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We aimed to quantify the proportion of people receiving care for HIV-infection that are 50 years or older (older HIV patients) in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2000 and 2015 and to estimate the contribution to the growth of this population of people enrolled before (<50yo) and after 50 years old (yo) (⩾50yo). We used a series of repeated, cross-sectional measurements over time in the Caribbean, Central and South American network (CCASAnet) cohort. We estimated the percentage of patients retained in care each year that were older HIV patients. For every calendar year, we divided patients into two groups: those who enrolled before age 50 and after age 50. We used logistic regression models to estimate the change in the proportion of older HIV patients between 2000 and 2015. The percentage of CCASAnet HIV patients over 50 years had a threefold increase (8% to 24%) between 2000 and 2015. Most of the growth of this population can be explained by the increasing proportion of people that enrolled before 50 years and aged in care. These changes will impact needs of care for people living with HIV, due to multiple comorbidities and high risk of disability associated with aging.
William Perkins, the late sixteenth-century Cambridge theologian and one of the best-selling authors of his time, wrote the first major English book on preaching. During his ministry in Cambridge, as a fellow of Christ’s College and lecturer at Great St Andrew’s Church, he also preached a large number of sermons, which illustrated the art he taught. Historians of preaching have generally seen him as the chief proponent of the puritan ‘plain style’, a way of preaching sometimes contrasted with the learned, elaborate, ‘metaphysical’ style of preaching fashionable in the Established Church during the early seventeenth century. Recently it has been argued that preachers like Perkins were so insistent on the moral demands of the Scriptures, particularly those of the Old Testament, that they became increasingly unpopular in the English Church. According to Christopher Haigh, preaching of the kind favoured by Perkins and like-minded ministers - morally demanding, hortatory and focused on predestination - was deeply resented and strongly resisted by many English parishioners, who helped to fashion what he describes as a more relaxed, ‘anglicised’ Protestantism that they found more congenial. Peter Iver Kaufman has written that Perkins, like other members of what he calls ‘the Protestant opposition to Elizabethan religious reform’, aimed to shame his hearers, and that ‘at Cambridge, [he] taught the next generation of dissident preachers to shame and thus save their parishioners’. Some parishioners were no doubt made uncomfortable by Perkins and preachers influenced by him. But these recent assessments of Perkins and his place in the history of preaching are misleading and inadequate. They underestimate the character and extent of his influence on preaching. Moreover, many commentators have failed to recognize the effect of Perkins’s views on the development of English prose. This essay will show what Perkins taught in his treatise on preaching, and argue for its lasting significance for modern prose style.
The beef herd in the UK comprises of a diverse range in suckler cow genotypes and terminal sires (Keady et al., 2004a), which results in major variability in the animals presented for slaughter each day. Recent data indicates that Charolais and Limousin progeny account for over 65% of the beef animals slaughtered in Northern Ireland (APHIS, 2008). The objective of this study was to evaluate sire breed (Charolais or Limousin) and gender (steer or heifer) on performance during the finishing period, carcass parameters and meat quality.
