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A diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (DID) is controversial and prone to under- and misdiagnosis. From the moment of seeking treatment for symptoms to the time of an accurate diagnosis of DID individuals received an average of four prior other diagnoses and spent 7 years, with reports of up to 12 years, in mental health services.
To investigate whether data-driven pattern recognition methodologies applied to structural brain images can provide biomarkers to aid DID diagnosis.
Structural brain images of 75 participants were included: 32 female individuals with DID and 43 matched healthy controls. Individuals with DID were recruited from psychiatry and psychotherapy out-patient clinics. Probabilistic pattern classifiers were trained to discriminate cohorts based on measures of brain morphology.
The pattern classifiers were able to accurately discriminate between individuals with DID and healthy controls with high sensitivity (72%) and specificity (74%) on the basis of brain structure. These findings provide evidence for a biological basis for distinguishing between DID-affected and healthy individuals.
We propose a pattern of neuroimaging biomarkers that could be used to inform the identification of individuals with DID from healthy controls at the individual level. This is important and clinically relevant because the DID diagnosis is controversial and individuals with DID are often misdiagnosed. Ultimately, the application of pattern recognition methodologies could prevent unnecessary suffering of individuals with DID because of an earlier accurate diagnosis, which will facilitate faster and targeted interventions.
Declaration of interest
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Massive stars are intrinsically rare and therefore present a challenge to understand from a statistical perspective, especially within the Milky Way. We recently conducted follow-up observations to the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey that were designed to detect more than 10,000 emission line stars, including WRs, by targeting regions in M31 previously known to host large numbers of young, massive clusters and very young stellar populations. Because of the existing PHAT data, we are able to derive an effective temperature, bolarimetric luminosity, and extinction for each of our detected stars. We report on preliminary results of the massive star population of our dataset and discuss how our results compare to previous studies of massive stars in M31.
Time of seedling emergence is an important step in the life cycle of annual plants because it may determine subsequent performance and success. Timing of emergence is especially critical to plant performance in habitats like arable fields which are subject to frequent disturbances. Within-season variation in timing of germination in the range of only a few days is typical for many arable weeds. However, since it is unclear whether such small deviations in germination date translate into fitness differences in the course of the life cycle, the aim of this paper was to quantify the effects of short germination delays on plant performance. We conducted two generalized randomized block experiments in an unheated greenhouse to study the impact of delayed germination (1, 2, 3 and 7 d) with and without competition, respectively, on the fitness of the arable weed species Agrostemma githago (L.). We expected that delayed germination significantly reduces fitness in terms of several life-history traits, and that the decrease of fitness is higher in the presence of competition. Under realistic conditions with competition through barley, Agrostemma plants with delayed germination of 7 d produced 54% fewer shoots, 57% less biomass, 52% fewer flowers, 36% lighter seeds and were 23% shorter as compared to control plants without delayed germination. Without additional stress through competition with barley this pattern was less pronounced. Thus, in the situation of interspecific competition, early emerging seedlings have biologically significant fitness advantages over later emerging seedlings of the same species.
The objective of this study was to determine whether altered maternal energy supply during mid-gestation results in differences in muscle histology or genes regulating fetal adipose and muscle development. In total, 22 Angus cross-bred heifers (BW=527.73±8.3 kg) were assigned randomly to the three dietary treatments providing 146% (HIGH; n=7), 87% (INT; n=7) or 72% (LOW; n=8) of the energy requirements for heifers from day 85 to day 180 of gestation. Fetuses were removed via cesarean section at day 180 of gestation and longissimus muscle (LM) and subcutaneous fat were collected and prepared for analysis of gene expression. Samples from the LM and semitendinosus (ST) were evaluated for muscle fiber diameter, area and number. The right hind limb was dissected and analyzed to determine compositional analysis. Fetal growth and muscle histology characteristics of the LM and ST were similar among treatments. Preadipocyte factor-1 expression was up-regulated in fetal LM (P<0.05) of HIGH fetuses as compared with INT, whereas LOW fetuses showed increased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBP-β) expression in LM as compared with INT (P<0.05). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γand C/EBP-α did not differ as a result of dietary treatment in LM or subcutaneous fat samples. There was a tendency for increased expression of fatty acid synthase in LM of LOW fetuses as compared with INT (P<0.10). Myogenin was more highly expressed (P<0.05) in LM of the LOW fetuses, whereas μ-calpain expression was increased in the HIGH treatment compared with INT. A tendency for increased expression of IGF-II was observed for both LOW and HIGH fetuses compared with INT (P<0.10). Expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, myoblast determination protein 1, myogenic factor 5, myogenic regulatory factor-4, m-calpain, calpastatin, IGF-I and myostatin was similar between treatments. Collectively, these results suggest that fetal growth characteristics are not affected by the level of maternal nutritional manipulation imposed in this study during mid-gestation. However, differences in expression of fetal genes regulating adipose and muscle tissue growth and development could lead to differences in postnatal composition and warrants further investigation.
