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Amidst widespread occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds in the United States, the use of PRE herbicides and cover crops have resurged once again as important strategies for weed management in cropping systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the length of soil residual weed control from PRE soybean herbicides and the detrimental impact of these herbicides on cover crop species using field treated soil in greenhouse bioassays. Greenhouse bioassays were conducted using soil from field experiments conducted in 2018 and 2019 at Arlington and Lancaster, WI. PRE herbicides consisted of imazethapyr, chlorimuron-ethyl, and cloransulam-methyl (acetolactate synthase [ALS]-inhibitors), metribuzin (photosystem II [PSII]-inhibitor), sulfentrazone, flumioxazin, and saflufenacil (protoporphyrinogen oxidase [PPO]-inhibitors), acetochlor, S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P, and pyroxasulfone (very long-chain fatty acid [VLCFA]-inhibitors), and a nontreated control. Greenhouse bioassays were conducted using soil (0-10 cm depth) sampled at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 d after treatment (DAT). Palmer amaranth and giant foxtail (weeds), and radish and cereal rye (cover crops) were used as bioindicators of herbicide levels in the soil. Bioassay results showed extended soil residual control of Palmer amaranth with sulfentrazone and pyroxasulfone; extended residual control of giant foxtail was observed with pyroxasulfone and S-metolachlor. Chlorimuron-ethyl and metribuzin were the most injurious herbicides to radish and cereal rye shortly after application, respectively, but minimal injury was observed from soil samples collected 50 DAT indicating the use of PRE and fall seeded cover crops in southern Wisconsin can be compatible. These results can support growers and practitioners with selection of effective PRE herbicides for Palmer amaranth and giant foxtail control and reduced impact on fall seeded radish and cereal rye cover crops altogether leading to more effective, diverse and sustainable weed management programs.
This study aimed to analyse the spatial–temporal distribution of COVID-19 mortality in Sergipe, Northeast, Brazil. It was an ecological study utilising spatiotemporal analysis techniques that included all deaths confirmed by COVID-19 in Sergipe, from 2 April to 14 June 2020. Mortality rates were calculated per 100 000 inhabitants and the temporal trends were analysed using a segmented log-linear model. For spatial analysis, the Kernel estimator was used and the crude mortality rates were smoothed by the empirical Bayesian method. The space–time prospective scan statistics applied the Poisson's probability distribution model. There were 391 COVID-19 registered deaths, with the majority among ⩾60 years old (62%) and males (53%). The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (40%), diabetes (31%) and cardiovascular disease (15%). An increasing mortality trend across the state was observed, with a higher increase in the countryside. An active spatiotemporal cluster of mortality comprising the metropolitan area and neighbouring cities was identified. The trend of COVID-19 mortality in Sergipe was increasing and the spatial distribution of deaths was heterogeneous with progression towards the countryside. Therefore, the use of spatial analysis techniques may contribute to surveillance and control of COVID-19 pandemic.
The fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering that mimic the extracellular matrix with bioactive and bactericidal properties could provide adequate conditions for regeneration of damaged bone. Electrospun ultrathin fiber covered with nano-hydroxyapatite is a favorable fibrous scaffold design. We developed a fast and reproducible strategy to produce polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) nanofibrous scaffolds with bactericidal and bioactive properties. Fibrous PVDF scaffolds were obtained first by the electrospinning method. Then, their surfaces were modified using oxygen plasma treatment followed by electrodeposition of nHAp. This process formed nanofibrous and superhydrophilic PVDF fibers (133.6 nm, fiber average diameter) covered with homogeneous nHAp (202.6 nm, average particle diameter) crystals. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry demonstrated the presence of calcium phosphate, indicating a Ca/P molar ratio of approximately 1.64. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy spectra identified β-phase of nHAp. Thermal analysis indicated a slight reduction in stability after nHAp electrodeposition. Bactericidal assays showed that nHAp exhibited 99.8% efficiency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The PVDF/Plasma and PVDF/nHAp groups had the highest cell viability, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase activity by 7 days after exposure of the scaffolds to MG63 cell culture. Therefore, the developed scaffolds are an exciting alternative for application in bone regeneration.
Growing research indicates that police legitimacy is a strong predictor of whether people behave respecting or violating rules. Perceptions of legitimacy are an output of socializing processes through which individuals develop their values and orientations toward authorities and the legal system. Legal socialization studies show that encounters with legal authorities are critical “teachable moments” in this process. The present study verifies whether direct or vicarious negative contacts with police officers affect changes in the perception of the legitimacy of police authority by adolescents over time. The adolescents were classified according to whether or not they had witnessed or experienced any negative contact or experience with the police during the period before the interview, composing two group trajectories at the first wave, four at the second wave, and eight at the third wave. Then the trajectories were compared in terms of the extent to which they agree with statements about police legitimacy, allowing the quantification of changes of opinion after negative contacts with the police. Results show that three main factors diminish the perception of police legitimacy: having negative contact with the police; having more than one negative contact; and having a recent negative contact. These findings have important implications for police patrolling and approach strategies.
