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Few previous studies in Latin America (LA) have provided data on dietary intake composition with a standardized methodology. The present study aimed to characterize energy intake (EI) and to describe the main food sources of energy in representative samples of the urban population from eight LA countries from the Latin American Study in Nutrition and Health (ELANS).
Cross-sectional study. Usual dietary intake was assessed with two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls.
Urban areas from eight countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela), September 2014 to July 2015.
Adolescents and adults aged 15–65 years. Final sample comprised 9218 individuals, of whom 6648 (72·1 %) were considered plausible reporters.
Overall, mean EI was 8196 kJ/d (1959 kcal/d), with a balanced distribution of macronutrients (54 % carbohydrate, 30 % fat, 16 % protein). Main food sources of energy were grains, pasta and bread (28 %), followed by meat and eggs (19 %), oils and fats (10 %), non-alcoholic homemade beverages (6 %) and ready-to-drink beverages (6 %). More than 25 % of EI was provided from food sources rich in sugar and fat, like sugary drinks, pastries, chips and candies. Meanwhile, only 18 % of EI was from food sources rich in fibre and micronutrients, such as whole grains, roots, fruits, vegetables, beans, fish and nuts. No critical differences were observed by gender or age.
Public health efforts oriented to diminish consumption of refined carbohydrates, meats, oils and sugar and to increase nutrient dense-foods are a priority in the region to drive to a healthier diet.
The clinical and pathologic characterisation of two fatal cases of tick-borne rickettsiosis in rural (El Valle) and urban (City of Panama) Panama are described. Clinical and autopsy findings were non-specific, but the molecular analysis was used to identify Rickettsia rickettsii in both cases. No ticks were collected in El Valle, while in the urban case, R. rickettsii was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., representing the first molecular finding in this tick in Panama and Central America.
This study aimed to evaluate the role of 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in predicting tongue tumour thickness via direct and reconstructed measures, and their correlations with corresponding histological measures, nodal metastasis and extracapsular spread.
A prospective study was conducted of 25 patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and pre-operative 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging from 2009 to 2012.
Correlations between 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and histological measures of tongue tumour thickness were assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient: r values were 0.84 (p < 0.0001) and 0.81 (p < 0.0001) for direct and reconstructed measurements, respectively. For magnetic resonance imaging, direct measures of tumour thickness (mean ± standard deviation, 18.2 ± 7.3 mm) did not significantly differ from the reconstructed measures (mean ± standard deviation, 17.9 ± 7.2 mm; r = 0.879). Moreover, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging had 83 per cent sensitivity, 82 per cent specificity, 82 per cent accuracy and a 90 per cent negative predictive value for detecting cervical lymph node metastasis.
In this cohort, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging measures of tumour thickness correlated highly with the corresponding histological measures. Further, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging was an effective method of detecting malignant adenopathy with extracapsular spread.
This paper proposes a methodology aiming at using historical yield data to improve yield sampling and yield estimation. The sampling method is based on a collaboration between historical data (at least three years) and yield measurements of the year performed on some sites within the field. It assumes a temporal stability of within field yield spatial patterns over the years. The first factor of a principal component analysis (PCA) is used to summarize the stable temporal patterns of within field yield data and it represents a large part of the variability of the different years assuming yield temporal stability and a high positive correlation between this factor and the yield. This main factor is then used to choose the best sites to sample (target sampling). Yield measurements are then used to calibrate a model that relates yield values to coordinates on the first factor of the PCA. This sampling method was tested on three vine fields (Vitis vinifera L.) in Chile and France with different varieties (Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah). For each of these fields, yield data of several years were available at the within field level. After temporal stability of yield patterns was verified for almost all the fields, the proposed sampling method was applied. Results were compared to those of a classical random sampling method showing that the use of historical yield data allows sampling sites selection to be optimized. Errors in yield estimations were reduced by more than 10% in all the cases, except when yield stable patterns are affected by specific events, i.e. early frost occurring on Chardonnay field.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and psychosis share deficits in social cognition. The insular region has been associated with awareness of self and reality, which may be basic for proper social interactions.
Total and regional insular volume and thickness measurements were obtained from a sample of 30 children and adolescents with ASD, 29 with early onset first-episode psychosis (FEP), and 26 healthy controls (HC). Total, regional, and voxel-level volume and thickness measurements were compared between groups (with correction for multiple comparisons), and the relationship between these measurements and symptom severity was explored.
Compared with HC, a shared volume deficit was observed for the right (but not the left) anterior insula (ASD: p = 0.007, FEP: p = 0.032), and for the bilateral posterior insula: (left, ASD: p = 0.011, FEP: p = 0.033; right, ASD: p = 0.004, FEP: p = 0.028). A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) conjunction analysis showed that ASD and FEP patients shared a gray matter volume and thickness deficit in the left posterior insula. Within patients, right anterior (r = −0.28, p = 0.041) and left posterior (r = −0.29, p = 0.030) insular volumes negatively correlated with the severity of insight deficits, and left posterior insular volume negatively correlated with the severity of ‘autistic-like’ symptoms (r = −0.30, p = 0.028).
