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The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) measures three aspects of catastrophic cognitions about pain—rumination, magnification, and helplessness. To facilitate assessment and clinical application, we aimed to (a) develop a short version on the basis of its factorial structure and the items’ correlations with key pain-related outcomes, and (b) identify the threshold on the short form indicative of risk for depression.
Social centers for older people.
664 Chinese older adults with chronic pain.
Besides the PCS, pain intensity, pain disability, and depressive symptoms were assessed.
For the full scale, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the hypothesized 3-factor model fit the data moderately well. On the basis of the factor loadings, two items were selected from each of the three dimensions. An additional item significantly associated with pain disability and depressive symptoms, over and above these six items, was identified through regression analyses. A short-PCS composed of seven items was formed, which correlated at r=0.97 with the full scale. Subsequently, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted against clinically significant depressive symptoms, defined as a score of ≥12 on a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. This analysis showed a score of ≥7 to be the optimal cutoff for the short-PCS, with sensitivity = 81.6% and specificity = 78.3% when predicting clinically significant depressive symptoms.
The short-PCS may be used in lieu of the full scale and as a brief screen to identify individuals with serious catastrophizing.
Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Pythium aphanidermatum Edson cause cabbage seedling damping-off, resulting in severe yield losses. The current study demonstrates the production of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by two strains of Bacillus mycoides and the evaluation of a potential use of B. mycoides as a biocontrol agent to control cabbage damping-off. Two VOCs, dimethyl disulphide and ammonia, were found to reduce radial growth, cause hyphal deformation and result in organelle degeneration in both R. solani and P. aphanidermatum. Pathogen hyphae, after being exposed to VOCs, showed poor rigidity, shrinkage, curling and swelling. The amount of VOCs produced by B. mycoides and the antagonistic activity against plant pathogens varied, depending on the type of medium used to culture bacteria. Application of B. mycoides cell suspensions to cultivation medium promotes growth of five different plant species tested. Experiments conducted in greenhouses revealed that B. mycoides did not reduce damping-off incidence caused by R. solani. However, B. mycoides reduced damping-off incidence induced by P. aphanidermatum by as much as 45% on cabbage seedlings. The results provide valuable information on the feasibility of utilizing B. mycoides as a biocontrol agent in controlling cabbage damping-off.
Holstein-Friesian steer beef production is renowned globally as a secondary product of the milk industry. Grass feeding is a common practice in raising Holstein steers because of its low cost. Furthermore, grass feeding is an alternative way to produce beef with a balanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ratio. However, the performance and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian cattle is more likely to depend on a high-quality diet. The aim of this study was to observe whether feeding two mixed diets; a corn-based total mixed ration (TMR) with winter ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets with reed canary grass haylage (n-3 mix) provided benefits on carcass weight, meat quality and FA composition compared with cattle fed with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) haylage alone. In all, 15 21-month-old Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to three group pens, were allowed free access to water and were fed different experimental diets for 150 days. Blood samples were taken a week before slaughter. Carcass weight and meat quality were evaluated after slaughter. Plasma lipid levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined. Diet did not affect plasma triglyceride levels and GGT activity. Plasma cholesterol levels, including low-density and high-density lipoproteins, were higher in both mixed-diet groups than in the haylae group. The highest activities of plasma AST, CK and ALP were observed in the haylage group, followed by n-3 mix and TMR groups, respectively. Carcass weight was lower in the haylage group than in the other groups and no differences were found between the TMR and n-3 mix groups. Although the n-3 mix-fed and haylage-fed beef provided lower n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio than TMR-fed beef, the roasted beef obtained from the TMR group was more acceptable with better overall meat physicochemical properties and sensory scores. According to daily cost, carcass weight and n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio, the finishing diet containing flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets and reed canary grass haylage at the as-fed ratio of 40 : 60 could be beneficial for the production of n-3-enriched beef.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Despite evidence on the short-term benefits of early intervention (EI) service for psychosis, long-term outcome studies are limited by inconsistent results. This study examined the 10-year outcomes of patients with first-episode psychosis who received 2-year territory-wide EI service compared to those who received standard care (SC) in Hong Kong using an historical control design.
