To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The preservation of genetic diversity is an important aspect of conservation biology. Low genetic diversity within a population can lead to inbreeding depression and a reduction in adaptive potential, which may increase extinction risk. Here we report changes in genetic diversity over 12 years in a declining population of the Corncrake Crex crex, a grassland bird species of high conservation concern throughout Europe. Despite a twofold demographic decline during the same period, we found no evidence for a reduction of genetic diversity. The gradual genetic differentiation observed among populations of Corncrake across Europe suggests that genetic diversity is maintained in western populations by constant gene flow from the larger and more productive populations in eastern Europe and Asia. The maintenance of genetic diversity in this species is an opportunity that may help the implementation of effective conservation actions across the Corncrake’s European range.
Project management expertise is employed across many professional sectors, including clinical research organizations, to ensure that efforts undertaken by the organization are completed on time and according to specifications and are capable of achieving the needed impact. Increasingly, project leaders (PLs) who possess this expertise are being employed in academic settings to support clinical and preclinical translational research team science. Duke University’s clinical and translational science enterprise has been an early adopter of project management to support clinical and preclinical programs. We review the history and evolution of project management and the PL role at Duke, examine case studies that illustrate their growing value to our academic research environment, and address challenges and solutions to employing project management in academia. Furthermore, we describe the critical role project leadership plays in accelerating and increasing the success of translational team science and team approaches frequently required for systems biology and “big data” scientific studies. Finally, we discuss perspectives from Duke project leadership professionals regarding the training needs and requirements for PLs working in academic clinical and translational science research settings.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
In this talk, the focus will be on recent experiments performed on superconducting doped SrTiO3 films using the ferroelectric field effect. Using thin single crystal films of Nb-doped SrTiO3, we have used the polarization field of ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 to electrostatically tune the electronic properties of Nb-doped SrTiO3. Atomic force microscopy was used to locally reverse the ferroelectric polarization, inducing large resistivity and carrier modulations, resulting in a clear shift in the superconducting critical temperature . By poling sub-micron scale domains, the carrier density and the electronic properties of the superconducting channel were locally modified. Transport measurements reveal a steplike behavior in the current-voltage and resistance-magnetic field characteristics. This behavior, not observed in homogeneously poled samples, is ascribed to phase slip lines which are more easily generated in inhomogeneous superconductors. More generally, the technique developed should allow Josephson junctions, SQUIDS and superconducting circuits to be directly written in a Nb-doped SrTiO3 film using atomic force microscopy, an idea proposed in 1997 by C.H. Ahn et al. .  K. Takahashi, D. Jaccard, M. Gabay, K. Shibuya, T. Ohnishi, M. Lippmaa, J.-M. Triscone, Nature 441,195 (2006).  C.H. Ahn, T. Tybell, L. Antognazza, K. Char, R.H. Hammond, M.R. Beasley, Ø. Fischer, and J.-M. Triscone. Science 276, 1100 (1997).
Objective: Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can experience social isolation, which is damaging to well-being and counterproductive to successful rehabilitation. It has been proposed that social cognitive deficits that commonly result from TBI may contribute to weakened social integration. However, the consequences of specific social cognitive deficits in TBI are still being delineated. The current work sought to better characterize the relationship between community integration and facial affect recognition (FAR) in TBI. Participants and Methods: A total of 27 participants with moderate to severe TBI and 30 healthy controls (HCs) completed two tests of FAR, which employed either static photographic stimuli or dynamic video stimuli (The Awareness of Social Inference Test). The Community Integration Questionnaire was also administered to participants. Results: Participants with TBI were significantly impaired on both the static and dynamic FAR measures, yet the deficits were most pronounced within the dynamic task. Furthermore, participants with TBI reported lower community integration compared with HCs. FAR was positively associated with community integration in both groups, such that participants with proficient affect recognition skills were better integrated into their communities. Conclusions: FAR deficits may contribute to the lack of community integration often observed in TBI; thus, interventions designed to improve FAR may be beneficial to this population’s ability to successfully reintegrate into society.
