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Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is becoming a matter of concern around the world. However, the neural mechanism underlying IGD remains unclear. The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences between the neuronal network of IGD participants and that of recreational Internet game users (RGU).
Imaging and behavioral data were collected from 18 IGD participants and 20 RGU under a probability discounting task. The independent component analysis (ICA) and graph theoretical analysis (GTA) were used to analyze the data.
Behavioral results showed the IGD participants, compared to RGU, prefer risky options to the fixed ones and spent less time in making risky decisions. In imaging results, the ICA analysis revealed that the IGD participants showed stronger functional connectivity (FC) in reward circuits and executive control network, as well as lower FC in anterior salience network (ASN) than RGU; for the GTA results, the IGD participants showed impaired FC in reward circuits and ASN when compared with RGU.
These results suggest that IGD participants were more sensitive to rewards, and they were more impulsive in decision-making as they could not control their impulsivity effectively. This might explain why IGD participants cannot stop their gaming behaviors even when facing severe negative consequences.
As a source of competitive advantages for firms, innovation has boosted scholars’ interest in the identification of its main determinants from the perspective of organizational culture. However, there is a lack of research on innovation cultures in the context of emerging markets. Based on survey data from 433 manufacturing firms (331 Chinese firms and 102 Vietnamese firms), this study addresses this research gap using a hierarchical regression analysis to explore the impact of organizational innovation culture on firms’ new product performance and to examine the moderating effects of institutional environments and organizational cohesion on this relationship. We find that there are positive relationships between organizational innovation culture and firms’ new product performance. In contrast to recent research on organizational cohesion, we report that organizational cohesion has both a direct, positive effect on new product performance and a positive moderating role in organizational innovation culture and firms’ new product performance. Furthermore, regarding the institutional environment in the context of emerging markets, we find that the effects of organizational innovation culture on firms’ new product performance are stronger in China than in Vietnam. Therefore, this paper enriches organizational culture research by providing a multidimensional theoretical framework and extends institutional theory in the context of emerging markets by examining the moderating effect of institutional environments on the relationship between organizational innovation culture and firms’ new product performance in both China and Vietnam.
Many important scientific and technical problems are best addressed using multiple, microscopy-based analytical techniques that combine the strengths of complementary methods. Here, we provide two examples from biomedical challenges: unravelling the attachment zone between dental implants and bone, and uncovering the mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. They combine synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) with transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM), electron tomography (ET), EELS tomography, and/or atom probe tomography (APT). STXM provides X-ray absorption based chemical sensitivity at mesoscale resolution (10–30 nm), which complements higher spatial resolution electron microscopy and APT.
Late Carboniferous magmatism in the Chinese Altai provides an important view of geodynamic processes active during crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, five representative peraluminous granite plutons from the Chinese Altai were selected for systematic geochronological, geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic analyses (Table 1). These granites were emplaced between 449 and 327 Ma in an active subduction zone, and have moderate to high SiO2 (66.54–76.13 wt%), moderate Na2O+K2O (6.27–7.66 wt%), and high Al2O3 contents (12.43–16.18 wt%). All granite samples in this study showed significant decoupling of the Nd and Hf isotope systems. Results show negative εNd(t) values (−3.3 to −0.9), and predominantly positive εHf(t) values (+0.24 to +8.01, n=57) except for a few negative εHf(t) values (−7.44 to −0.03, n=9), high Mg# values (28.69–53.33), high Nd/Hf ratios (4.26–43.57), and enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g. Pb, Th, and U), suggesting that the granites were derived from the partial melting of oceanic sediments and the associated mantle wedge, with fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite. In situ zircon Hf isotopic analyses yield negative εHf(t) values from −30.6 to −13.7 for the zircon xenocrysts. The U–Pb ages and Hf isotopic ratios of these zircon xenocrysts were probably inherited from oceanic sediments. Zircon saturation temperatures suggest that these peraluminous granites were emplaced at 537–765°C. We propose that: (1) the Nd isotopic system more faithfully reflects the source of peraluminous magmas in the Chinese Altai than the Hf isotopic system, and (2) the oceanic sediment recycling was an important process during continental growth in the CAOB.
