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To develop an equation that can estimate the 24-h urinary Na excretion by using casual spot urine specimen for older hypertensive participants in rural Ningxia and further to compare with the INTERSALT method, Kawasaki method and Tanaka method.
Older hypertensive participants in rural Ningxia provided their casual spot urine samples and 24-h urine samples between January 2015 and February 2017. Sex-specific equation was developed using linear forward stepwise regression analysis. Model fit was assessed using adjusted R2. Approximately half of all participants were randomly selected to validate the equation. Mean differences, intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots were used to evaluate the performance of all methods.
Pingluo County and Qingtongxia County in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.
Older hypertensive participants in rural Ningxia.
Totally, 807 of 1120 invited participants provided qualified 24-h urine samples and spot urine samples. There was no statistical difference comparing the laboratory-based method against the new method and the INTERSALT method, while Kawasaki method had the largest bias with a mean difference of 40·81 g/d (95 % CI 39·27, 42·35 g/d). Bland–Altman plots showed similar pattern of the results.
The INTERSALT method and the new equation have the potential to estimate the 24-h urinary Na excretion in this study population. However, the extrapolation of the results to other population needs to be careful. Future research is required to establish a more reliable method to estimate 24-h urinary Na excretion.
Evidence has suggested that honey intake has a beneficial impact on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether these findings apply to adults with prediabetes is yet unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether honey intake is associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes. A cross-sectional study was performed in 18 281 participants (mean age 39·6 (sd 11·1) years; men, 51·5 %). Dietary intake was assessed through a validated 100-item FFQ. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria: impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or raised glycosylated Hb. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between honey consumption and prediabetes. As compared with those who almost never consumed honey, the multivariable OR of prediabetes were 0·94 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·02) for ≤3 times/week, 0·77 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·94) for 4–6 times/week and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·99) for ≥1 time/d (Pfor trend < 0·01). These associations did not differ substantially in sensitivity analysis. Higher honey consumption was associated with a decreased prevalence of prediabetes. More large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate this association.
The vortex sound interaction in acoustic resonance induced by vortex shedding from a cylinder in a flow duct is numerically studied based on a nonlinear physical model, which consists of three meshless sub-models describing the vortex shedding, sound generation and propagation within the duct. In addition, the acoustic particle velocity near the separation point of the shear layer is solved and added onto the Kutta condition of the vortex shedding, which takes the acoustic feedback effect into consideration and makes the vortex sound interaction bi-directional. The predicted results of resonant frequency and amplitude are found to be in conformity with previous experiment data, especially, a continuous description of the onset–sustain–cease of lock-in phenomenon is well captured. The lock-in phenomenon is depicted as a vigorous competition between the vortex shedding frequency
and the inherent frequency of the acoustic
. The mutual capturing behaviour of these two frequencies is dominated by
cannot always be locked onto
within the whole lock-in region, which is in marked contrast to the previous understanding. In this aspect, two lock-in regions, the synchronous region and the
-mode dominant region, are defined according to the relevance of
. The maximum resonant sound appears at the end of the synchronous region. The present model not only predicts the proper characteristics of frequency lock-in as observed in experiments, but also helps to provide a more detailed understanding of the underlying lock-in mechanism.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is becoming a matter of concern around the world. However, the neural mechanism underlying IGD remains unclear. The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences between the neuronal network of IGD participants and that of recreational Internet game users (RGU).
Imaging and behavioral data were collected from 18 IGD participants and 20 RGU under a probability discounting task. The independent component analysis (ICA) and graph theoretical analysis (GTA) were used to analyze the data.
Behavioral results showed the IGD participants, compared to RGU, prefer risky options to the fixed ones and spent less time in making risky decisions. In imaging results, the ICA analysis revealed that the IGD participants showed stronger functional connectivity (FC) in reward circuits and executive control network, as well as lower FC in anterior salience network (ASN) than RGU; for the GTA results, the IGD participants showed impaired FC in reward circuits and ASN when compared with RGU.
These results suggest that IGD participants were more sensitive to rewards, and they were more impulsive in decision-making as they could not control their impulsivity effectively. This might explain why IGD participants cannot stop their gaming behaviors even when facing severe negative consequences.
