To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Improving the production traits and resistance against mastitis in dairy cattle is a challenge for animal scientists across the globe. The present study was designed to investigate the genetic effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) genes with production and mastitis-related traits. Four SNPs in JAK2 and one in DGAT1 were analyzed through Chinese Cow's SNPs Chip-I (CCSC-I) and genotyped in a population of 312 Chinese Holsteins. Our findings demonstrated that milk fat percentage, somatic cell count (SCC), somatic cell score (SCS), serum cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) showed significant associations (P < 0.05) with at least one or more identified SNPs. Consequently, the analysis based on haplotypes amongst the SNPs in JAK2 revealed noteworthy (P < 0.05) association with SCC and IL-6. Collectively, our results verified the pleiotropic ability of detected SNPs in bovine JAK2 and DGAT1 for milk fat percentage as well as mastitis-related traits. The significant SNPs in both the genes could serve as powerful genetic markers to minimize mastitis risk. In addition, besides SCC and SCS, the IFN-γ and IL-6 could also be used as indicators of improved genetic resistance against mastitis.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Combining density functional theory calculations and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, the adsorption behavior of various sulfur containing compounds, including C2H5SH, CH3SCH3, tetrahydrothiophene, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, and their derivatives on the coordinately unsaturated sites of Mo27Sx model nanoparticles, are studied systematically. Sulfur molecules with aromaticity prefer flat adsorption than perpendicular adsorption. The adsorption of nonaromatic molecules is stronger than the perpendicular adsorption of aromatic molecules, but weaker than the flat adsorption of them. With gradual hydrogenation (HYD), the binding affinity in the perpendicular adsorption modes increases, while in flat adsorption modes it increases first, then decreases. Significant steric effects on the adsorption of dimethyldibenzothiophene were revealed in perpendicular adsorption modes. The steric effect, besides weakening adsorption, could also activate the S–C bonds through a compensation effect. Finally, by comparing the theoretical adsorption energies with the TPD results, we suggest that HYD and direct-desulfurization path may happen simultaneously, but on different active sites.
In this paper, a tri-band bandpass filter (BPF) using asymmetric stub-loaded stepped-impedance resonator (SL-SIR) is presented. The asymmetric characteristic of SL-SIR broadens degrees of freedom for three controllable modes design. Also, the coupling coefficients (Mij) and the external quality factors (Qei) at each passband of the filter can be independently adjusted by the proposed mixed-type feedline structure. Besides, multi-transmission zeros are produced to improve the isolation and selectivity of the passbands. Finally, a tri-band BPF is operated at 1.9 GHz (time division long term evolution – TD-LTE band), 3.2 GHz (worldwide interoperability for microwave access – WiMAX band), and 5.8 GHz (wireless local area networks – WLAN band) and their insertion loss are 1.03, 0.94, and 1.27 dB, respectively. The measured results of the fabricated tri-band BPF exhibit good agreement with simulated results.
Experimental X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for trelagliptin succinate, C18H20FN5O2•C4H6O4, are reported [a = 18.481(6), b = 8.120(4), c = 7.903(4) Å, α = 89.972(0)°, β = 97.722(4)°, γ = 90.120(0)°, unit-cell volume V = 1175.37 Å3, Z = 2, and space-group P1]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P1 space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
In this work, fluorescent Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) cells were developed as probes for imaging applications and to explore behaviorial interaction between B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A novel biological strategy of coupling intracellular biochemical reactions for controllable biosynthesis of CdSe quantum dots by living B. subtilis cells was demonstrated, through which highly luminant and photostable fluorescent B. subtilis cells were achieved with good uniformity. With the help of the obtained fluorescent B. subtilis cells probes, S. aureus cells responded to co-cultured B. subtilis and to aggregate. The degree of aggregation was calculated and nonlinearly fitted to a polynomial model. Systematic investigations of their interactions implied that B. subtilis cells inhibit the growth of neighboring S. aureus cells, and this inhibition was affected by both the growth stage and the amount of surrounding B. subtilis cells. Compared to traditional methods of studying bacterial interaction between two species, such as solid culture medium colony observation and imaging mass spectrometry detection, the procedures were more simple, vivid, and photostable due to the efficient fluorescence intralabeling with less influence on the cells’ surface, which might provide a new paradigm for future visualization of microbial behavior.
