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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the unemployment experience and depressive symptoms among mid-aged (ages 45–59) and elderly (ages 60 or above) persons and to examine further the effects of unemployment insurance, industrial accident compensation insurance (IACI) and national pension on the stated relationship. Data were used from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) between 2006 and 2012. A total of 1,536 individuals employed at the 2006 baseline were followed. The association between employment status change during 2006 to 2008, 2008 to 2010 or 2010 to 2012 and depressive symptoms in years 2008, 2010 or 2012 were analysed using a generalised estimating equation model. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10) scale. The results showed that the ‘employed to unemployed’ group had statistically significant increases in depression scores in the mid-aged (β = 0.4884, p = 0.0038) and elderly (β = 0.8275, p ⩽ 0.0001) categories, compared to the ‘employed to employed’ group. Findings were maintained in groups without a social safety net. Contrastingly, the ‘employed to unemployed’ groups with unemployment insurance and IACI did not show statistically significant increases in depression scores. The ‘employed to unemployed’ category of individuals enrolled in the national pension system exhibited a lower increase of depression. Therefore, an enhanced focus on the mental health of unemployed individuals is required, in addition to the provision of a reliable social safety net.
In this paper, the electrical properties of bottom-gate (BG) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) by NiSi2 seed-induced lateral crystallization (SILC) and its applications are presented. Sequential lateral solidification (SLS), which is one of crystallization methods, is known to have poor electrical properties of TFTs with BG structures due to problems induced by laser. Therefore, the laser method cannot be used to well-developed production line of amorphous-Si (a-Si) TFT, resulting in large initial investment cost to change fabrication procedures. On the other hand, the BG poly-Si TFT by SILC (SILC-BGPS TFT) has basically compatible process flows with that of the a-Si TFT. The SILC-BGPS TFT exhibited threshold voltage of -3.9 V, steep subthreshold slope of 130 mV/dec, a high field-effect mobility of 129 cm2/Vs , and Ion/Ioff ratio of ∼106.
The YSTAR program is a general sky survey looking for variability. The main equipments are three 0.5-m telescopes. These telescopes have fast F/2 optics covering nearly 3.5 square degree field onto a 2K CCD. They also have very fast slew capability, which exceeds 10 degrees per second. These two factors make them most suitable for rapid target acquisition and wide-field surveys of various kinds. Our primary objective is to identify and monitor variable stars down to 18th R-magnitude, and our observing mode allows the same data set to be also useful in identifying asteroids. Our first telescope has just begun regular automated operation, and the second telescope will be installed in South Africa within this year to provide coverage of the southern sky.
In 2000, Korea Astronomy Observatory launched the Near-Earth Object Patrol (NEOPAT) program. NEOPAT has conducted follow-up observations of NEOCP (NEO Confirmation Page) objects and discovered 52 new main-belt asteroids during the observation runs. We initiated collaboration with the Yonsei Survey Telescopes for Astronomical Research (YSTAR) team for NEO search. Wide-field of view, fast read-out time, and fully autonomous data pipeline will enable us to detect and track NEOs with a high efficiency. Scheduled to begin active operations in mid-2001, our survey system is going to be the first network of robotic telescopes for NEO search with automatic access to both hemispheres.
Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of 99.9999% aluminum single crystal at room temperature was examined under frictionless deformation mode. To exclude the self-heating of the specimen due to applied high strain, a microcrack that localizes the stress at a very small region was intentionally introduced by controlled local necking. For the in situ observation of DRX, a specially designed in situ microdeformation device was positioned inside an electron backscattered diffraction system chamber. Recrystallized grains showed relatively random texture and preferred growth direction. The subgrains with low-angle grain boundaries formed by dynamic recovery transformed into small grains with high-angle grain boundaries, acting as nuclei for discontinuous dynamic recrystallization and growing by further deformation. The DRX in pure aluminum can take place under frictionless tensile deformation conditions at room temperature, and the stress localization and high purity are key issues for the DRX of aluminum at room temperature.
As one of the most important force production mechanisms of swimming and flying animals, the fluid dynamics of flapping has been intensively studied. However, these efforts have been mainly directed toward animals in forward motion or locomotive appendages undergoing linear translation. Here we seek to complement the existing knowledge of the flapping mechanism by studying angularly reciprocating flat plates without a free stream velocity, under a so-called ‘bollard pull’ condition. We visualize the flow field around the flat plate to find that two independent vortical structures are formed per half-cycle, resulting in the separation of two distinct vortex pairs at sharp edges rather than a single vortex loop which is typical of a starting–stopping vortex paradigm in flows with free streams. Based on our observations, we derive a scaling law to predict the thrust of the flapping plate; this is the first experimentally validated theoretical model for the thrust of angularly reciprocating plates without a prescribed background flow.
Geochemical characteristics of marine sediment from the southern Drake Passage were analyzed to reconstruct variations in sediment provenance and transport paths during the late Quaternary. The 5.95 m gravity core used in this study records paleoenvironmental changes during the last approximately 600 ka. Down-core variations in trace element, rare earth element, and Nd and Sr isotopic compositions reveal that sediment provenance varied according to glacial cycles. During glacial periods, detrital sediments in the southern Drake Passage were mostly derived from the nearby South Shetland Islands and shelf sediments. In contrast, interglacial sediments are composed of mixed sediments, derived from both West Antarctica and East Antarctica. The East Antarctic provenance of the interglacial sediments was inferred to be the Weddell Sea region. Sediment input from the Weddell Sea was reduced during glacial periods by extensive ice sheets and weakened current from the Weddell Sea. Sediment supply from the Weddell Sea increased during interglacial periods, especially those with higher warmth such as MIS 5, 9, and 11. This suggests that the influence of deep water from the Weddell Sea increases during interglacial periods and decreases during glacial periods, with the degree of influence increasing as interglacial intensity increases.
Fluorescent dyes including Nile Red (NR), fluorescein, rhodamine and 4- (dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) derivatives were investigated to find an application for the organic light emitting device (OLED). Relationship between the molecular structure and optical property was calculated by ab initio (HF and DFT/6-31G*) and semiempirical (AM1/PM3 and INDO/S) calculation methods for the geometry optimization and for the information of electronic transition, respectively. The absorption maximum and the oscillator strength of molecules strongly depended on the molecular dipole moment, especially for the molecules having both strong electron donor and acceptor group. Since the calculated results were comparable with several experimental results, these semiempirical molecular orbital calculation methods could be used as a powerful prediction tool for optical properties of the luminescent molecules.
In this report, excimer laser annealed polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films on flexible polymer substrates are investigated. The amorphous silicon (a-Si) films were first deposited on polycarbonate (PC) and polyethersulfone (PES) substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputter and sequentially annealed by XeCl excimer laser annealing system (λ = 308 nm). The argon concentration of a-Si films which was estimated by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was found to be dependent on the dynamic pressure during the deposition process and the sputtering gas. Typically, the argon concentration of a-Si film was 1 ∼ 2% when the film was deposited using argon gas at 6 mTorr. After the annealing process, the average grain size of the poly-Si film annealed with laser energy density of 289 mJ/cm2 was 400 nm estimated from transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations.
In this study, the quality of thin film diode (TFD) as a switching device for active-matrix liquid-crystal-displays (AM-LCDs) was enhanced by low temperature annealing conditions with high reliability and good electrical properties. Device was composed with Ta as bottom electrode, anodic Ta2O5 as insulator layer and top electrode. Two types of material such as Ti and Cr were evaluated as a top electrode of the TFD device to optimize the symmetry of current-voltage characteristic curve, respectively. The annealing was done at low temperature conditions below 350°C. The low temperature annealing improved the TFD device with nearly perfect symmetry under high electric field.
The stability of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) has become one of the most vital issues in this area of research. In this report, we investigated the stability of rubber stamp printed OTFTs. The electrical properties such as saturation field effect mobility, threshold voltage and on/off current ratio change significantly in ambient air condition. In order to analyze the degradation of the device, transistors were measured in vacuum, dry N2 and air environment as a function of time. In vacuum and dry N2 atmosphere, saturation field effect mobility and threshold voltage variations are relatively small compared to those measured in ambient condition.
To realize an air stable device, we applied a passivation layer which protects the device from oxygen or water molecules which is believed to be the source of the degradation. With the passivation layer, the threshold voltage shift was reduced suggesting that a proper passivation layer is a prerequisite in organic-based electronics.
This paper presents the experimental results of selective Si epitaxial growth from 650 °C to 700 °C on (100) silicon wafers with oxide patterns using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition with the SiH4-HCl-H2 gas system. In addition, an HCl etching process is introduced and the conditions of the deposition and etching processes are addressed to sustain the selectivity. As a result, we noted that the addition of HCl serves not only to reduce the growth rate on bare Si, but also to suppress the nucleation on SiO2. In these experiments it has been also observed that the Si layer was grown to 3 nm while sustaining the selectivity. Moreover, further introduction of the HCl etching process following the deposition allowed a 50 nm-thick film to sustain the selectivity for twenty periods.
The morphology evolution of thin films was studied by molecular dynamics simulation. In this simulation four deposition and substrate elements combinations were used: Al on Al(001), Al on Co(001), Co on Co(001), Co on Al(001). The Al thin film was always grown by layer-bylayer mode regardless of substrates used. On the other hand, thin films formed by Co deposition depended on substrates used.While Co thin films on the Co substrates were grown by the island mode, a 3 monolayer (ML) thickness of CoAl surface compound was initially formed on Al substrate, before pure Co thin film growth occurred. In addition to the study on morphologies, the degrees of mixing of atoms in the interface were studied quantitatively. No surface mixing and a sharp interface were observed when Co was used as a substrate regardless of deposited atoms. On the contrary, a large amount of surface mixing or compound formation was observed when Al was used as a substrate.
