1Adlercreutz, H, Mazur, W. Phyto-oestrogens and Western diseases. Annals of Medicine 1997; 29: 95–120.
2Hopert, A-C, Beyer, A, Frank, K, Strunck, E, Wunsche, W, Vollmer, G. Characterization of estrogenicity of phytoestrogens in an endometrial-derived experimental model. Environmental Health Perspectives 1998; 106: 581–6.
3Breinholt, V, Hossaini, A, Svendsen, GW, Brouwer, C, Nielson, SE. Estrogenic activity of flavonoids in mice. The importance of estrogen receptor distribution, metabolism and bioavailability. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2000; 38: 555–64.
4Setchell, KDR. Phytoestrogens: the biochemistry, physiology, and implications for human health of soy isoflavones. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 68(Suppl.): 1333S–46S.
5Guthrie, JR, Ball, M, Murkies, A, Dennerstein, L. Dietary phytoestrogen intake in mid-life Australian-born women: relationship to health variables. Climacteric 2000; 3: 254–61.
6Keinan-Boker, L, Peeters, PHM, Mulligan, AA, Navarro, C, Slimani, N, Mattison, I, et al. Soy product consumption in 10 European countries: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Public Health Nutrition 2002; 5: 1217–26.
7Dai, Q, Shu, XO, Jin, F, Potter, JD, Kushi, LH, Teas, J, et al. Population-based case-control study of soyfood intake and breast cancer risk in Shanghai. British Journal of Cancer 2001; 85: 372–8.
8Chen, Z, Zheng, W, Custer, LJ, Dai, Q, Shu, XO, Jin, F, et al. Usual dietary consumption of soy foods and its correlation with the excretion rate of isoflavonoids in overnight urine samples among Chinese women in Shanghai. Nutrition and Cancer 1999; 33: 82–7.
9Ho, SC, Woo, JL, Leung, SS, Sham, AL, Lam, TH, Janus, ED. Intake of soy products is associated with better plasma lipid profiles in the Hong Kong Chinese population. Journal of Nutrition 2000; 130: 2590–3.
10Willett, W. Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
11Thomas, DB, Gao, DL, Ray, RM, Wang, WW, Allison, CJ, Chen, FJ, et al. Randomized trial of breast self-examination in Shanghai: final results. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2002; 94: 1445–57.
14Franke, AA, Hankin, JH, Yu, MC, Maskarinec, G, Low, SH, Custer, LJ. Isoflavone levels in soy foods consumed by multiethnic populations in Singapore and Hawaii. Journal of Agricutural and Food Chemistry 1999; 47: 977–86.
15Gamache, PH, Acworth, IN. Analysis of phytoestrogens and polyphenols in plasma, tissue, and urine using HPLC with coulometric array detection. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1998; 217: 274–80.
16Lundh, T, Pettersson, H, Kiessling, K. Liquid chromatographic determination of the estrogens, daidzein, formononetin, coumestrol, and equol in bovine plasma and urine. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1988; 71: 938–41.
17Coward, L, Kirk, M, Albin, N, Barnes, S. Analysis of plasma isoflavones by reversed-phase HPLC–multiple reaction ion monitoring-mass spectrometry. Clinica Chimica Acta 1996; 247: 121–42.
19Yamamoto, S, Sobue, T, Sasaki, S, Kobayahi, M, Arai, Y, Uehara, M, et al. Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire to assess isoflavone intake in a Japanese population in comparison with dietary records and blood and urine isoflavones. Journal of Nutrition 2001; 131: 2741–7.
20Arai, Y, Uehara, M, Sato, Y, Kimira, M, Eboshida, A, Adlercreutz, H, et al. Comparison of isoflavones among dietary intake, plasma concentration and urinary excretion for accurate estimation of phytoestrogen intake. Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 10: 127–35.
21Maskarinec, G, Singh, S, Meng, L, Franke, AA. Dietary soy intake and urinary isoflavone excretion among women from a multiethnic population. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 1998; 7: 613–9.
22Huang, MH, Harrison, GG, Mohamed, MM, Gornbein, JA, Henning, SM, Go, VL, et al. Assessing the accuracy of a food frequency questionnaire for estimating usual intake of phytoestrogen. Nutrition and Cancer 2000; 37: 145–54.
23Willett, WC. Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
24Nagata, C, Shimizu, H, Takami, R, Hayashi, M, Takeda, N, Yasuda, K. Soy product intake and serum isoflavonoid and estradiol concentrations in relation to bone mineral density in postmenopausal Japanese women. Osteoporosis International 2002; 13: 200–4.
25Morton, MS, Arisaka, O, Miyake, N, Morgan, LD, Evans, BA. Phytoestrogen concentrations in serum from Japanese men and women over forty years of age. Journal of Nutrition 2002; 132: 3168–71.
26Frankenfeld, CL, Patterson, RE, Kalhorn, TF, Skor, HE, Howald, WN, Lampe, JW. Validation of a soy food frequency questionnaire with plasma concentrations of isoflavones in US adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002; 102: 1407–13.
27Frankenfeld, CL, Patterson, RE, Horner, NK, Neuhouser, ML, Skor, HE, Kalhorn, TF, et al. Validation of a soy food-frequency questionnaire and evaluation of correlates of plasma isoflavone concentrations in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 77: 674–80.
28De Kleijn, MJ, van der Schouw, YT, Wilson, PW, Adlercreutz, H, Mazur, W, Grobbee, DE, et al. Intake of dietary phytoestrogens is low in postmenopausal women in the United States: The Framingham Study. Journal of Nutrition 2001; 131: 1826–32.
29Jakes, RW, Duffy, SW, Ng, FC, Gao, F, Ng, EH. Mammographic parenchymal patterns and self-reported soy intake in Singapore Chinese women. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2002; 11: 608–13.
30Sun, CL, Yuan, JM, Arakawa, K, Low, SH, Lee, HP, Yu, MC. Dietary soy and increased risk of bladder cancer: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2002; 11: 1674–7.
31Setchell, KDR, Faughnan, MS, Avades, T, Zimmer-Nechemias, L, Brown, NM, Wolfe, BE, et al. Comparing the pharmokinetics of daidzein and genistein with the use of 13C-labeled tracers in premenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 77: 411–9.
32Watanabe, S, Yamaguchi, M, Sobue, T, Takahashi, T, Miura, T, Arai, Y, et al. Pharmacokinetics of soybean isoflavones in plasma, urine and feces of men after ingestion of 60 g baked soybean powder (kinako). Journal of Nutrition 1998; 128: 1710–5.
33King, RA, Bursill, DB. Plasma and urinary kinetics of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein after a single soy meal in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 67: 867–72.
34Lampe, JW. Isoflavonoid and lignan phytoestrogens as dietary biomarkers. Journal of Nutrition 2003; 133(Suppl. 3): 956S–64S.