Experimental X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for niclosamide, C13H8N2O4Cl2, are reported [a = 13.571(1) Å, b = 7.181(8) Å, c = 13.742(3) Å, β = 97.984(7)°, unit-cell volume V = 1326.40 Å3, Z = 4, and space group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
Few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidence from non-Western areas is particularly lacking. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of GDM in a Chinese population. A total of 3063 pregnant Chinese women from an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Data on dietary intake were collected using a FFQ at 24–27 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed using a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary patterns were determined by principal components factor analysis. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the associations between dietary pattern and the risk of GDM. The analysis identified four dietary patterns: vegetable pattern; protein-rich pattern; prudent pattern; sweets and seafood pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest tertile of the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95 % CI 0·64, 0·97), compared with the lowest tertile, whereas the highest tertile of the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·49). No significant association was found for either the protein-rich or the prudent pattern. The protective effect of a high vegetable pattern score was more evident among women who had a family history of diabetes (P for interaction = 0·022). These findings suggest that the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM, while the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM. These findings may be useful in dietary counselling during pregnancy.
Schistosoma japonicum, a human blood fluke, causes a parasitic disease affecting millions of people in Asia. Thioredoxin–glutathione system of S. japonicum plays a critical role in maintaining the redox balance in parasite, which is a potential target for development of novel antischistosomal agents. Here we cloned the gene of S. japonicum thioredoxin (SjTrx), expressed and purified the recombinant SjTrx in Escherichia coli. Functional assay shows that SjTrx catalyses the dithiothreitol (DTT) reduction of insulin disulphide bonds. The coupling assay of SjTrx with its endogenous reductase, thioredoxin glutathione reductase from S. japonicum (SjTGR), supports its biological function to maintain the redox homeostasis in the cell. Furthermore, the crystal structure of SjTrx in the oxidized state was determined at 2·0 Å resolution, revealing a typical architecture of thioredoxin fold. The structural information of SjTrx provides us important clues for understanding the maintenance function of redox homeostasis in S. japonicum and pathogenesis of this chronic disease.
During the 30th Chinese Antarctic Expedition in 2013/14, the Chinese icebreaker RV Xuelong answered a rescue call from the Russian RV Akademik Shokalskiy. While assisting the repatriation of personnel from the Russian vessel to the Australian RV Aurora Australis, RV Xuelong itself became entrapped within the compacted ice in the Adélie Depression region. Analysis of MODIS and SAR imagery provides a detailed description of the regional sea-ice conditions which led to the 6 day long besetment of RV Xuelong. The remotely sensed imagery revealed four stages of sea-ice characteristics during the entrapment: the gathering, compaction, dispersion and calving stages. Four factors characterizing the local sea-ice conditions during late December 2013 and early January 2014 were identified: surface component of the coastal current; near-surface wind; ocean tides; and surface air temperature. This study demonstrates that shipping activity in ice-invested waters should be underpinned by general knowledge of the ice situation. In addition, during such activity high spatiotemporal resolution remotely sensed data should be acquired regularly to monitor local and regional sea-ice changes with a view to avoiding the besetment of vessels.
The aim of this review was to systematically search and critique relevant literature on the potential psychological impact of earthquakes on peripartum women to synthesize existing knowledge for further action.
A search through 5 databases was conducted for relevant publications in English, and the results were screened through a set of inclusion and exclusion processes.
Eight articles were included. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder were the most often reported mental disorders. Some factors (eg, family relationships and social support) were associated with mental disorders suffered by peripartum women after earthquakes. An assessment of the quality of the studies showed that most did not have high levels of evidence because of their cross-sectional design and limitations.
Among the factors that influenced the mental health of pregnant and postpartum women after earthquakes, family function appears to be one of the most important and deserves further exploration. Other mental health conditions such as minor psychiatric disorders should also be studied for their relationship with disasters and pregnancy. Well-designed studies are needed to enable a better understanding of the relationship between earthquakes and the mental disorders of peripartum women so that the most appropriate interventions can be proposed. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1–11)
This paper investigates a 6-degree-of-freedom foldable parallel mechanism for the ship-based stabilized platform, which is driven by closed chain linkages. The velocity and acceleration mappings between the moving platform and inputs of the closed chain linkages are deduced in the form of the first- and second-order influence coefficient matrices. The continuous stiffness matrix is deduced; furthermore, the translation and rotational stiffness along any direction are also deduced. With directional stiffness, the singularity of the mechanism is analyzed, and the explanation of the singularity is given from the viewpoint of stiffness. The directions the platform cannot move or lose its constraints are got from directional stiffness.