High performance poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin film transistors (TFTs) array was fabricated on a polycarbonate substrate by micro-contact printing method. A thin polyimide layer (40 nm) was applied before silicon oxide deposition to improve the electrical properties of the TFT device. Also, the effects of O2 plasma treatment on the field effect mobility and output current behaviors of the devices were investigated. By plasma treatment, the surface roughness of gate dielectric was improved which accounts for the increased field effect mobility and the hole Schottky barrier height in electrode/semiconductor interface was lowered resulting in large drain current in the device. Based on the experiments, we fabricated P3HT TFTs array with 0.025 cm2/V·s in saturation field effect mobility and on/off current ratio of 103 ∼ 104 on a polycarbonate substrate.
As the ultra-violet/blue luminescent material, we will introduce the thermal treated cerium oxide on silicon. It has been confirmed a violet/blue luminescence ranging from 358 rim to 450 rnm at room temperature from the thermally treated cerium-dioxide thin films on silicon. As a results of AES and HR-TEM measurement, it was confirmed that cerium silicates were generated by thermal treatment. These cerium silicates such as Ce4.667(SiO4)3O and Ce2Si2O7 are the source of the ultra-violet (UV) emission ranging from 358 nim to 450 nm (maximum at 388 rim).
A stress-driven formation of self-assembled InGaAs islands has been studied by the growth on GaAs (100) substrates with sub-micron platinum stripe pattern. Islands or quantum dots preferentially nucleate at the boundary of metal patterns. In addition, a quantum dot-free region near the boundary of the metal pattern is found. Those results are attributed to the stress between metal stripe and GaAs surface, which produces a laterally stressed region around the metal stripe. Adatoms on this region preferentially migrate toward the edge of metal stripes with maximum stress. This result may show a possible way for the interconnection between randomly distributed self-assembled quantum dots and metal stripes.
The structural properties of GaN epitaxial layers grown on patterned sapphire substrates by MOCVD have been investigated using HRXRD(high-resolution X-ray diffraction), GIXRD(grazing incidence X-ray diffraction) and PL(photoluminescence). For X-ray characterizations rocking curves for GaN (10·5), (00·2), (11·4) and (11·0) reflections for which incidence angles of X-rays are 32.0°, 17.3°, 11.0° and 0.34°, respectively, were measured. For (10·5), (00·2) and (11·4) reflections FWHMs of the rocking curves for a patterned substrate were broader than those for a unpatterned substrate, for (11·0) reflection, however, FWHM for a patterned substrate was much narrower than that for a unpatterned substrate. The normalized FWHM for all reflections decreases as the incidence angle of X-ray decreases. The results indicate that the crystalline quality in the surface region of the epilayer on a patterned substrate was especially improved because the penetration depth of X-ray depends on the incidence angle. The intensity of PL peak of the epilayer for a patterned substrate increased compared to that for a unpatterned substrate, and the increase in PL intensity is attributed to the reduction in dislocation density at the surface region revealed the by X-ray results.
III-nitride films were grown on the corrugated interface substrate using a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system to increase the optical power of white LEDs. The patterning of a substrate for enhancing the extraction efficiency was processed using an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching system and the surface morphology of the etched sapphire wafer and that of the non-etched one were investigated using an atomic force microscope. The structural and optical properties of GaN on CIS were characterized by a high-resolution x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, AFM and photoluminescence. The roughness of the etched sapphire wafer was higher than that of the non-etched one. The GaN layer didn't grow locally over the surface of the cone shape pattern. The reason is that (0001) c-plane which is favor for GaN growth doesn't exist on the cone shape patterned region. The lateral growth of the GaN layer that was initially grown on the (0001) c-plane among pattern regions, was enhanced by raising the growth temperature and lowering the reactor pressure, resulting in the smooth surface over the pattern region. The (102) FWHM of GaN layer on the patterned substrate was better than that of GaN on the conventional substrate and no defect was detected at the interface of the cone shape pattern. The optical power of the LED on the patterned substrate was 20% higher than that on the conventional substrate due to the increased extraction efficiency.
The effects of the isoelectronic Al-doping of GaN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition were investigated for the first time using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Hall measurements, photoluminescence (PL), and time-resolved PL. When a certain amount of Al was incorporated into the GaN films, the room temperature photoluminescence intensity of the films was approximately two orders larger than that of the undoped GaN. More importantly, the electron mobility significantly increased from 130 for the undoped sample to 500 cm2/Vs for the sample grown at a TMAl flow rate of 10 νmol/min, while the unintentional background concentration only increased slightly relative to the TMAl flow. The incorporation of Al as an isoelectronic dopant into GaN was easy during MOCVD growth and significantly improved the optical and electrical properties of the film. This was believed to result from a reduction in the dislocation-related non-radiative recombination centers or certain other defects due to the isoelectronic Al-doping.