2008). Modern approaches to conceptualizing and measuring human life stress. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 3352.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, G. A., Hill-Soderlund, A. L., Propper, C. B., Calkins, S. D., Mills-Koonce, W. R., & Cox, M. A. (2009). Mother-infant vagal regulation in the face-to-face still-face paradigm is moderated by maternal sensitivity. Child Development, 80, 209223.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2017). Mplus statistical software, Version 8.0. Los Angeles: Author.Google Scholar
Napiorkowski, B., Lester, B. M., Freier, M. C., Brunner, S., Dietz, L., Nadra, A., & Oh, W. (1996). Effects of in utero substance exposure on infant neurobehavior. Pediatrics, 98, 7175.Google ScholarPubMed
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2018). Research Domain Criteria (RDoC): Developmental and environmental aspects. Retrieved from Scholar
O'Connor, T. G., Monk, C., & Fitelson, E. M. (2014). Practitioner review: Maternal mood in pregnancy and child development—Implications for child psychology and psychiatry. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 99111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Donnell, K. J., Glover, V., Barker, E. D., & O'Connor, T. G. (2014). The persisting effect of maternal mood in pregnancy on childhood psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 393403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Donnell, K. J., Glover, V., Jenkins, J., Browne, D., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Golding, J., & O'Connor, T. G. (2013). Prenatal maternal mood is associated with altered diurnal cortisol in adolescence. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 16301638.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Donnell, K., O'Connor, T. G., & Glover, V. (2009). Prenatal stress and neurodevelopment of the child: Focus on the HPA axis and role of the placenta. Developmental Neuroscience, 31, 285292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Porges, S. W. (2007). The polyvagal perspective. Biological Psychology, 74, 116143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Posner, J., Cha, J., Roy, A. K., Peterson, B. S., Bansal, R., Gustafsson, H. C., … Monk, C. (2016). Alterations in amygdala-prefrontal circuits in infants exposed to prenatal maternal depression. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e935.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Posner, M. (2012). Attentional networks and consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 6467.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2009). Toward a physical basis of attention and self-regulation. Physics of Life Reviews, 6, 103120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rakers, F., Rupprecht, S., Dreiling, M., Bergmeier, C., Witte, O. W., & Schwab, M. (in press). Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review.Google Scholar
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Hershey, K. L. (1994). Temperament and social behavior in childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40, 2139.Google Scholar
Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament in children's development. In Damon, W., Lerner, R., & Eisenberg, N. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (Vol. 3, 6th ed., pp. 99166). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Rothbart, M. K., Derryberry, D., & Posner, M. I. (1994). A psychobiological approach to the development of temperament. In Bates, J. E. & Wachs, T. D. (Eds.), Temperament: Individual differences at the interface of biology and behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., Rueda, M. R., & Posner, M. I. (2011). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation in early life. Emotion Review, 3, 207213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rudolph, K. D., Hammen, C., Burge, D., Lindberg, N., Herzberg, D., & Daley, S. E. (2000). Toward an interpersonal life-stress model of depression: The developmental context of stress generation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 215234.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salisbury, A. L., Fallone, M. D., & Lester, B. (2005). Neurobehavioral assessment from fetus to infant: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale and the Fetal Neurobehavior Coding Scale. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11, 1420.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salisbury, A. L., Lester, B. M., Seifer, R., LaGasse, L., Bauer, C. R., Shankaran, S., … Poole, K. (2007). Prenatal cocaine use and maternal depression: Effects on infant neurobehavior. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 29, 331340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sandman, C. A., Davis, E. P., Buss, C., & Glynn, L. M. (2012). Exposure to prenatal psychobiological stress exerts programming influences on the mother and her fetus. Neuroendocrinology, 95, 821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheinkopf, S. J., Lester, B. M., LaGasse, L. L., Seifer, R., Bauer, C. R., Shankaran, S., … Wright, L. L. (2006). Interactions between maternal characteristics and neonatal behavior in the prediction of parenting stress and perception of infant temperament. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 2740.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shiner, R. L., Buss, K. A., McClowry, S. G., Putnam, S. P., Saudino, K. J., & Zentner, M. (2012). What is temperament now? Assessing progress in temperament research on the twenty-fifth anniversary of Goldsmith et al. (1987). Child Development Perspectives, 6, 436444.Google Scholar
Stein, A., Pearson, R. M., Goodman, S. H., Rapa, E., Rahman, A., McCallum, M., … Pariante, C. M. (2014). Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. Lancet, 384, 18001819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stephens, B. E., Liu, J., Lester, B., Lagasse, L., Shankaran, S., Bada, H., … Higgins, R. (2010). Neurobehavioral assessment predicts motor outcome in preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 156, 366371.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stroud, L. R., Paster, R. L., Papandonatos, G. D., Niaura, R., Salisbury, A. L., Battle, C., … Lester, B. (2009). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and newborn neurobehavior: Effects at 10 to 27 days. Journal of Pediatrics, 154, 1016.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sucharew, H., Khoury, J. C., Xu, Y., Succop, P., & Yolton, K. (2012). NICU Network Neurobehavioral profiles predict developmental outcomes in a low-risk sample. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 26, 344352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, R. A. (1993). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 2552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van den Bergh, B. R. H., Mulder, E. J. H., Mennes, M., & Glover, V. (2005). Antenatal maternal anxiety and stress and the neurobehavioural development of the fetus and child: Links and possible mechanisms. A review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 237258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van den Bergh, B. R. H., van den Heuvel, M. I., Lahti, M., Braeken, M. A. K. A., de Rooij, S., Entringer, S., … Schwab, M. (2017). Prenatal developmental origins of behavior and mental health: The influence of maternal stress in pregnancy. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wadhwa, P. D., Buss, C., Entringer, S., & Swanson, J. M. (2009). Developmental origins of health and disease: Brief history of the approach and current focus on epigenetic mechanisms. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 27, 358368.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation: Part II. Developmental origins of newborn neurobehavior
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation: Part II. Developmental origins of newborn neurobehavior
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation: Part II. Developmental origins of newborn neurobehavior
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *