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To understand price incentives to upsize combination meals at fast-food restaurants by comparing the calories (i.e. kilocalories; 1 kcal = 4·184 kJ) per dollar of default combination meals (as advertised on the menu) with a higher-calorie version (created using realistic consumer additions and portion-size changes).
Combination meals (lunch/dinner: n 258, breakfast: n 68, children’s: n 34) and their prices were identified from online menus; corresponding nutrition information for each menu item was obtained from a restaurant nutrition database (MenuStat). Linear models were used to examine the difference in total calories per dollar between default and higher-calorie combination meals, overall and by restaurant.
Ten large fast-food chain restaurants located in the fifteen most populous US cities in 2017–2018.
There were significantly more calories per dollar in higher-calorie v. default combination meals for lunch/dinner (default: 577 kJ (138 kcal)/dollar, higher-calorie: 707 kJ (169 kcal)/dollar, difference: 130 kJ (31 kcal)/dollar, P < 0·001) and breakfast (default: 536 kJ (128 kcal)/dollar, higher-calorie: 607 kJ (145 kcal)/dollar, difference: 71 kJ (17 kcal)/dollar, P = 0·009). Results for children’s meals were in the same direction but were not statistically significant (default: 536 kJ (128 kcal)/dollar, higher-calorie: 741 kJ (177 kcal)/dollar, difference: 205 kJ (49 kcal)/dollar, P = 0·053). Across restaurants, the percentage change in calories per dollar for higher-calorie v. default combination meals ranged from 0·1 % (Dunkin’ Donuts) to 55·0 % (Subway).
Higher-calorie combination meals in fast-food restaurants offer significantly more calories per dollar compared with default combination meals, suggesting there is a strong financial incentive for consumers to ‘upsize’ their orders. Future research should test price incentives for lower-calorie options to promote healthier restaurant choices.
Parthenium hysterophorus is a prolific invasive weed species, which infests many crops in over 40 countries around the world. A 2-year field study was carried out to quantify the potential impacts of this weed on direct-seeded rice. Parthenium weed was allowed to compete for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks after crop emergence, while full season weedy and weed-free plots were maintained as controls. Parthenium weed plants grew taller and attained more biomass as the competition duration prolonged. The yield and yield-related attributes of rice were negatively affected with increasing competition duration. The season-long competition caused the highest reductions in panicle number (28–34%), panicle length (26–27%), grains per panicle (22–23%) and grain yield (33 and 38%) of rice in both years. Weed competition for 2–8 weeks caused 5–34% and 6–33% losses in rice grain yield during both years, respectively. Importantly, Parthenium weed control after 8 weeks of competition did not improve rice yield significantly. The results suggested that Parthenium weed should be controlled in rice fields between 4 and 8 weeks after crop emergence under direct-seeded conditions to avoid over 10% yield losses.
It is shown that an electron, positron and ion plasma can be self-organized to a double Beltrami state – the superposition of two force-free states. The scale parameters which determine the nature of the self-organized structures are found to depend on the number densities of the plasma species. The loss of equilibrium in slowly evolving double Beltrmi states is investigated. The effects of density ratios, helicities, positron flows and energy on equilibrium are investigated. It is found that the double Beltrami state transforms to a single Beltrami state at the termination of equilibrium. It is also shown that much of the magnetic energy converts to the flow kinetic energy through catastrophic transformation.
UK guidelines recommend routine HIV testing in high prevalence emergency departments (ED) and targeted testing for HBV and HCV. The ‘Going Viral’ campaign implemented opt-out blood-borne virus (BBV) testing in adults in a high prevalence ED, to assess seroprevalence, uptake, linkage to care (LTC) rates and staff time taken to achieve LTC. Diagnosis status (new/known/unknown), current engagement in care, and severity of disease was established. LTC was defined as patient informed plus ⩾1 clinic visit. A total of 6211/24 981 ED attendees were tested (uptake 25%); 257 (4.1%) were BBV positive (15 co-infected), 84 (33%) required LTC. 100/147 (68%) HCV positives were viraemic; 44 (30%) required LTC (13 new, 16 disengaged). 26/54 (48%) HBV required LTC (seven new, 11 disengaged). 16/71 (23%) HIV required LTC (10 new, five disengaged). 26/84 (31%) patients requiring LTC had advanced disease (CD4 <350, APRI (AST-to-Platelet Ratio Index) >1, Fibroscan F3/F4 or liver cancer), including five with AIDS-defining conditions and three hepatocellular carcinomas. There were five BBV-related deaths. BBV prevalence was high (4.1%); most were HCV (2.4%). HIV patients were more successfully and quickly LTC than HBV or HCV patients. ED testing was valuable as one-third of those requiring LTC (new, disengaged or unknown status patients) had advanced disease.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of North-West Pakistan has endured increased levels of violence in recent years. The psychological sequelae of such trauma including the presence of dissociative symptoms has been minimally investigated to date. The study examines psychopathology experienced including the presence of dissociative symptoms, and ascertain what factors are potentially predictive of these symptoms.
