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We provide the first examination of hedge fund boards and their directors. The majority of directorships are held by extremely busy independent directors. These directors are sought by funds because they have more reputational capital at stake, making them independent and credible monitors whose presence can certify fund quality to investors. Busy independent directors are more likely to be hired by high-quality funds, and their departure from the board is associated with investor withdrawals. Moreover, funds with busy independent directors are less likely to commit fraud, abuse discretionary liquidity restrictions, or engage in performance-based risk shifting.
Incorporating consumer perspectives into mental health services design is important in working to deliver recovery-oriented care. One of the challenges faced in mental health rehabilitation services is limited consumer engagement with the available support. Listening to consumers’ expectations of mental health services, and what they hope to achieve, provides an opportunity to examine the alignment between existing services and the priorities and preferences of the people who use them. We explored consumer understandings and expectations of three recovery-oriented community-based residential mental-health rehabilitation units using semi-structured interviews; two of these units were trialling a staffing model integrating peer support with clinical care.
Twenty-four consumers completed semi-structured interviews with an independent interviewer during the first 6 weeks of their stay at the rehabilitation unit. Most participants had a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder (87%). A pragmatic approach to grounded theory guided the analysis, facilitating identification of content and themes, and the development of an overarching conceptual map.
The rehabilitation units were considered to provide a transformational space and a transitional place. The most common reason given for engagement was housing insecurity or homelessness rather than the opportunity for rehabilitation engagement. Differences in expectations did not emerge between consumers entering the clinical and integrated staffing model sites.
Consumers understand the function of the rehabilitation service they are entering. However, receiving rehabilitation support may not be the key driver of their attendance. This finding has implications for promoting consumer engagement with rehabilitation services. The absence of differences between the integrated and clinical staffing models may reflect the novelty of the rehabilitation context. The study highlights the need for staff to find better ways to increase consumer awareness of the potential relevance of evidence-based rehabilitation support to facilitating their recovery.
To investigate the feasibility of a national audit of epistaxis management led and delivered by a multi-region trainee collaborative using a web-based interface to capture patient data.
Six trainee collaboratives across England nominated one site each and worked together to carry out this pilot. An encrypted data capture tool was adapted and installed within the infrastructure of a university secure server. Site-lead feedback was assessed through questionnaires.
Sixty-three patients with epistaxis were admitted over a two-week period. Site leads reported an average of 5 minutes to complete questionnaires and described the tool as easy to use. Data quality was high, with little missing data. Site-lead feedback showed high satisfaction ratings for the project (mean, 4.83 out of 5).
This pilot showed that trainee collaboratives can work together to deliver an audit using an encrypted data capture tool cost-effectively, whilst maintaining the highest levels of data quality.
There is limited evidence of the prevalence of enteric protozoon infections in developed settings. We estimated the prevalence of enteric protozoa and evaluated the outcome of testing algorithms used in hospital settings in Sydney, Australia. This retrospective study assessed microbiological data from four public clinical laboratories. Pooled data from the four hospitals revealed the most common enteric protozoon detected was Blastocystis spp. in an average of 5·4% of cases, followed by Giardia intestinalis (1·1%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (0·8%). Protozoon detection rates between hospitals were significantly different and could be based on multiple factors. The modified iron haematoxylin staining method, consistently detected higher rates of Blastocystis spp., and G. intestinalis in comparison with microscopy of wet preparations, as well as higher rates of G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium when compared with enzyme immunoassay. The study concludes that there are multiple factors that contribute to the variability in protozoa detection rates in metropolitan hospitals, including widespread variability in the testing protocols for enteric protozoa, individual and population characteristics. A gold standard approach for diagnosis of enteric protozoa is recommended. Molecular diagnostic methods such as polymerase chain reaction would provide consistency across laboratories and yield more reliable estimates of the actual prevalence of enteric protozoa.
The Critically Endangered Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis formerly ranged across South-east Asia. Hunting and habitat loss have made it one of the rarest large mammals and the species faces extinction despite decades of conservation efforts. The number of individuals remaining is unknown as a consequence of inadequate methods and lack of funds for the intensive field work required to estimate the population size of this rare and solitary species. However, all information indicates that numbers are low and declining. A few individuals persist in Borneo, and three tiny populations remain on the Indonesian island of Sumatra and show evidence of breeding. Rhino Protection Units are deployed at all known breeding sites but poaching and a presumed low breeding rate remain major threats. Protected areas have been created for the rhinoceros and other in situ conservation efforts have increased but the species has continued to go locally extinct across its range. Conventional captive breeding has also proven difficult; from a total of 45 Sumatran rhinoceros taken from the wild since 1984 there were no captive births until 2001. Since then only two pairs have been actively bred in captivity, resulting in four births, three by the same pair at the Cincinnati Zoo and one at the Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary in Sumatra, with the sex ratio skewed towards males. To avoid extinction it will be necessary to implement intensive management zones, manage the metapopulation as a single unit, and develop advanced reproductive techniques as a matter of urgency. Intensive census efforts are ongoing in Bukit Barisan Selatan but elsewhere similar efforts remain at the planning stage.