Blue-ice areas (BIAs) and their geographical distribution in Antarctica were mapped using Landsat-7 ETM+ images with 15 m spatial resolution obtained during the 1999–2003 austral summers and covering the area north of 82.5° S, and a snow grain-size image of the MODIS-based Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) dataset with 125 m grid spacing acquired during the 2003/04 austral summer from 82.5°S to the South Pole. A map of BIAs was created with algorithms of thresholds based on band ratio and reflectance for ETM+ data and thresholds based on snow grain size for the MOA dataset. The underlying principle is that blue ice can be separated from snow or rock by their spectral discrepancies and by different grain sizes of snow and ice. We estimate the total area of BIAs in Antarctica during the data acquisition period is 234 549 km2, or 1.67% of the area of the continent. Blue ice is scattered widely over the continent but is generally located in coastal or mountainous regions. The BIA dataset presented in this study is the first map covering the entire Antarctic continent sourced solely from ETM+ and MODIS data. This dataset can potentially benefit other studies in glaciology, meteorology, climatology and paleoclimate, meteorite collection and airstrip site selection.
Neurosyphilis (NS) may present with neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by cognitive impairment, personality disorders, and confusion, among others. Very few studies have focused on neuropsychiatric disorders secondary to NS in elderly people.
A retrospective chart review was performed to characterize the psychiatric findings, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, and brain magnetic resonance imaging results of ten elderly inpatients with NS.
In these ten patients, the most common presenting symptoms included a wide variety of psychiatric manifestations. The serum rapid plasma regain (RPR) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) of the ten patients were positive, with positive CSF TPPA and RPR rates of 100% and 60%, respectively. In addition, 90% of the patients demonstrated abnormal imaging, including cerebral atrophy, infarct ischemic stroke, and hydrocephalus.
Our findings support the importance of serological tests for syphilis as a routine component of the evaluation of patients with clinically evident neurological or psychiatric symptoms. If the serology is positive, all of the patients should be examined with a lumbar puncture. Moreover, psychiatric illnesses secondary to NS in the elderly also deserve medical attention.
The efficacy of homocysteine (Hcy)-lowering therapy in reducing the risk of CVD among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether pooling the data from the few small randomised, controlled trials that address this topic would improve the statistical power of the analysis and resolve some of the inconsistencies in the results. Randomised, controlled clinical trials (RCT) were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, www.clinicaltrials.gov, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register Database and Nephrology Filters. Independent extraction of articles was performed using predefined data fields. The primary outcome was relative risk (RR) of CVD, CHD, stroke and all-cause mortality for the pooled trials. A stratified analysis was planned, assessing the RR for cardiovascular events between the patients on and not on dialysis. Overall, ten studies met the inclusion criteria. The estimated RR were not significantly different for any outcomes, including CHD (RR 1·00, 95 % CI 0·75, 1·31, P = 0·97), CVD (RR 0·94, 95 % CI 0·84, 1·05, P = 0·30), stroke (RR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·57, 1·19, P = 0·31) and all-cause mortality (RR 1·00, 95 % CI 0·92, 1·09, P = 0·98). In the stratified analysis, the estimated RR were not significantly different for cardiovascular events regardless of dialysis or in combination with vitamin B therapy or the degree of reduction in Hcy levels. Our meta-analysis of RCT supports the conclusion that Hcy-lowering therapy was not associated with a significant decrease in the risk for CVD events, stroke and all-cause mortality among patients with CKD.