To investigate knowledge and practice of Brazilian public primary and secondary health care dentists during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
An online questionnaire with sociodemographic and COVID-19 knowledge questions was used.
A total of 4048 dentists working in the Brazilian public primary and secondary health care system were investigated; 4024 (99.41%) believe that COVID-19 can be transmitted through dental procedures. A fair level of COVID-19 symptoms knowledge by these dentists was observed (3.76±1.27 of 6.00), as well as the skepticism in personal protective equipment (3382; 83.55%) and biosafety procedures (3278; 80.98%) used as an efficient form of COVID-19 transmission prevention. Country region, performance of social distancing, dental specialty, the use of personal protective equipment, and biosafety preventive measures influenced the likelihood of dentists to perform dental treatment, either elective or urgent, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The need of extra preventive barriers for dental treatment may bring an extra financial stress in the Brazilian public primary and secondary health care system, as well as in the patient-dentist relationship, which may have to be reframed. Internationally accepted public guideline policies regarding dental treatment safety, as well as the technological development of preventive tools, are needed to deal with the challenges brought by COVID-19.
This study aimed to analyse the trend and spatial–temporal clusters of risk of transmission of COVID-19 in northeastern Brazil. We conducted an ecological study using spatial and temporal trend analysis. All confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the Northeast region of Brazil were included, from 7 March to 22 May 2020. We used the segmented log-linear regression model to assess time trends, and the local empirical Bayesian estimator, the global and local Moran indexes for spatial analysis. The prospective space–time scan statistic was performed using the Poisson probability distribution model. There were 113 951 confirmed cases of COVID-19. The average incidence rate was 199.73 cases/100 000 inhabitants. We observed an increasing trend in the incidence rate in all states. Spatial autocorrelation was reported in metropolitan areas, and 178 municipalities were considered a priority, especially in the states of Ceará and Maranhão. We identified 11 spatiotemporal clusters of COVID-19 cases; the primary cluster included 70 municipalities from Ceará state. COVID-19 epidemic is increasing rapidly throughout the Northeast region of Brazil, with dispersion towards countryside. It was identified high risk clusters for COVID-19, especially in the coastal side.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Cellprene™ is a recently developed polymeric blend based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/polyisoprene (PI) with good biological performance for biomedical applications. However, its potential as fiber scaffold in tissue engineering is still unknown, and the influence of processing parameters is yet to be understood. In this study, several compositions based on PLGA/PI blend mixed with hydroxyapatite (HAp) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were prepared by solvent casting. Then, the membranes were used to produce micro/nanofibers by centrifugal spinning (CS) and electrospinning (ES). The viscosity's effect was studied to find an ideal viscosity value to produce homogeneous micro/nanofibers. The in vitro bioactivity test was also performed. Rheological results showed that the best viscosity range was (0.105 Pa s > η > 0.138 Pa s) for CS; larger fibers of ES were produced with lower viscosities. The sample with the lowest HAp concentration exhibited thinner and more homogeneous non-beaded fibers and proved its bioactivity response.
The farrowing process is one of the most energy-demanding activities for the modern hyperprolific sow. This study evaluated the effects of supply of energy on the expected date of farrowing on the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance during the first 24 h after birth. A total of 80 sows were used. The sows and their respective litters were considered as the experimental unit. On the expected day of farrowing, the sows were allocated to one of the following groups: sows that did not have access to feed from farrowing induction until the end of the farrowing process (CON, n = 40); sows fed 500 g of energetic supplement, which consisted of 250 g of the basal lactation diet plus 250 g of cane sugar, 18 h after farrowing induction (SUP, n = 40). The farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, birth interval, number of total born, stillborn and mummified piglets were recorded for each sow. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and 24 h later. The interval from birth to first suckle was evaluated individually for each piglet in 16 randomly selected litters (eight litters per treatment group). Blood glucose concentrations of six sows were measured shortly after expulsion of the first piglet. Farrowing duration, farrowing assistance and stillborn rate tended to be greater (P = 0.06, P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively) in sows from the CON group compared to sows from the SUP group. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups for birth interval. Colostrum intake was greater (P < 0.05) for piglets from the SUP group compared to piglets from the CON group. Additionally, BW gain of the piglets suckling the SUP group was greater (P < 0.05) than those suckling the CON group at 24 h after birth. The blood glucose concentrations during the expulsive stage of farrowing were greater (P < 0.05) in the SUP group than for sows from the CON group. In conclusion, supplying modern hyperprolific sows energy on the expected day of farrowing is a valuable nutritional intervention to improve the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance in early life.