There is a paucity of data on the beef production potential of Norwegian Red (NOR) compared with ‘modern’ Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle. The present study used a total of 64 bulls in a 2 × 2 factorial design study encompassing two breeds (HF and NOR) and two slaughter ages (485; E, and 610; L, days). The mean initial age and live weight of the HF bulls were 179 (s.d. 47.1) days and 203 (s.d. 64.0) kg, while the corresponding data for the NOR bulls were 176 (s.d. 39.7) days and 185 (s.d. 63.6) kg, respectively. Bulls were offered a 50 : 50 mixture (dry matter (DM) basis) of grass silage and concentrates. No breed × slaughter group interactions were recorded for any parameters evaluated (P > 0.05). HF bulls had higher (P < 0.001) DM intake and poorer (P < 0.01) efficiency of conversion of food to carcass gain than NOR bulls. HF bulls tended (P = 0.07) to have a higher rate of live-weight gain and were heavier (P < 0.001) at slaughter than NOR bulls, though both carcass weight and rate of carcass gain did not differ between the breeds (P > 0.05). NOR bulls had higher (P < 0.001) dressing proportion and carcass conformation score than HF bulls, while breed of bull had no influence (P > 0.05) on carcass fat classification, depth of subcutaneous fat, marbling score or on the weight of fat in the internal depots. Daily food intakes did not differ (P > 0.05) across the two slaughter age groups, though efficiency of conversion of food to carcass gain was poorer (P < 0.05) in the L compared with E bulls. Rate of live-weight gain was lower (P < 0.01) for L bulls, although rate of carcass gain did not differ (P > 0.05) between the E and L bulls. Increasing age at slaughter increased (P < 0.01 or greater) dressing proportion, carcass fat class, depth of subcutaneous fat, marbling score and internal fat depots, but had no effect (P > 0.05) on the carcass conformation score. Instrumental measures of meat quality indicated that meat from NOR bulls was tougher (P < 0.01) than meat from HF bulls, while delaying slaughter increased (P < 0.001) a* and C*ab, and decreased (P < 0.01) h0, indicating improved redness. It is concluded that NOR bulls have higher food efficiency and produce more highly conformed carcasses than HF bulls, but HF bulls produce more tender meat.
Malnutrition is associated with an increased incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the effect of malnutrition on the metabolic and inflammatory response to surgery in patients with oesophageal cancer, we studied the effects of oesophagectomy in six patients with major (13·9 (se 1·3) %) weight loss and five patients with minor (0·7 (se 0·6) %) weight loss in the 6 months before to surgery. Rates of appearance (Ra) of glucose, glycerol, leucine and urea were determined by stable isotopically labelled tracer infusion before and after surgery. C-reactive protein was measured as an inflammation marker. BMI was lower in the patients with major weight loss than those with minor weight loss (20·3 (se 0·7) and 24·9 (se 1·5) kg/m2, P = 0·02). With the exception of greater glucose Ra in the major weight loss than minor weight loss subjects (11·1 (se 0·3) v. 9·5 (se 0·3) μmol/kg per min, P = 0·01), there were no differences in substrate kinetics before surgery between groups. Surgery increased glucose Ra, leucine Ra and urea Ra by 41, 24 and 58 %, respectively, in the total group. Changes in substrate kinetics in response to surgery were not different between patients with major and minor weight loss. Surgery increased C-reactive protein concentrations to a comparable extent in both groups. In conclusion, major upper gastrointestinal tract surgery in patients with oesophageal cancer elicits a catabolic response, characterized by increased inflammation, glucose production and protein breakdown. However, this catabolic response does not seem to be influenced by pre-operative nutritional status.
William Perkins, usually described as an Elizabethan Puritan, was significant in ways that are only beginning to be recognised by historians. His writings, published in numerous editions in England and on the continent and translated into Latin and half a dozen vernacular languages, made him the most prominent English theologian of his day. This article contends that his career was devoted not to bringing about changes in the Established Church but to making that Church's teachings better known and appreciated. Perkins should be seen as a leading apologist for the Elizabethan Church of England.
The proportion of beef cattle originating from the suckler herd is projected to decrease, relative to the proportion from the dairy herd. Sinclair et al., (2001) found no difference between eating quality of Holstein and Charolais when hung tenderstretch. Most genotype comparisons in relation to meat quality have used the longissimus dorsi muscle and very few have considered more than one particular post slaughter process (ie hanging technique, aging period). The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of genotype and post slaughter processing (hanging technique and aging time) on the eating quality of a range of hindquarter muscles.
Recent data on meat quality indicates that dairy genotypes produce more tender meat than beef genotypes. The relationships between carcass parameters and instrumental measures of meat quality depend on the method of hanging (Lively et al., 2005). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of some carcass parameters on meat eating quality of two genotypes when two carcass hanging methods are used.
A considerable proportion of beef produced in the UK is a byproduct of the dairy industry. Young animals from this source are generally regarded as low in quality and meat from animals of this type is usually destined for the commodity minced beef market. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of slaughter weight on sensory characteristics of meat from Holstein-Friesian bulls and steers offered a cereal-based ration.