Observation of the ion source generated background has been an area of focus during our routine analytical work. It is noted that the results of very-low-ratio samples are dependent upon the particular procedures for measurement using the present-day Cs+ sputter ion sources. When measured without excessive Cs+ fluxes and without interleafing with other higher-ratio samples and references, the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) sensitivity can be somewhat improved. In some cases, it appears possible to assess old radiocarbon (14C) samples to beyond the long-standing 60 kyr limit. A number of observational studies are made for the sole purpose of minimizing the final contamination to the rare isotopes that is generated within the ion source.
Childhood adversity is associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes across the life span. Alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis are considered a key mechanism underlying these associations, although findings have been mixed. These inconsistencies suggest that other aspects of stress processing may underlie variations in this these associations, and that differences in adversity type, sex, and age may be relevant. The current study investigated the relationship between childhood adversity, stress perception, and morning cortisol, and examined whether differences in adversity type (generalized vs. threat and deprivation), sex, and age had distinct effects on these associations. Salivary cortisol samples, daily hassle stress ratings, and retrospective measures of childhood adversity were collected from a large sample of youth at risk for serious mental illness including psychoses (n = 605, mean age = 19.3). Results indicated that childhood adversity was associated with increased stress perception, which subsequently predicted higher morning cortisol levels; however, these associations were specific to threat exposures in females. These findings highlight the role of stress perception in stress vulnerability following childhood adversity and highlight potential sex differences in the impact of threat exposures.
Advances in material science and semiconductor technology have enabled a variety of inventions to be implemented in electronic systems and devices used in the medical, telecommunications, and consumer electronics sectors. In this paper, a wireless charging system is described as a wearable body heater that uses a chair as a transmitter (Tx). This system incorporates the widely accepted Qi wireless charging standard. Alignment conditions of a linear three-element coil arrangement and a 3 × 3 coil matrix array are investigated using voltage induced in a coil as a performance indicator. The efficiency obtained is demonstrated to be up to 80% for a voltage of over 6.5 Volts and a power transfer of over 5 Watts. Our results and proposed approach can be useful for many applications. This is because the wireless charging system described herein can help design seating areas for the elderly and disabled, commercial systems, consumer electronics, medical devices, electronic textiles (e-textiles), and other electronic systems and devices.
Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune gastrointestinal disorder whereby the ingestion of gluten, a storage protein found in wheat, barley and rye, causes damage to intestinal mucosa with resultant malabsorption, increased risk of anaemia and osteoporosis. Worldwide estimates suggest 1% of the population have CD. With no cure, the only treatment is a gluten-free diet (GFD). Adhering to a GFD can be very challenging; it requires knowledge, motivation and modified behaviours. Assessing adherence to a GFD is methodologically challenging. This review aims to provide an overview of the literature reporting adherence to a GFD in people with CD and the methodological challenges encountered. From six studies it has been reported that rates of adherence to a GFD range between 45 and 90% in patients of different ethnicities with CD. GF dietary adherence can be influenced by age at diagnosis, coexisting depression, symptoms on ingestion of gluten, nutrition counselling, knowledge of GF foods, understanding of food labels, cost and availability of GF foods, receiving GF foods on prescription and membership of a coeliac society. To date only five intervention studies in adults with CD have been undertaken to improve GF dietary adherence. These have included dietary and psychological counselling, and the use of online training programmes, apps, text messages and telephonic clinics. Future interventions should include people of all ethnicities, consider patient convenience and the cost-effectiveness for the healthcare environment.
The problems of the overcrowded cities of today had their parallels in sixteenth-century London, and Elizabeth and the Council struggled with them during the greater part of the reign. Persistent attempts to check the growing population are recorded in the Acts of the Privy Council in memorandums for letters chiefly to the Lord Mayor, the Master of the Rolls, and the Justices of the Peace for Middlesex and Surrey. These entries give a wryly amusing account of conditions familiar in our own time—high rents, relief rolls, emergency legislation, evasions of the law, and possible favoritism in administering it. They suggest one other point of interest—that the Queen felt very strongly about the situation. Though it may be rash to see an immediate expression of her personal attitude in the communications of the Council, it is difficult to do otherwise.