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.
This research communication describes the influence of diet, mammary quarter position and milking process on the temperature of teats and udder of cows fed diets containing different lipid sources. Five primiparous cows were fed diets containing cottonseed, sunflower seed, soybeans or soybean oil as a source of lipids and a reference diet without the inclusion of lipid sources in a 5 × 5 Latin Square design. Milk yield was determined in the last five days of each period. Milk samples were collected for SCC analysis on the last two days of each experimental period. The images of the mammary gland were obtained using an infrared camera and were analyzed with appropriate computer software. Milk yield was 14.8% higher for cows fed soybeans as a source of lipids. Diets and somatic cell counts did not influence the temperature of teats and udder. The milking process reduced the temperature of teats and udder by 0.79°C. Rear teats and rear quarters had higher surface temperatures than front teats and fore quarters. Changes in temperature of teats and mammary quarters occurred as a function of the milking process and quarter position. However, the diet and the SCC did not influence the temperature of teats and mammary quarters in this experiment.
The use of antibiotics as performance enhancers in animal feeding is declining, so Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil (LGSEO) could be used as a potential substitute for the conventionally used growth promoters. The LGSEO contains components such as carvacrol and thymol, which kill and/or control pathogenic bacteria, increase population of beneficial organisms, act against oxidative processes and onto nutrient digestibility and absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the action and the effects of LGSEO as a growth promoter in the diet of Japanese quail by examining their productive performance, intestinal microbiology, blood biochemical parameters, hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and intestinal gene expression. A total of 252 two-day-old quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were assigned to 3 treatments in 7 replicates, using 12 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal diet, basal diet + LGSEO at 400 mg/kg of diet and basal diet + chemical antimicrobial (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) at 500 mg/kg of diet. The experimental period was 34 days. The highest feed intake (P < 0.01) was found in the group receiving the conventional antimicrobial, whereas the best feed conversion (P < 0.01) was shown by the animals receiving LGSEO. Escherichia coli growth was restricted in the quail receiving the growth promoters. Salmonella spp. growth was controlled by the treatment containing the conventional antimicrobial. There was no difference between the treatments (P > 0.05) for the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzymes in the blood or hepatic TBARS content. Birds receiving negative-control treatment exhibited a higher expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), while those receiving the treatment with essential oil showed lower catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX7) expressions compared to the conventional antimicrobial and control groups, respectively. Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil is a powerful performance enhancer for Japanese quail by virtue of its abilities to improve their intestinal environment, balance the microbial population and reduce energy expenditure for oxidative processes.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
Selective mutism is an acquired disorder of interpersonal communication in which the child refuses or withholds the speech in some circumstances while displays normal speech in other situations. It is a relatively rare disorder and it appears to be slightly more common in girls than boys. Different etiological explanations have been hypothesized and we often find comorbidity with other psychiatric pathology. However the most frequent association occurs with social phobia, with values of 90 to 100% of comorbidity being referred in some studies.
Methods and Results
The authors undertook a review on this subject, focusing on different aetiology approaches, including genetics, temperamental, psychological, developmental and social conceptualizations. Issues concerning assessment and treatment were explored as well. They point out the importance of an integrative approach of the several theories described, in order to understand the complexity of the pathology and consequently achieve more accurate treatment strategies.
Although rare, selective mutism deserves particular attention because this condition can have dramatically negative effects on social and educational functioning in childhood reflecting later in adult life.
The Convention on the Rights of the Child acknowledges that the family is the natural environment for the upbringing of a child and that the parents have the primary responsibility for the child's education. However, it also mentions the need to find adequate substitute care whenever the child is temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or when the child's best interests cannot be secured within the family environment. This substitute care may include adoption, foster placement or, as last resort, placement in an institution suitable for child care. Although some institutions have high quality standards for child care, this is not always the case.
Institutionalized children are likely to come from unfavourable family environments, where they were victims of multiple psychosocial adversities, and studies show they present high scores of emotional and conduct disorders, together with cognitive problems.
We examined medical files of all the institutionalized children and adolescents who attended the outpatient clinic of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Coimbra, Portugal, between the years 2005 and 2008, in order to characterize this population.
There was a male excess in our sample. The majority of the children and adolescents were institutionalized due to abuse and/or neglect and had conduct or oppositional defiance disorder. A considerable number had cognitive deficits.