Third-level students (n=303) completed psychometric instruments relating to their experience of traumatic events and assessed depression, anxiety and dissociative symptoms.
Symptoms suggestive of post-traumatic stress disorder were evident in 28% of individuals. Symptoms relating to intrusive experiences and alterations in reactivity predicted dissociative, depressive and anxiety symptoms (p<0.01).
Trauma related to violence in this study was associated with significant pathology including dissociative symptoms. Identification and subsequent treatment of dissociative symptoms in individuals who have experienced trauma, may have a significant ameliorating effect on levels of functioning and thus should be included in clinical assessment.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the unique ability to induce both innate immune responses and a highly specific acquired immunity. DCs are crucial to induce immunity, and their maturation and functions are influenced by microbial and environmental stimuli. Chicken DCs are composed of several subtypes including bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDCs), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), and thymic dendritic cells (TDCs). DC maturation depends on the nature of the perturbation and permits unique and efficient immune responses for each pathogen. DCs differentially recognise the viruses, bacteria, parasite and fungi and specifically regulate the immune response. Dendritic cells (DCs) are ‘nature's adjuvants’ and, as such represent an essential component of any vaccination strategy. The understanding of DC regulatory mechanisms opens a new horizon for the development of new vaccines and their targeting with the vaccination for elicitation of better immunity levels. The following review summarises the current state of knowledge of DCs and their specific functions during host pathogens interaction.
To compare clinical outcomes and complication rates in patients undergoing injection laryngoplasty performed under local versus general anaesthesia.
A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent injection laryngoplasty performed by a single laryngologist in a tertiary Australian laryngology centre, between February 2013 and December 2014. Patient demographics, anaesthetic modality and complications were recorded. Voice Handicap Index 10 and the Grade, Breathiness, Roughness, Asthenia, Strain scale were evaluated.
Thirty-four laryngoplasties were performed under general anaesthesia and 41 under local anaesthesia, with mean patient ages of 59.5 and 68.8 years, respectively. Voice Handicap Index 10 scores were significantly improved post-injection (p < 0.001), with no significant difference between general anaesthesia and local anaesthesia (p > 0.05). All aspects of the Grade, Breathiness, Roughness, Asthenia, Strain scale showed significant improvement post-injection, except asthenia. There were seven (9.3 per cent) minor complications (five in the general anaesthesia group, two in the local anaesthesia group), all managed conservatively.
Injection laryngoplasties performed under general anaesthesia and local anaesthesia offer similar voice outcomes, with comparable complication rates. Hence, development of a management algorithm for injection laryngoplasties performed under local anaesthesia is recommended.
The effects of axial magnetic field on the properties of the ions ejected from Nd:YAG laser (wavelength = 1064 nm, pulse duration = 6 ns) produced expanding Cu plasma were investigated. A plane Cu target, without and with 0.23 T axial magnetic field at its surface, was irradiated in the fluence range of 2–24 J/cm2. The ions emitted along the target surface normal were analyzed with the help of ion collector and time-of-flight electrostatic ion energy analyzer. The integrated ion yield, highest ion charge state, average ion energy, and energy of individual ion charge states were found to increase by application of the magnetic field. The initial parameters of the non-equilibrium plasma such as average ion charge, equivalent potential, electron temperature, electron density, Debye length, and transient electric field were estimated from the experimental results obtained without and with application of the magnetic field. The increase of ion yield and ion charge state by application of magnetic field are most probably due to the trapping of electrons in front of the target surface, which boosts up the electron impact ionization process. The ion energy increment due to the magnetic field is discussed in the frame work of electrostatic model for ion acceleration in laser plasma.