The shared reduced volume and thickness in the anterior and posterior regions of the insula in ASD and FEP provides the first tentative evidence that these conditions share structural pathology that may be linked to shared symptomatology.
Early-onset first-episode psychosis (FEP) and high functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neuro–developmental disorders that share symptomatology but it is not clear if they also share neurobiological abnormalities (Chisholm et al., 2015). We examined thickness, surface area and volume in a direct comparison of children and adolescents with FEP (onset before 18 years), high-functioning ASD, and healthy subjects.
Magnetic resonance imaging scans of 85 participants (30 ASD, 29 FEP, 26 healthy controls, age range 10–18 years) were obtained from the same MR scanner using the same acquisition protocol. The FreeSurfer analysis suite was used to quantify vertex-wise estimates of the metrics thickness, surface area, and volume.
ASD and FEP had spatially overlapping insular deficits for each metric. The transdiagnostic overlap of deficits was greatest for volume (55% of all insular vertices) and smallest for thickness (18%). Insular thickness and surface area deficits did not overlap in ASD and overlapped only in 8% of all insular vertices in FEP.
Morphological insular deficits are common to FEP and high functioning ASD when compared to healthy participants. The pattern of deficits was similar in both disorders, i.e. a largely non-overlap of insular thickness and surface area. The non-overlap provides further evidence that these metrics represent two independent outcomes of corticogenesis, both of which are affected in FEP and ASD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This study aimed to examine the association between vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 biomarkers and plasma fatty acids in European adolescents. A subsample from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study with valid data on B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters, and all the other covariates used in the analyses such as BMI, Diet Quality Index, education of the mother and physical activity assessed by a questionnaire, was selected resulting in 674 cases (43 % males). B-vitamin biomarkers were measured by chromatography and immunoassay and fatty acids by enzymatic analyses. Linear mixed models elucidated the association between B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters (changes in fatty acid profiles according to change in 10 units of vitamin B biomarkers). DHA, EPA) and n-3 fatty acids showed positive associations with B-vitamin biomarkers, mainly with those corresponding to folate and vitamin B12. Contrarily, negative associations were found with n-6:n-3 ratio, trans-fatty acids and oleic:stearic ratio. With total homocysteine (tHcy), all the associations found with these parameters were opposite (for instance, an increase of 10 nmol/l in red blood cell folate or holotranscobalamin in females produces an increase of 15·85 µmol/l of EPA (P value <0·01), whereas an increase of 10 nmol/l of tHcy in males produces a decrease of 2·06 µmol/l of DHA (P value <0·05). Positive associations between B-vitamins and specific fatty acids might suggest underlying mechanisms between B-vitamins and CVD and it is worth the attention of public health policies.
Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could be used more effectively if they benefited from the scientific and technical resources currently available for more common breeds. Last but not least, public policies need to enable improved information concerning the genetic resources and breeding tools available for the agroecological management of livestock production systems, and facilitate its assimilation by farmers and farm technicians.
Agroecology uses natural processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to ensure production while limiting the environmental footprint of livestock and crop production systems. Selecting to achieve a maximization of target production criteria has long proved detrimental to fitness traits. However, since the 1990s, developments in animal breeding have also focussed on animal robustness by balancing production and functional traits within overall breeding goals. We discuss here how an agroecological perspective should further shift breeding goals towards functional traits rather than production traits. Breeding for robustness aims to promote individual adaptive capacities by considering diverse selection criteria which include reproduction, animal health and welfare, and adaptation to rough feed resources, a warm climate or fluctuating environmental conditions. It requires the consideration of genotype×environment interactions in the prediction of breeding values. Animal performance must be evaluated in low-input systems in order to select those animals that are adapted to limiting conditions, including feed and water availability, climate variations and diseases. Finally, we argue that there is no single agroecological animal type, but animals with a variety of profiles that can meet the expectations of agroecology. The standardization of both animals and breeding conditions indeed appears contradictory to the agroecological paradigm that calls for an adaptation of animals to local opportunities and constraints in weakly artificialized systems tied to their physical environment.
Aggressiveness is a multidimensional phenomenon, characterized by many cognitive and emotional processes, which is often present in psychiatric disorders. Until the present time, mechanical restraint has been a tool used in order to avoid risks for patients or other people around them. It should be used as a last option, so new strategies to reduce the use of these measures favoring others are being developed.
We try to analyze the influence of clinical and organizational changes in the frequency and duration of mechanical restraints, in order to provide new data and built hypothesis for future intervention plans.
This oral communication presents a retrospective analysis of mechanical restraints carried out in the Mental Health Hospital Unit of Jerez de la Frontera between 2007 and 2014, both inclusive, a sample of 950 episodes. Several variables will be analyzed and related to the different organizational events conducted in the Clinical Management Unit of Jerez de la Frontera.