Variable stiffness can improve the capability of human–robot interacting. Based on the mechanism of a flexible rack and gear, a rotational joint actuator named vsaFGR is proposed to regulate the joint stiffness. The flexible gear rack can be regarded as a combination of a non-linear elastic element and a linear adjusting mechanism, providing benefits of compactness. The joint stiffness is in the range of 217–3527 N.m/rad, and it is inversely proportional to the 4th-order of the gear displacement, and nearly independent from the joint angular deflection, providing benefits of quick stiffness regulation in a short displacement of 20 mm. The gear displacement with respect to the flexible gear rack is perpendicular to the joint loading force, so the power required for stiffness regulating is as low as 14.4 W, providing benefits of energy saving. The working principles of vsaFGR are elaborated, followed by presentation on the mechanics model and the prototype. The high compactness, great stiffness range and low power cost of vsaFGR are proved by simulations and experiments.
Biological hydrogel is important in drug delivery system and tissue engineering. In this paper, we prepared a series of biological hydrogels with N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CS) and oxidized safflower and ligusticum wallichii polysaccharide-II (oxidized SLWP-II). Morphological analysis indicated the N,O-carboxymethyl CS/oxidized SLWP-II hydrogels (CSLHs) had porous interior structures, pore diameter ranged from tens to hundreds of micrometers. In vitro release test showed, with proportion of N,O-carboxymethyl CS to oxidized SLWP increasing from 1:1 to 1:3, cumulative release of bovine serum albumin decreased from 99 to 82%. In vitro cytotoxicity study showed that the developed hydrogels were not cytotoxic during one week of culturing with WI-38 cells, and they have a role in promoting cell proliferation. So the N,O-carboxymethyl CS/oxidized safflower and ligusticum wallichii polysaccharide-II hydrogels might have potential application in the drug delivery system and tissue engineering.
A lattice Boltzmann method is utilized for governing equations which control phase separation of binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction in presence of a shear flow in this paper. We first present the morphology modeling of sheared binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction. We then validate the model by taking the unsheared binary fluids as an example. It is found that the results fit well with the references. The paper shows structures of the sheared system and gives the detailed analysis for the morphology of sheared binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction. The phase separation of the domain structures with different chemical reaction rates is discussed. Through simulations of the sheared binary fluids, two interesting phenomena are observed, which do not exist in a binary mixture without reversible chemical reaction. One is that the same results appear in both low and high viscosity, and the other is that the domain growth exponent with both low and high viscosities presents wave due to the competition of the viscosity and phase separation. In addition, we find that the finite size effects resulting in the growth exponent decreasing appear faster than that of the unsheared blend at a large time when the size of domains is comparable with the lattice size.
Leucine plays an important role in promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscle remodelling. However, what percentage of leucine is appropriate in creep feed and what proteome profile alterations are caused by dietary leucine in the skeletal muscle of piglets remain elusive. In this case, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to analyse the proteome profile of the longissimus dorsi muscles of weanling piglets fed a normal leucine diet (NL; 1·66 % leucine) and a high-leucine diet (HL; 2·1 % leucine). We identified 157 differentially expressed proteins between these two groups. Bioinformatics analysis of these proteins exhibited the suppression of oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid β-oxidation, as well as the activation of glycolysis, in the HL group. For further confirmation, we identified that SDHB, ATP5F1, ACADM and HADHB were significantly down-regulated (P<0·01, except ATP5F1, P<0·05), whereas the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase was significantly up-regulated (P<0·05) in the HL group. We also show that enhanced muscle protein synthesis and the transition from slow-to-fast fibres are altered by leucine. Together, these results indicate that leucine may alter energy metabolism and promote slow-to-fast transitions in the skeletal muscle of weanling piglets.