Historically, alloy development with better radiation performance has been focused on traditional alloys with one or two principal element(s) and minor alloying elements, where enhanced radiation resistance depends on microstructural or nanoscale features to mitigate displacement damage. In sharp contrast to traditional alloys, recent advances of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have opened up new frontiers in materials research. In these alloys, a random arrangement of multiple elemental species on a crystalline lattice results in disordered local chemical environments and unique site-to-site lattice distortions. Based on closely integrated computational and experimental studies using a novel set of SP-CSAs in a face-centered cubic structure, we have explicitly demonstrated that increasing chemical disorder can lead to a substantial reduction in electron mean free paths, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, which results in slower heat dissipation in SP-CSAs. The chemical disorder also has a significant impact on defect evolution under ion irradiation. Considerable improvement in radiation resistance is observed with increasing chemical disorder at electronic and atomic levels. The insights into defect dynamics may provide a basis for understanding elemental effects on evolution of radiation damage in irradiated materials and may inspire new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for advanced energy systems.
In this study, we compared the weed emergence, water input, water saving, water productivity, panicle sterility, yield outputs and economic returns of transplanting with alternate wetting and drying (TRAWD) and dry direct seeding (DSR) with transplanting under continuous flooding (TRCF) using three fine-grain rice cultivars: Super Basmati; Basmati 2000; and Shaheen Basmati. Higher weed infestation was recorded in DSR than in TRCF and TRAWD. Raising rice as TRAWD and DSR had considerable water savings but a lower grain yield than TRCF. High panicle sterility was primarily responsible for low grain yield in TRAWD and DSR systems. Nonetheless, water productivity was better in DSR and TRAWD than TRCF. Shaheen Basmati in the DSR system and Basmati 2000 in TRCF fetched the highest economic returns during 2008 and 2009, respectively. In conclusion, fine-grain rice cultivars can be grown in water-saving production systems (e.g. TRAWD and DSR); however, these water-saving production systems might incur a yield penalty.
Immunosuppressive viral diseases have become a major cause of mortality and economic losses in poultry industry mainly because of increased susceptibility of second bacterial infections and low response to vaccination. Nowadays chicken infectious anaemia is a great threat to poultry industry due to the large number of deaths and immuno-suppression it causes. Chicken anaemia virus replicates in erythroid and lymphoid progenitor cells, causing an apparent, sub-clinical infection that leads to depletion of these cells with consequent immunosuppressive effects. This review will summarise the currently available information about the chicken infectious anaemia virus and subsequent disease. Secondly, it will address the possible immune-pathogenic and immune-suppressive effects of chicken infectious anaemia in birds, including commercial poultry. Finally, the future prospects of vaccination against chicken infectious anaemia and other possible novel methods for the control of chicken anaemia virus are discussed.
To investigate whether the recommended dietary intake of Ca in anaemic infants compromises the expected Hb response, via home fortification with a new Ca- and Fe-containing Sprinkles™ micronutrient powder (MNP).
A double-blind, randomized controlled, 2-month trial was conducted in Bangladesh. Infants were randomized to one of two MNP intervention groups containing Fe and other micronutrients, with or without Ca. Hb, anthropometrics and dietary intake were measured pre- and post-intervention while family demographics were collected at baseline.
Twenty-six rural villages in the Kaliganj sub-district of Gazipur, Bangladesh.
One hundred infants aged 6–11 months.
A significant increase in Hb (MNP, 13·3 (sd 12·6) g/l v. Ca-MNP, 7·6 (sd 11·6) g/l; P < 0·0001) was noted in infants from both groups. However, infants receiving MNP without Ca had a significantly higher end-point Hb concentration (P = 0·024) and rate of anaemia recovery (P = 0·008). Infants receiving MNP with Ca were more likely to remain anaemic (OR 3·2; 95 % CI 1·4, 7·5). Groups did not differ in dietary intake or demographic and anthropometric indicators.
Although both groups showed significant improvement in Hb status, the nutrient–nutrient interaction between Fe and Ca may have diminished the Hb response in infants receiving the Ca-containing MNP.