As a source of competitive advantages for firms, innovation has boosted scholars’ interest in the identification of its main determinants from the perspective of organizational culture. However, there is a lack of research on innovation cultures in the context of emerging markets. Based on survey data from 433 manufacturing firms (331 Chinese firms and 102 Vietnamese firms), this study addresses this research gap using a hierarchical regression analysis to explore the impact of organizational innovation culture on firms’ new product performance and to examine the moderating effects of institutional environments and organizational cohesion on this relationship. We find that there are positive relationships between organizational innovation culture and firms’ new product performance. In contrast to recent research on organizational cohesion, we report that organizational cohesion has both a direct, positive effect on new product performance and a positive moderating role in organizational innovation culture and firms’ new product performance. Furthermore, regarding the institutional environment in the context of emerging markets, we find that the effects of organizational innovation culture on firms’ new product performance are stronger in China than in Vietnam. Therefore, this paper enriches organizational culture research by providing a multidimensional theoretical framework and extends institutional theory in the context of emerging markets by examining the moderating effect of institutional environments on the relationship between organizational innovation culture and firms’ new product performance in both China and Vietnam.
Many important scientific and technical problems are best addressed using multiple, microscopy-based analytical techniques that combine the strengths of complementary methods. Here, we provide two examples from biomedical challenges: unravelling the attachment zone between dental implants and bone, and uncovering the mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. They combine synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) with transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM), electron tomography (ET), EELS tomography, and/or atom probe tomography (APT). STXM provides X-ray absorption based chemical sensitivity at mesoscale resolution (10–30 nm), which complements higher spatial resolution electron microscopy and APT.
Late Carboniferous magmatism in the Chinese Altai provides an important view of geodynamic processes active during crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, five representative peraluminous granite plutons from the Chinese Altai were selected for systematic geochronological, geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic analyses (Table 1). These granites were emplaced between 449 and 327 Ma in an active subduction zone, and have moderate to high SiO2 (66.54–76.13 wt%), moderate Na2O+K2O (6.27–7.66 wt%), and high Al2O3 contents (12.43–16.18 wt%). All granite samples in this study showed significant decoupling of the Nd and Hf isotope systems. Results show negative εNd(t) values (−3.3 to −0.9), and predominantly positive εHf(t) values (+0.24 to +8.01, n=57) except for a few negative εHf(t) values (−7.44 to −0.03, n=9), high Mg# values (28.69–53.33), high Nd/Hf ratios (4.26–43.57), and enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g. Pb, Th, and U), suggesting that the granites were derived from the partial melting of oceanic sediments and the associated mantle wedge, with fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite. In situ zircon Hf isotopic analyses yield negative εHf(t) values from −30.6 to −13.7 for the zircon xenocrysts. The U–Pb ages and Hf isotopic ratios of these zircon xenocrysts were probably inherited from oceanic sediments. Zircon saturation temperatures suggest that these peraluminous granites were emplaced at 537–765°C. We propose that: (1) the Nd isotopic system more faithfully reflects the source of peraluminous magmas in the Chinese Altai than the Hf isotopic system, and (2) the oceanic sediment recycling was an important process during continental growth in the CAOB.
Variable stiffness can improve the capability of human–robot interacting. Based on the mechanism of a flexible rack and gear, a rotational joint actuator named vsaFGR is proposed to regulate the joint stiffness. The flexible gear rack can be regarded as a combination of a non-linear elastic element and a linear adjusting mechanism, providing benefits of compactness. The joint stiffness is in the range of 217–3527 N.m/rad, and it is inversely proportional to the 4th-order of the gear displacement, and nearly independent from the joint angular deflection, providing benefits of quick stiffness regulation in a short displacement of 20 mm. The gear displacement with respect to the flexible gear rack is perpendicular to the joint loading force, so the power required for stiffness regulating is as low as 14.4 W, providing benefits of energy saving. The working principles of vsaFGR are elaborated, followed by presentation on the mechanics model and the prototype. The high compactness, great stiffness range and low power cost of vsaFGR are proved by simulations and experiments.