There has been a gradual reduction in the duration of mechanical restraints carried out in the Mental Health Unit Hospital of Jerez de la Frontera over the eight years studied, specially after the implementation of the agitation protocol developed in 2011.
In our experience, the implementation of a comprehensive clinical record, deep observation of the patient by the professionals and the development of protocols to regularize interventions performed during an episode of psychomotor agitation are useful strategies to reduce the duration of each mechanical restraint episode.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14·7 (sd 1·3) years; percentage of girls: 52·8 %; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69·1 (sd 0·1) v. 60·4 (sd 2·8), respectively; P< 0·001; Δ = 12·6 %). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0·004 for the mother and 0·06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0·01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0·51 for the mother and 0·50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe.
In this work we report on the characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures with a symmetric double two-dimensional electron gas (D-2DEG). Optical characterization was made by room temperature photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy as well as electrical properties were determinated using the quantum Hall effect measurements at 2K. In order to study the surface effects on the conduction band profile, three samples with different GaAs cap layer thickness (25, 60 and 80 nm) were grown by the molecular beam epitaxy. Photoreflectance spectra at room temperature show the wide-period Franz-Keldysh oscillations between 1.42 and 1.70 eV originated by the surface electric field. The analysis of these oscillations shows that the surface electric field varies from 503 to 120 kV/cm whereas the thickness of the cap layer increases that was produced by the reduction of the depletion zone near the surface. Using QHE measurements we found that electron density increases if the surface electric field decreases.
Accurate food and nutrient intake assessment is essential for investigating diet–disease relationships. In the present study, food and nutrient intake assessment among European adolescents using 24 h recalls (mean of two recalls) and a FFQ (separately and the combination of both) were evaluated using concentration biomarkers. Biomarkers included were vitamin C, β-carotene, DHA+EPA, vitamin B12 (cobalamin and holo-transcobalamin) and folate (erythrocyte folate and plasma folate). For the evaluation of the food intake assessment 390 adolescents were included, while 697 were included for the nutrient intake assessment evaluation. Spearman rank and Pearson correlations, and validity coefficients, which are correlations between intake estimated and habitual true intake, were calculated. Correlations were higher between frequency of food consumption (from the FFQ) and concentration biomarkers than between mean food intake (from the recalls) and concentration biomarkers, especially for DHA+EPA (r 0·35 v. r 0·27). Most correlations were higher among girls than boys. For boys, the highest validity coefficients were found for frequency of fruit consumption (0·88) and for DHA+EPA biomarker (0·71). In girls, the highest validity coefficients were found for fruit consumption frequency (0·76), vegetable consumption frequency (0·74), mean fruit intake (0·90) and DHA+EPA biomarker (0·69). After exclusion of underreporters, correlations slightly improved. Correlations between usual food intakes, adjusted for food consumption frequency, and concentration biomarkers were higher than correlations between mean food intakes and concentration biomarkers. In conclusion, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls in combination with a FFQ seem to be appropriate to rank subjects according to their usual food intake.
We report our main results on the development of un-cooled microbolometers based on hydrogenated amorphous Germanium-Silicon (a-GexSiy:H) thermo-sensing films deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). Our research has been conducted to improve both, the structure of the devices (pixels) and the performance characteristics of the amorphous Germanium-Silicon thermosensing films.
Our motivation is to produce microbolometers with much better performance characteristics (larger thermal coefficient of resistance, larger conductivity and better stability) than those available in commercial microbolometer arrays, based on boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H,B).
As part of our latest research, we also report the study of what we believe is the next generation of thermosensing films based on Silicon and Geranium amorphous films with embedded nanocrystals in the amorphous matrix (polymorphous films). Those materials have several advantages over amorphous, as a lower defect density, better stability and better transport properties.
The dark current-voltage characteristics of PIN structures are studied and analyzed for PV samples as for integral device without taking account the performance of the different elements typically used in equivalent circuit model such as diode n-factor, shunt and series resistances. The contribution of all these elements is very important in the development of devices because they determine the performance characteristics. In this work we have studied and compared the temperature dependence of current-voltage characteristics in μc-Si:H and pm-Si:H p-i-n structures having approximately the same efficiencies with emphasis on their different electronic characteristics such as shunt (Rsh) and series (Rs) resistance, ideality factor (n), and the saturation current (Is), which give us some ideas on role of these elements. In the pm-Si:H cell it was observed that the Rs increases with the increase of the temperature in contrast to the μc-Si:H structures, where the series resistance reduces with temperature change from T = 300 up to 480K. In both the pm-Si:H and μc-Si:H samples Rshreduces with temperature change from 300 up to 480 K. The ideality factor in the pm-Si:H structure shows an increase, and in μc-Si:H a reduction, when temperature increases. Saturation current in both cases increases with temperature as it was expected. From the saturation current it was obtained the build-in potential. Analysis behavior of both saturation current and n-factor with temperature shows that build-in potential increases with temperature in the pm-Si:H, but reduces in μc-Si:H structure.