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the recently described chondroperichondrial clip myringoplasty technique, and make comparisons with conventional myringoplasty techniques.
The study comprised a select group of patients with chronic otitis media (mucosal disease only), with central tympanic membrane perforations affecting less than 50 per cent of the pars tensa, and an air–bone gap below 35 dB. A modified custom-made cartilage perichondrial graft was placed using the recently described ‘clip’ technique.
The graft success rate was 91.3 per cent. Post-operatively, the air–bone gap was within 10 dB in 52 per cent of cases and within 10–20 dB in 48 per cent of cases. There were few minor complications.
Chondroperichondrial clip myringoplasty can be considered as an alternative minimally invasive technique for the repair of select cases of tympanic membrane perforations. This technique, which showed impressive results, was associated with minimum morbidity and reduced operative time.
Avian influenza is a highly pathogenic poultry disease found around the globe. It is caused by different strains of avian influenza virus. The H5N1 strain is not spread worldwide in humans, although, sporadic contaminations have been reported. It is known that the virus spreads from animals to humans however, there is concern regarding the evolution of the virus and that it is now possible for the virus to spread from human to human. There is currently no vaccine available that can act against all strains of the virus, although some vaccines have reached clinical trial stage. Regardless, there is a great need to develop a vaccine which will be effective against all strains of avian influenza. This review will focus on recent advances with special reference to the development of DNA vaccines against avian influenza. The specific importance, the hurdles to development and the possible future strategies for the development of DNA vaccines against multiple strains of avian influenza will be discussed.
Mechanical flexibility is one of the key advantages of organic semiconducting films in applications such as wearable-electronics or flexible displays. The present study is aimed at gaining deeper insight into the effect of strain on charge transport properties of the organic semiconductor films. We have fabricated high performance C60 top gate organic field effect transistors (OFET) on flexible substrates and characterized the devices by curling the substrates in concave and convex manner, to apply varying values of compressive and tensile strain, respectively. Electron mobility is found to increase with compressive strain and decrease with tensile strain. The observed strain effect is found to be strongly anisotropic with respect to the direction of flow of current. This observation on mobility is quantified using an Extended Gaussian Disorder Model (EGDM) for the hopping charge transport. We suggest that the observed strain dependence of the electron transport is dominated by a change in the effective charge hopping distance over the grain boundaries in polycrystalline C60 films.
Plasma was generated by focusing 10 ns Nd:YAG (λ = 1064 nm) laser pulse on the thick tungsten target. The laser fluence at the target was varied in the range of 3.57–10.97 J/cm2. The ion emission from the expanding tungsten plasma was analyzed with the help of an ion collector and time-of-flight electrostatic ion energy analyzer. About 44 times rise in the ion charge per laser shot was observed in the investigated laser fluence range. The measured threshold fluence for onset of the tungsten plasma was 3.27 J/cm2. The estimated plume expansion coefficient Zinf/Xinf = 2.5 ± 0.2 was in agreement with the previous experimental studies and the predictions of self-similar plume expansion model. The electrostatic ion energy analyzer study showed that charge state of the W ions increases with the laser fluence and maximum ion charge state was 5+. It was observed that threshold fluence for appearance of a specific charge state can be measured. A clear correlation between the relative abundances of W(n−1)+, Wn+, and W(n+1)+ indicates that higher order charge states are most probably produced by stepwise ionization process.
An experimental study on the pulsed laser ablation of copper by using Nd-YAG laser radiation of 1064 nm wavelength at a fluence of 13 J/cm2 is reported. A time-resolving plane Langmuir probe, placed at various angles with respect to the target surface normal, is used to record temporal variation of ion currents during the plasma expansion in vacuum. The measured angular distributions of integrated ion yields are strongly peaked in forward direction. The experimentally determined plume expansion coefficient Zinf/Xinf = 2.1±0.2 is in good
agreement with the previous studies. Time-of-flight measurements indicated that the energy of various ion components is highest along target surface normal and decreases with increase of the angle, however the effect of angle is more pronounced on the faster ions. The energy spread of the ions decreases approximately from ±670 eV to ±19 eV as the probe angle increases from 0° to 60°. The measured angular dependence of ion yield and most probable ion energy nicely follows the trends predicted by Anisimov's plume expansion model.