When Coleridge says that Hamlet's tragedy is owing to his failure to realize that ‘action is the chief end of existence’, when Dr. Johnson says that the prince is ‘throughout the whole play, rather an instrument than agent’, each is noticing the extent to which the nature and meaning of action by human agency is the pivot on which Shakespeare's play turns. Among modern critics, Maynard Mack has commented on Hamlet's central concern with action: he says, ‘“Act” . . . I take to be the play's radical metaphor. It distills the various perplexities about the character of reality into a residual perplexity about the nature of an act.‘ I see ‘act’ as not just a metaphor, in Mack's sense that the play uses its concern for action to imply something about the larger issue of reality itself, for I think Hamlet expresses what may be a deeper insight, that action may not only ‘represent’ reality, but, in some sense that the play tries to define, is reality, as Coleridge suggests.
Much of the interest in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis has been in understanding conversion. Recent literature has suggested that less than 25% of those who meet established criteria for being at CHR of psychosis go on to develop a psychotic illness. However, little is known about the outcome of those who do not make the transition to psychosis. The aim of this paper was to examine clinical symptoms and functioning in the second North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2) of those individuals whose by the end of 2 years in the study had not developed psychosis.
In NAPLS-2 278 CHR participants completed 2-year follow-ups and had not made the transition to psychosis. At 2-years the sample was divided into three groups – those whose symptoms were in remission, those who were still symptomatic and those whose symptoms had become more severe.
There was no difference between those who remitted early in the study compared with those who remitted at one or 2 years. At 2-years, those in remission had fewer symptoms and improved functioning compared with the two symptomatic groups. However, all three groups had poorer social functioning and cognition than healthy controls.
A detailed examination of the clinical and functional outcomes of those who did not make the transition to psychosis did not contribute to predicting who may make the transition or who may have an earlier remission of attenuated psychotic symptoms.
Over the past decade, advances in the interdisciplinary field of network science have provided a framework for understanding the intrinsic structure and function of human brain networks. A particularly fruitful area of this work has focused on patterns of functional connectivity derived from noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. An important subset of these efforts has bridged the computational approaches of network science with the rich empirical data and biological hypotheses of neuroscience, and this research has begun to identify features of brain networks that explain individual differences in social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. The most common approach estimates connections assuming a single configuration of edges that is stable across the experimental session. In the literature, this is referred to as a static network approach, and researchers measure static brain networks while a subject is either at rest or performing a cognitively demanding task. Research on social and emotional functioning has primarily focused on linking static brain networks with individual differences, but recent advances have extended this work to examine temporal fluctuations in dynamic brain networks. Mounting evidence suggests that both the strength and flexibility of time-evolving brain networks influence individual differences in executive function, attention, working memory, and learning. In this review, we first examine the current evidence for brain networks involved in cognitive functioning. Then we review some preliminary evidence linking static network properties to individual differences in social and emotional functioning. We then discuss the applicability of emerging dynamic network methods for examining individual differences in social and emotional functioning. We close with an outline of important frontiers at the intersection between network science and neuroscience that will enhance our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of social behavior.
The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.
While studies suggest that nutritional supplementation may reduce aggressive behavior in children, few have examined their effects on specific forms of aggression. This study tests the primary hypothesis that omega-3 (ω-3), both alone and in conjunction with social skills training, will have particular post-treatment efficacy for reducing childhood reactive aggression relative to baseline.
In this randomized, double-blind, stratified, placebo-controlled, factorial trial, a clinical sample of 282 children with externalizing behavior aged 7–16 years was randomized into ω-3 only, social skills only, ω-3 + social skills, and placebo control groups. Treatment duration was 6 months. The primary outcome measure was reactive aggression collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, with antisocial behavior as a secondary outcome.