Ca/vitamin D supplementation maintains bone health and decreases stress fracture risk during initial military training (IMT); however, there is evidence that Ca may negatively affect the absorption of other critical micronutrients, particularly Fe. The objective of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to determine whether providing 2000 mg/d Ca and 25µg/d vitamin D in a fortified food product during 9 weeks of military training affects Fe status in young adults. Male (n 98) and female (n 54) volunteers enrolled in US Army basic combat training (BCT) were randomised to receive a snack bar with Ca/vitamin D (n 75) or placebo (snack bar without Ca/vitamin D; n 77) and were instructed to consume 2 snack bars/d between meals throughout the training course. Circulating ionised Ca was higher (P<0·05) following BCT among those consuming the Ca/vitamin D bars compared with placebo. Fe status declined in both groups over the course of BCT. Transferrin saturation, serum ferritin and Hb were reduced (P<0·05) and soluble transferrin receptor increased (P<0·05) following BCT. There were no differences (P>0·05) in markers of Fe status between placebo and Ca/vitamin D groups. Collectively, these data indicate that Ca/vitamin D supplementation through the use of a fortified food product consumed between meals does not affect Fe status during IMT.
Floodplain meadow ecosystems are characterized by high water level fluctuations and highly variable soil water potentials. Additionally, climate change scenarios indicate an increasing risk for summer drought along the northern Upper Rhine and the Middle Elbe River, Germany. While adult plants often persist even after strong changes in water availability, early life phases, such as seed germination and seedling establishment, might be more vulnerable. Therefore we tested whether reduced soil water potentials will affect the germination of meadow species and whether the response varies between (1) forbs indicative of wet and dry habitats and (2) seeds originating from sites along the rivers Elbe and Rhine. We exposed seeds of 20 floodplain meadow species with different moisture requirements from five plant families to a water potential gradient ranging from 0 to − 1.5 MPa. While across species germination percentage and synchrony decreased, germination time increased at reduced water potentials. Germination of the species indicative of dry habitats decreased more strongly, was slower and less synchronous at reduced water potentials than that of species indicative of wet habitats. Seeds from sites along the rivers Elbe and Rhine did not differ in their germination characteristics. We propose that species of wet sites follow an all-or-nothing-strategy with fast and synchronous germination to maximize competitive advantages, betting on a high probability of moist conditions for establishment (optimists). In contrast, species from dry sites appear to follow a bet-hedging strategy with a moisture-sensing mechanism for unsuitable conditions (pessimists), resulting in a slower and less synchronous germination.
Accumulation is a key parameter governing the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. Several studies have documented the spatial variability of accumulation over wide spatial scales, primarily using point data, remote sensing or modeling. Direct measurements of spatially extensive, detailed profiles of accumulation in Greenland, however, are rare. We used 400 MHz ground-penetrating radar along the 1009 km route of the Greenland Inland Traverse from Thule to Summit during April and May of 2011, to image continuous internal reflecting horizons. We dated these horizons using ice-core chemistry at each end of the traverse. Using density profiles measured along the traverse, we determined the depth to the horizons and the corresponding water-equivalent accumulation rates. The measured accumulation rates vary from ~0.1 m w.e. a–1 in the interior to ~0.7 m w.e. a–1 near the coast, and correspond broadly with existing published model results, though there are some excursions. Comparison of our recent accumulation rates with those collected along a similar route in the 1950s shows a ~10% increase in accumulation rates over the past 52 years along most of the traverse route. This implies that the increased water vapor capacity of warmer air is increasing accumulation in the interior of Greenland.
