The use of CVD W as a diffusion barrier between Al and Si is becoming widespread. The initial stage of the deposition involves the Si reduction of WF6 according to the following reaction:
The reaction is thought to be self-limiting, since once a sufficiently thick W film forms, WF6 and Si are no longer able to be in contact. We have studied the effects of implanted dopant and damage on the rate of this reaction and the thickness of the self-limiting W film. To study the mechanism of W film growth, Si wafers were implanted with As, P or Sb. These wafers were either left in the as-implanted state (amorphized surface layer) or were annealed to drive-in the implant and recrystallize the Si. The reactivity with WF6 of these wafers, as well as unimplanted Si wafers, was then studied as a function of temperature between 210° C and 700° C. Si-WF6 reactivity is shown to have a strong temperature dependence, with maximum reactivity occuring at 340 °C, at which temperature a 960A thick film of W can form. Enhanced diffusion of Si through the growing W film is thought to be the mechanism responsible for thick film growth. At higher temperatures, thinner films form, due to the cessation of enhanced diffusion. Lower temperature films are also thinner, probably due to a nucleation barrier, not a kinetic barrier, to growth. Implantation lowers the temperature of the onset of enhanced reactivity between Si and WF6, when the wafers are reacted in the as-implanted state.