Consecutive patients who received the EI service between 1 July 2001 and 30 June 2002, and with diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, were identified and matched with patients who received SC first presented to the public psychiatric service from 1 July 2000 to 30 June 2001. In total, 148 matched pairs of patients were identified. Cross-sectional information on symptomatology and functioning was obtained through semi-structured interview; longitudinal information on hospitalization, functioning, suicide attempts, mortality and relapse over 10 years was obtained from clinical database. There were 70.3% (N = 104) of SC and 74.3% (N = 110) of EI patients interviewed.
Results suggested that EI patients had reduced suicide rate (χ2(1) = 4.35, p = 0.037), fewer number [odds ratio (OR) 1.56, χ2 = 15.64, p < 0.0001] and shorter duration of hospitalization (OR 1.29, χ2 = 4.06, p = 0.04), longer employment periods (OR −0.28, χ2 = 14.64, p < 0.0001) and fewer suicide attempts (χ2 = 11.47, df = 1, p = 0.001) over 10 years. At 10 years, no difference was found in psychotic symptoms, symptomatic remission and functional recovery.
The short-term benefits of the EI service on number of hospitalizations and employment was sustained after service termination, but the differences narrowed down. This suggests the need to evaluate the optimal duration of the EI service.
Alcohol consumption is a possible co-factor of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) persistence, a major step in cervical carcinogenesis, but the association between alcohol and continuous HPV infection remains unclear. This prospective study identified the association between alcohol consumption and HR-HPV persistence. Overall, 9230 women who underwent screening during 2002–2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea were analysed in multivariate logistic regression. Current drinkers [odds ratio (OR) 2·49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·32–4·71] and drinkers for ⩾5 years (OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·17–4·63) had a higher risk of 2-year HR-HPV persistence (HPV positivity for 3 consecutive years) than non-drinkers and drinkers for <5 years, respectively (vs. HPV negativity for 3 consecutive years). A high drinking frequency (⩾twice/week) and a high beer intake (⩾3 glasses/occasion) had higher risks of 1-year (OR 1·80, 95% CI 1·01–3·36) HPV positivity for 2 consecutive years) and 2-year HR-HPV persistence (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·35–9·75) than non-drinkers. Of the HPV-positive subjects enrolled, drinking habit (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·10–6·51) and high consumption of beer or soju (⩾2 glasses/occasion; OR 2·90, 95% CI 1·06–7·98) increased the risk of 2-year consecutive or alternate HR-HPV positivity (vs. consecutive HPV negativity). These findings suggest that alcohol consumption might increase the risk of cervical HR-HPV persistence in Korean women.
This multicentre surveillance study was conducted to investigate the trends in incidence and aetiology of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HCA-BSIs) in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2011 a total of 56 830 HCA-BSIs were recorded at three medical centres, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the most common pathogens isolated (n = 9465, 16·7%), followed by E. coli (n = 7599, 13·4%). The incidence of all HCA-BSIs in each and all hospitals significantly increased over the study period owing to the increase of aerobic Gram-positive cocci and Enterobacteriaceae by 4·2% and 3·6%, respectively. Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, Bacteroides spp. and Candida spp. also showed an increase but there was a significant decline in the numbers of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. In conclusion, the incidence of HCA-BSIs in Taiwan is significantly increasing, especially for Enterobacteriaceae and aerobic Gram-positive cocci.
We present ultraviolet (UV) properties of dwarf galaxies in the Fornax and Ursa Major clusters in comparison with the Virgo cluster. Most of the dwarf galaxies in the Fornax cluster show red UV colors which is consistent with that the Fornax is dynamically evolved cluster with large fraction of early-type galaxies. Meanwhile, majority of dwarf galaxies of Ursa Major cluster are late-type with blue UV colors, indicating prevalence of strong star formation activities in the low density environment.
Background: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) offers information on the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gives a profile of cognitive functioning. This study explores the effects of age, education and gender on participants' performance on eight subtests in the Chinese-Cantonese version of the CERAD-NAB.