Mental health services should work closely with these institutions to identify their strengths and difficulties, facilitating prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric problems.
Depression is the psychiatric co-morbidity most commonly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, depression is often under-diagnosed and under-recognized and the affected patients seldom receive treatment for this psychiatric disorder. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of major depression among Brazilian patients with a diagnosis of PD.
The study was conducted at the movement disorders outpatient clinic of the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto. A total of 111 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of PD were selected and independently interviewed using the SCID-IV-CV (DSM-IV). Patients with dementia associated with PD were excluded.
Patient age ranged from 24 to 85 years (mean: 61.2 + 12.7 years). Fifty-eight of the 102 patients (52.3%) were females and 53 (47.7%) were males. The current prevalence of depression was 26.1% (29) and the lifetime was 57.7% (64). Regarding gender, the current prevalence of depression was 15.1% (9) for males and 36.2% (21) for females, with the difference being statistically significant (p<0.01). The lifetime prevalence of depression was 33.4% (23) for males and 70.7% (41) for females (p<0.01).
The high prevalence of major depression among patients with PD and the predominance of women detected in this study are comparable to the rates observed in studies conducted in other countries. Strategies for an early diagnosis and adequate treatment appear to be necessary and opportune in order to improve the quality of life of the patients and to prevent possible complications such as suicide.
Gender has a critical role in mental health and mental illness. Gender differences occur predominantly in the rates of common mental disorders such as depression and anxiety related disorders, with the difference concerning depression being one of the strongest findings in psychiatric epidemiology. Besides differences in rates, gender specificities with regard to risk and susceptibility, age of onset, course of the illness and outcome are of great importance. In the same context, psychiatric disorders concerning women's life cycle, pregnancy and postnatal period are an important mental health focus sometimes undervalued by clinicians. The authors aim to explore these issues with regard to recent findings.
Methods and Results:
Through a literature review the authors look at the reasons behind these gender differences, from biological and social aspects to patterns of help seeking for psychiatric disorder, realizing that women seek more professional help and are more likely to define an experience as an “illness” by one hand and that psychiatrists have more propensity to diagnose and prescribe medication to women by the other hand. A comprehensible overview of specific women psychiatric disorders is also attained.
The need for a multi-level, integrated approach which takes into account specificities of female gender is pointed out, in order to reduce the burden of mental disorders in our societies, greatly accounted by women.
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a psychiatric co-morbidity commonly related to Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the real nature of this association is still unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of SAD in patients with a diagnosis of PD.
Eighty-seven consecutive patients with a diagnosis of PD and no associated dementia were evaluated at a movement disorder outpatient clinic. The patients were independently interviewed using the SCID-IV for DSM-IV.
Patient age ranged from 24 to 85 years (mean: 60.7 years) (+13.2). Forty-five patients (51.7%) were women and 42 (48.3%) were men. The lifelong prevalence of SAD was 32.2%. However, only 16.1% presented this anxiety disorder before the beginning of PD. The prevalence of SAD with onset after PD, i.e., secondary to a movement disorder, was 16.1%, with no sex differences in SAD prevalence among PD patients.
The high rate of SAD among PD patients detected in the present study (32.1%) is comparable to those reported in other countries. However, the prevalence of patients who presented SAD before the onset of PD (16.1%) was similar to that reported for the general population. Thus, the present results suggest that the high rates of SAD among PD patients reported in the literature are due to afraid to be judged in a negative manner in public due to their tremors and other aspects of PD, rather than being related to a specific neurobiological process occurring in this movement disorder.
Psychiatric disorders are considered to be universal, being found in all types of societies, from small nomadic groups to large complex civilizations. We can understand Cultural Psychiatry as a perspective that looks for comprehension of psychiatric disorders from the viewpoint of systems of meanings and values prevalent in a society. It went through great developments in the last 20-30 years, becoming extremely relevant in modern societies due to progressive cultural heterogeneity and migrations, which is the case of Portugal.
The authors undertake a revision of this topic in the literature
In a global picture Mental Disorders tend to be more prevalent in geographical contexts of poverty and that amazingly rich specificities are found throughout all psychiatric conditions, including suicidal behaviour, psychotic disorders, affective and anxiety related disorders, among many others, in what concerns ethnic and religious variability within countries, urban/rural environment and social status. It is now accepted that individuals with different ethnic and ancestral backgrounds might differ significantly in their biological inheritance, including pharmacological responses with its implications in therapeutic range and adverse effects.
It is imperative to take into account all these aspects in every society in order to adequately assess and treat psychiatric patients and ultimately achieve the real meaning of Modern Psychiatry.