Children in the ω-3-only group showed a short-term reduction (at 3 and 6 months) in self-report reactive aggression, and also a short-term reduction in overall antisocial behavior. Sensitivity analyses and a robustness check replicated significant interaction effects. Effect sizes (d) were small, ranging from 0.17 to 0.31.
Findings provide some initial support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing reactive aggression over and above standard care (medication and parent training), but yield only preliminary and limited support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing overall externalizing behavior in children. Future studies could test further whether ω-3 shows promise in reducing more reactive, impulsive forms of aggression.
To examine the relationships between objectively measured sleep patterns
(sleep duration, sleep efficiency and bedtime) and sugar-sweetened beverage
(SSB) consumption (regular soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks and
fruit juice) among children from all inhabited continents of the world.
Multinational, cross-sectional study.
The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment
Children (n 5873) 9–11 years of age.
Sleep duration was 12 min per night shorter in children who reported
consuming regular soft drinks ‘at least once a day’
compared with those who reported consuming ‘never’ or
‘less than once a week’. Children were more likely to
sleep the recommended 9–11 h/night if they reported
lower regular soft drink consumption or higher sports drinks consumption.
Children who reported consuming energy drinks ‘once a week or
more’ reported a 25-min earlier bedtime than those who reported
never consuming energy drinks. Children who reported consuming sports drinks
‘2–4 d a week or more’ also reported a
25-min earlier bedtime compared with those who reported never consuming
sports drinks. The associations between sleep efficiency and SSB consumption
were not significant. Similar associations between sleep patterns and SSB
consumption were observed across all twelve study sites.
Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher intake of regular soft
drinks, while earlier bedtimes were associated with lower intake of regular
soft drinks and higher intake of energy drinks and sports drinks in this
international study of children. Future work is needed to establish
causality and to investigate underlying mechanisms.
Competition from weeds is one of the major biophysical constraints to rice (Oryza spp.) production in sub-Saharan Africa. Smallholder rice farmers require efficient, affordable and labour-saving weed management technologies. Mechanical weeders have shown to fit this profile. Several mechanical weeder types exist but little is known about locally specific differences in performance and farmer preference between these types. Three to six different weeder types were evaluated at 10 different sites across seven countries – i.e., Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda and Togo. A total of 310 farmers (173 male, 137 female) tested the weeders, scored them for their preference, and compared them with their own weed management practices. In a follow-up study, 186 farmers from Benin and Nigeria received the ring hoe, which was the most preferred in these two countries, to use it during the entire crop growing season. Farmers were surveyed on their experiences. The probability of the ring hoe having the highest score among the tested weeders was 71%. The probability of farmers’ preference of the ring hoe over their usual practices – i.e., herbicide, traditional hoe and hand weeding – was 52, 95 and 91%, respectively. The preference of this weeder was not related to gender, years of experience with rice cultivation, rice field size, weed infestation level, water status or soil texture. In the follow-up study, 80% of farmers who used the ring hoe indicated that weeding time was reduced by at least 31%. Of the farmers testing the ring hoe in the follow-up study, 35% used it also for other crops such as vegetables, maize, sorghum, cassava and millet. These results suggest that the ring hoe offers a gender-neutral solution for reducing labour for weeding in rice as well as other crops and that it is compatible with a wide range of environments. The implications of our findings and challenges for out-scaling of mechanical weeders are discussed.
Traumatic events are associated with increased risk of psychotic experiences, but it is unclear whether this association is explained by mental disorders prior to psychotic experience onset.
To investigate the associations between traumatic events and subsequent psychotic experience onset after adjusting for post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders.
We assessed 29 traumatic event types and psychotic experiences from the World Mental Health surveys and examined the associations of traumatic events with subsequent psychotic experience onset with and without adjustments for mental disorders.
Respondents with any traumatic events had three times the odds of other respondents of subsequently developing psychotic experiences (OR=3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.7), with variability in strength of association across traumatic event types. These associations persisted after adjustment for mental disorders.
Exposure to traumatic events predicts subsequent onset of psychotic experiences even after adjusting for comorbid mental disorders.