Methods: The original English version of the CERAD-NAB was translated and content-validated into a Chinese-Cantonese version to suit the Hong Kong Chinese population. The battery was administered to 187 healthy volunteers aged 60 to 94 years. Participants were excluded if they had neurological, medical or psychiatric disorders (including dementia). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relative contribution of the demographic variables to the scores on each subtest.
Results: The Cantonese version of CERAD-NAB was shown to have good content validity and excellent inter-rater reliability. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that performances on seven and four out of eight subtests in the CERAD-NAB were significantly influenced by education level and age, respectively. Age and education had significant effects on participants' performance on many tests. Gender also showed a significant effect on one subtest.
Conclusions: The preliminary data will serve as an initial phase for clinical interpretation of the CERAD-NAB for Cantonese-speaking Chinese elders.
This paper describes the development of a nitrogen-based passivation technique for interface states near the conduction band edge [Dit(Ec)] in 4H-SiC/SiO2. These states have been observed and characterized in several laboratories for n- and p-SiC since their existence was first proposed by Schorner, et al. . The origin of these states remains a point of discussion, but there is now general agreement that these states are largely responsible for the lower channel mobilities that are reported for n-channel, inversion mode 4H-SiC MOSFETs. Over the past year, much attention has been focused on finding methods by which these states can be passivated. The nitrogen passivation process that is described herein is based on post-oxidation, high temperature anneals in nitric oxide. An NO anneal at atmospheric pressure, 1175°C and 200–400sccm for 2hr reduces the interface state density at Ec-E ≅0.1eV in n-4H-SiC by more than one order of magnitude - from > 3×1013 to approximately 2×1012cm−2eV−1. Measurements for passivated MOSFETs yield effective channel mobilities of approximately 30–35cm2/V-s and low field mobilities of around 100cm2/V-s. These mobilities are the highest yet reported for MOSFETs fabricated with thermal oxides on standard 4H-SiC and represent a significant improvement compared to the single digit mobilities commonly reported for 4H inversion mode devices. The reduction in the interface state density is associated with the passivation of carbon cluster states that have energies near the conduction band edge. However, attempts to optimize the the passivation process for both dry and wet thermal oxides do not appear to reduce Dit(Ec) below about 2×1012cm−2eV−1 (compared to approximately 1010cm−2eV−1 for passivated Si/SiO2). This may be an indication that two types of interface states exist in the upper half of the SiC band gap – one type that is amenable to passivation by nitrogen and one that is not. Following NO passivation, the average breakdown field for dry oxides on p-4H-SiC is higher than the average field for wet oxides (7.6MV/cm compared to 7.1MV/cm at room temperature). However, both breakdown fields are lower than the average value of 8.2MV/cm measured for wet oxide layers that were not passivated. The lower breakdown fields can be attributed to donor-like states that appear near the valence band edge during passivation.
Multilayer Ge/Si quantum wells grown on Si(100) at lower temperatures (300 C for Ge and 435 C for Si) exhibit unexpected large surface undulations. These groove-like features along <110> directions are correlated to the underlying dislocation networks. Studies on the dependence of surface roughness versus Ge spacer thickness exclude kinetic limitation as the cause of the observed troughs. Further comparison of the surfaces for multilayer and single-layer samples indicates a combination of the multilayer structure and the inhomogeneous surface strain field greatly enhances the undulations.
A new structure of triode type field emission displays based on single-walled carbon nanotube emitters is demonstrated. In this structure, gate electrodes are situated under cathode electrodes with an in-between insulating layer, so called under-gate type triode. Electron emission from the carbon nanotube emitters is modulated by changing gate voltages. A threshold voltage is approximately 70 V at the anode bias of 275 V.
The stress induced failure of passivated aluminum based metallizations is the combined result of the stress induced void nucleation and growth of voids. The present work investigates the dependence of the void nucleation on aging temperature and cooling rate. Narrow Al, Al(0.2%Cu) and Al(2%Si) lines of different widths were fabricated by lift-off and passivated with various thicknesses of Si3N4. After a 400°C anneal, the specimens were cooled directly to the selected aging temperature and aged for up to 1100 hours. Void nucleation was found to occur predominantly during the initial cool-down. The rate of nucleation varied in quite different ways with the combination of aging temperature and cooling rate for the different alloys, which is consistent with a grain boundary sliding controlled nucleation mechanism.