The dynamics of water waves passing over a vegetation canopy is modelled theoretically. To simplify the geometry, we examine a periodic array of vertical cylinders fixed on a slowly varying seabed. The macroscale behaviour of wave attenuation is predicted based on microscale dynamics between plants. Interstitial turbulence is modelled by Reynolds equations with a locally constant eddy viscosity determined by energy considerations. Using the asymptotic method of multiple-scale expansions, the slow evolution of waves is derived by considering the coupling with the small-scale motion in the canopy. After numerical solution of the canonical boundary-value problem in a few unit cells, predictions of macroscale effects such as wave attenuation are made and compared with laboratory experiments. The counteracting effects of shoaling and dissipation are discussed for different vegetation densities.
A micro-mechanical theory is proposed for the prediction of macro-scale properties of flow and dispersion in a current through a periodic array of vertical cylinders standing on a horizontal bed. A two-scale analysis reduces the numerical task to the solution of two canonical boundary value problems in a unit cell. Using measured data on the drag coefficient measured for an array in open channels, the eddy viscosity in the interstitial flow on the micro-scale is calculated for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The macro-scale relation between the mean velocity and the surface gradient is found in the form of a nonlinear Darcy’s law. The interstitial velocity is then used to derive the macro-scale convection diffusion equation for the solute concentration, also by a two-scale analysis. The Taylor dispersivity and the total effective diffusivity are computed for a wide range of flow rates and solid fractions. Features specific to the periodic geometry are pointed out.
The modification of microbiota composition to a ‘beneficial’ one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (P< 0·05). Increasing the consumption of almonds or pistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.
Potassium (K) is an essential nutrient and abundant cation in plant cells. The application of K+ could alleviate abiotic stress. However, it was reported that the alleviation of K+ on salt-stressed plants only happened when K+ concentration was low. Most studies were focused on effects of sodium salts on plants in salty soils, and little information was reported about potassium salts, especially a higher level of potassium in alkaline salts. To explore the effects of K+ in alkaline salts on plant growth, and whether it had a same destructive impact as Na+, we mixed two alkaline sodium salts (ASS) (NaHCO3:Na2CO3 = 9:1) and two alkaline potassium salts (APS) (KHCO3:K2CO3 = 9:1) to treat 10-day-old wheat seedlings. Effects of ASS and APS on growth, photosynthesis, ions absorption and solutes accumulation were compared. Results indicated that effects of potassium salts in soil on plants growth were related to K+ concentration. Both growth and photosynthesis of wheat seedlings decreased, and the reduction was higher in APS treatment than in ASS treatment at 40 mM alkalinity. ASS treatment absorbed Na+, competing with K+ and free Ca2+, and inhibited the absorption of inorganic anions. APS treatments accumulated K+ and reduced the absorption of anions, with no competition with other cations. Both APS and ASS treatments promoted free Mg2+ accumulation and inhibited H2PO4−uptake. The reduction of H2PO4− promoted organic acid synthesis indirectly. Soluble sugar and proline accumulation were also related to the alkaline condition and extra K+ addition. In conclusion, excess potassium ions in soil, especially in alkaline soils, were harmful to plants. APS was another severe salt stress, intensity of which was higher than ASS. The growth and physiological response mechanisms of wheat seedlings to APS were similar to ASS. Both inorganic ions and organic solutes took part in the osmotic adjustment. Differences for APS depended on K+, but ASS on Na+.
To evaluate the effect of antioxidant defence in coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus in aestivation was studied in the field from July to November 2006 in Qingdao. During the sampling period, activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly in August and November. Activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione decreased significantly in August and increased significantly in November and activities of Se-glutathione peroxidase increased significantly in August. There were no significant differences in total glutathione peroxidase. In relation to the water temperature in the field, it is known that the oxygen consumption rate dropped and antioxidant defence was enhanced in August. The structure and function of respiratory trees of A. japonicus were completely vivified as normal in November, and it is suggested that antioxidant defence was enhanced because of the sharp change of oxygen consumption. Data indicate that both enzymatic and metabolite antioxidant defences in sea cucumber are adaptable systems that are modulated during pre-aestivating stage and arousing stage.