Biological hydrogel is important in drug delivery system and tissue engineering. In this paper, we prepared a series of biological hydrogels with N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CS) and oxidized safflower and ligusticum wallichii polysaccharide-II (oxidized SLWP-II). Morphological analysis indicated the N,O-carboxymethyl CS/oxidized SLWP-II hydrogels (CSLHs) had porous interior structures, pore diameter ranged from tens to hundreds of micrometers. In vitro release test showed, with proportion of N,O-carboxymethyl CS to oxidized SLWP increasing from 1:1 to 1:3, cumulative release of bovine serum albumin decreased from 99 to 82%. In vitro cytotoxicity study showed that the developed hydrogels were not cytotoxic during one week of culturing with WI-38 cells, and they have a role in promoting cell proliferation. So the N,O-carboxymethyl CS/oxidized safflower and ligusticum wallichii polysaccharide-II hydrogels might have potential application in the drug delivery system and tissue engineering.
A lattice Boltzmann method is utilized for governing equations which control phase separation of binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction in presence of a shear flow in this paper. We first present the morphology modeling of sheared binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction. We then validate the model by taking the unsheared binary fluids as an example. It is found that the results fit well with the references. The paper shows structures of the sheared system and gives the detailed analysis for the morphology of sheared binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction. The phase separation of the domain structures with different chemical reaction rates is discussed. Through simulations of the sheared binary fluids, two interesting phenomena are observed, which do not exist in a binary mixture without reversible chemical reaction. One is that the same results appear in both low and high viscosity, and the other is that the domain growth exponent with both low and high viscosities presents wave due to the competition of the viscosity and phase separation. In addition, we find that the finite size effects resulting in the growth exponent decreasing appear faster than that of the unsheared blend at a large time when the size of domains is comparable with the lattice size.
Leucine plays an important role in promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscle remodelling. However, what percentage of leucine is appropriate in creep feed and what proteome profile alterations are caused by dietary leucine in the skeletal muscle of piglets remain elusive. In this case, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to analyse the proteome profile of the longissimus dorsi muscles of weanling piglets fed a normal leucine diet (NL; 1·66 % leucine) and a high-leucine diet (HL; 2·1 % leucine). We identified 157 differentially expressed proteins between these two groups. Bioinformatics analysis of these proteins exhibited the suppression of oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid β-oxidation, as well as the activation of glycolysis, in the HL group. For further confirmation, we identified that SDHB, ATP5F1, ACADM and HADHB were significantly down-regulated (P<0·01, except ATP5F1, P<0·05), whereas the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase was significantly up-regulated (P<0·05) in the HL group. We also show that enhanced muscle protein synthesis and the transition from slow-to-fast fibres are altered by leucine. Together, these results indicate that leucine may alter energy metabolism and promote slow-to-fast transitions in the skeletal muscle of weanling piglets.
The dynamics of water waves passing over a vegetation canopy is modelled theoretically. To simplify the geometry, we examine a periodic array of vertical cylinders fixed on a slowly varying seabed. The macroscale behaviour of wave attenuation is predicted based on microscale dynamics between plants. Interstitial turbulence is modelled by Reynolds equations with a locally constant eddy viscosity determined by energy considerations. Using the asymptotic method of multiple-scale expansions, the slow evolution of waves is derived by considering the coupling with the small-scale motion in the canopy. After numerical solution of the canonical boundary-value problem in a few unit cells, predictions of macroscale effects such as wave attenuation are made and compared with laboratory experiments. The counteracting effects of shoaling and dissipation are discussed for different vegetation densities.
A micro-mechanical theory is proposed for the prediction of macro-scale properties of flow and dispersion in a current through a periodic array of vertical cylinders standing on a horizontal bed. A two-scale analysis reduces the numerical task to the solution of two canonical boundary value problems in a unit cell. Using measured data on the drag coefficient measured for an array in open channels, the eddy viscosity in the interstitial flow on the micro-scale is calculated for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The macro-scale relation between the mean velocity and the surface gradient is found in the form of a nonlinear Darcy’s law. The interstitial velocity is then used to derive the macro-scale convection diffusion equation for the solute concentration, also by a two-scale analysis. The Taylor dispersivity and the total effective diffusivity are computed for a wide range of flow rates and solid fractions. Features specific to the periodic geometry are pointed out.