The Chehugou granite-hosted molybdenum deposit is typical of the Xilamulun metallogenic belt, which is an important Mo–Ag–Pb–Zn producer in China. A combination of major and trace element, Sr and Nd isotope, and zircon U–Pb isotopic data are reported for the Chehugou batholith to constrain its petrogenesis and Mo mineralization. The zircon SIMS U–Pb dating yields mean ages of 384.7 ± 4.0 Ma and 373.1 ± 5.9 Ma for monzogranite and syenogranite and 265.6 ± 3.5 Ma and 245.1 ± 4.4 Ma for syenogranite porphyry and granite porphyry, respectively. The Devonian granites are calc-alkaline with K2O/Na2O ratios of 0.44–0.52, the Permian granites are alkali-calcic with K2O/Na2O ratios of 1.13–1.25, and the Triassic granites are calc-alkaline and alkali-calcic rocks with K2O/Na2O ratios of 0.78–1.63. They are all enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs) with negative Nb and Ta anomalies in primitive mantle-normalized trace element diagrams. They have relatively high Sr (189–1256 ppm) and low Y (3.87–5.43 ppm) concentrations. The Devonian granites have relatively high initial Sr isotope ratios of 0.7100–0.7126, negative ɛNd(t) values of −12.3 to −12.4 and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 16.46–17.50. In contrast, the Permian and Triassic granitoids have relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7048–0.7074), negative ɛNd(t) values of −10.1 to −13.1 and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 17.23–17.51. These geochemical features suggest that the Devonian, Permian and Triassic Chehugou granitoids were derived from ancient, garnet-bearing crustal rocks related to subduction of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean and subsequent continent–continent collision between the North China and Siberian plates.
Cytosol Ca2+ overload plays a vital role in ischemic neuronal damage, which is largely contributed by the Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors. In this article, L-VGCCs were activated by depolarization to investigate the cross-talk between NMDA receptors and L-VGCCs.
Depolarization was induced by 20 minutes incubation of 75 mM KCl in cultured rat cortical neuron. Apoptosis-like neuronal death was detected by DAPI staining. Tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2A (NR2A), interactions of Src and NR2A were detected by immunoblot and immunoprecipitation.
Depolarization induced cortical neuron apoptosis-like cell death after 24 hours of restoration. The apoptosis was partially inhibited by 5 mM EGTA, 100 μM Cd2+, 10 μM nimodipine, 100 μM genistein, 20 μM MK-801, 2 μM PP2 and combined treatment of nimodipine and MK-801. NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation increased after depolarization, and the increase was inhibited by the drugs listed above. Moreover, non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src bound with NR2A after depolarization and restoration. The binding was also inhibited by the drugs listed above.
The results indicated that depolarization-induced neuronal death might be due to extracellular Ca2+ influx through L-VGCCs and subsequently Src activationmediated NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation.
Solid solutions 0.7Bi1−xLax (Fe0.9Cr0.1) O3–0.1BaTiO3–0.2PbTiO3 (BLxFOC-BT-PT, with x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07) solid solutions were prepared by the traditional ceramic process. X-ray diffraction results reveal that all samples show pure pseudocubic perovskites structure. The lattice parameter of the solid solutions increases linearly with the La content, indicating that La ions have entered crystal lattices to form a solid solution. The Curie temperature of the solid solutions decreases with the La content. Room-temperature polarization–electric field (P–E) curves indicate that the samples with x = 0.03 and 0.05 exhibit saturated P–E loops. Piezoelectric constant d33 of the solid solutions increases firstly and then decreases. Magnetizations of the solid solutions decrease with the La content. The evidence of weak ferromagnetism and saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops in BLxFOC–BT–PT system at room temperature makes it a good candidate for multiferroic applications.
The volatile compounds of crofton weed infested by cotton aphids and sprayed
with MeJA were collected and analyzed by the TCT-GC/MS technique. The
healthy weeds were controls. Seventeen volatiles identified from crofton
weed included green leaf odors, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes, and
oxo-compounds. Camphene, 2-carene, α-phellandrene, ρ-cymene, and
caryophyllene were the major volatiles and constituted about 77% of the
total volatile emissions from the control. In the aphid-infested weeds, no
new induced component was found. Among the terpenes, ρ-cymene increased
markedly in the infested weeds compared with the control, whereas all
sesquiterpenes decreased markedly. Levels of endogenous JA in leaves and
young stems of the aphid-infested weeds were markedly higher than in the
control, whereas both endogenous SA level and ABA level were not
significantly different. MeJA sprayed on crofton weed with the aphid
infestation had a similar effect on volatile emissions. It is suggested that
JA was one of the most important signals in crofton weed and could regulate
the emission of volatile compounds.