The asymmetric amorphous silicon thin film transistors are fabricated and exposed to various stress environments. A visible light illumination of 200,000 Ix and gate bias of 30 V are applied to both asymmetric and widely used symmetric a-Si TFT's. It is observed that the leakage current of asymmetric structure, where only one electrode is fully overlapped by gate electrode, is much less than that of symmetric one. The visible light illumination as well as gate bias stress do not degrade the leakage current of the asymmetric a-Si TFT's, while the leakage current in die symmetric TFT's are increased considerably due to the stress. Also, the degree of degradation in the threshold voltage, the field effect mobility and the subthreshold slope of asymmetric TFT's are relatively much less than that of conventional symmetric TFT's.
The accelerated degradation phenomena in amorphous silicon thin film transistors due to both electrical stress and visible light illumination under the elevated temperature have been investigated systematically as a function of gate bias, light intensity, and stress time. It has been found that, in case of electrical stress, the threshold voltage shifts of a-Si TFT's may be attributed to the defect creation process at the early stage, while the charge trapping phenomena may be dominant when the illumination periods exceed about 2 hours. It has been also observed that the degradation in the device characteristics of a-Si TFT's is accelerated due to multiple stress effects, where the defect creation mechanism may be more responsible for the degradation rather than the charge trapping mechanism.
Nanoindentation and nanoscratching experiments have been performed to assess the mechanical and tribological behavior of three thin film materials with potential application as wear resistant coatings for magnetic disk storage: (1) hydrogenated-carbon (CHx); (2) nitrogenated-carbon (CNx); and (3) boron suboxide (BOx). The hardness and elastic modulus were measured using nanoindentation. Ultra-low load nanoscratching tests were performed to assess the relative scratch resistance of the films and measure their friction coefficients. The mechanical and tribological performance of the three materials are discussed and compared.
We observed the processes of hydrogen evolution and crystallization in
hydrogenated Amorphous silicon 0.5–7 μm thick films (deposited by dc glow
discharge on Molybdenum) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman
scattering and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Investigation was made as a
function of doping, deposition temperature and film thickness. For all the
films, an endothermic DSC peak was observed at 694 °C (onset). That this
peak was at least partly due to hydrogen evolution was shown by TGA, which
showed weight loss beginning at 694 °C, and by evolved gas analysis, which
showed hydrogen evolution at 694 °C. This temperature (658–704 °C) increased
with increasing heating rate (5–30 °C/min). Doping reduced this temperature
from 694 to 625 °C for boron doping and to 675 °C for phosphorous doping.
Hydrogen evolution kinetics and FTIR results suggest that the
silicon-hydrogen bonding in the intrinsic film was a mixture of SiH and
S1H2, and was predominantly SiH in the phosphorous doped films and
SiH2 in the boron doped films. Crystallization was independent
of silicon-hydrogen bonding in the as-deposited Amorphous silicon film. It
was bulk (not interface) induced. No exothermic DSC peak accompanied the
crystallization. The film deposition temperature had little effect on the
DSC result, but crystallization was enhanced by a higher deposition
Multi-energy nitrogen implantation into thermally grown SiO2 on silicon substrates has been performed and the optical wave-guiding properties of this structure has been studied. The implantation energy used was in Ie range of 40 KeV to 150 keV, and the doses used were typically 2×1016 to 2×10−2. The energies and doses were chosen to achieve relatively flat implanted nitrogen profiles. It is found that optical waveguides can be formed when the implanted nitrogen concentration is sufficiently high. Both prism-coupling technique and end-fire coupling technique were used to test the implanted waveguides fabricated. Many m-lines including dark modes were observed by the prism-coupling method. This structure is found to be very stable against thermal annealing and there is no significant change observed in the waveguiding properties even after annealing at 1000 °C for four hours. The waveguide loss was found to be typically 0.6 dB/cm before annealing and can be further reduced to about 0.3 dB/cm after annealing.