Extensive research has shown that agricultural land-use practices have substantial impacts on the environment, including (1) release of 50 percent of soil carbon (C) following cultivation of the soil, (2) enhanced soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, (3) reduced soil fertility, (4) increases in nitrate (NO3−) leaching into groundwater and streams, (5) changes in plant production, and (6) changes in energy balance and water fluxes (Pielke et al. 2007). By linking observed detailed land-use data for the U.S. Great Plains over the past 150 years to the DayCent ecosystem model (Parton et al. 1998), this review demonstrates how historical changes in land use have affected soil organic carbon (SOC), soil fertility, plant production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. A detailed description of the procedure used to link the observed U.S. Great Plains land-use data with the DayCent model, along with a comparison of observed and DayCent simulated historical changes in crop yields for the major crops (corn, wheat, sorghum, hay, and cotton) is presented by Hartman et al. (2011).
The Great Plains region of the United States is unique because by the time it was settled by Euro-American farmers, many modern institutions for information gathering and data analysis were already in place. The settlement and subsequent ecological transformation of this region is therefore well documented in the U.S. censuses of population and agriculture, which contain detailed data at the county level regarding changes in land use, animal production, yields for crops grown under both dryland and irrigated conditions, economic value of animal and crop raising, and movements of human populations, first on the decadal scale and then every five years for agriculture beginning in 1925. These data have been digitized for the Great Plains and are now publicly available in machine-readable form (Gutmann 2005a, 2005b).
Nanoporous gold is a material with many possible applications e.g. in catalysts, sensors and electrode materials. We studied the functionalization of the nanoporous gold with TiO2 particles. Aiming at the low temperature oxidation of CO, the nanoporous gold can be coated with TiO2 in order to enhance catalytic activity. Structure and distribution of the TiO2 on the gold surface are important structural features, which were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The preparation of the porous gold was tested with focused ion beam - preparation, conventional Ar+ ion beam preparation of nanoporous gold embedded in epoxy and ultramicrotome preparation of nanoporous gold embedded in epoxy. Considering the beam damage on the structure and the contamination of the surface, ultramicrotome preparation turned out to be the best solution. It was shown, that the gold ligaments are abundantly covered by approximately 5 nm TiO2 particles. The determination of the largest lattice fringe distance in high resolution mode revealed that the crystalline nanoparticles consist of the anatase phase. The spatial Ti distribution was measured with energy filtered transmission electron microscopy. Scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography was applied to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the gold coated with TiO2 particles.
Surface melt on a glacier can perturb the glaciochemical record beyond the natural variability. While the centre of the Greenland ice sheet is usually devoid of surface melt, many high-Arctic and alpine ice cores document frequent summertime melt events. Current hypotheses interpreting melt-affected ice-core chemistry rely on preferential elution of certain major ions. However, the precise nature of chemistry alteration is unknown because it is difficult to distinguish natural variability from melt effects in a perennially melt-affected site. We use eight trace-element snow chemistry records recovered from Summit, Greenland, to study spatial variability and melt effects on insoluble trace chemistry and physical stratigraphy due to artificially introduced meltwater. Differences between non-melt and melt-affected chemistry were significantly greater than the spatial variability in chemistry represented by nearest-neighbour pairs. Melt-perturbed trace elements, particularly rare earth elements, retained their seasonal stratigraphies, suggesting that trace elements may serve as robust chemical indicators for annual layers even in melt-affected study areas. Results suggest trace-element transport via meltwater percolation will deposit eluted material down-pit in refrozen areas below the nearest-surface chemistry peak. In our experiments, snow chemistry analyses are more sensitive to melt perturbations than density changes or unprocessed near-infrared digital imagery.