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Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Variability due to stellar pulsation on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) has a great potential for applications such as distance measurements, the study the evolution of stars and galaxies, and the estimate of global stellar parameters, as well as to constrain stellar evolutionary models. Given the importance of long-period variables (LPVs) in this sense, and given the lack of recent, updated sets of pulsation models, we computed an extended grid of pulsation models widely covering the space of AGB stellar parameters, including up-to-date opacities and accounting for the chemical evolution associated with third dredge-up events. We present the relevant properties of this grid and discuss the main results it allowed to obtain in terms of the interpretation of the observed properties of LPVs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC).
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable polygenic disorder. Recent
enrichment analyses suggest that there may be true risk variants for
bipolar disorder in the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in the
We sought to assess the impact of eQTL variants on bipolar disorder risk
by combining data from both bipolar disorder genome-wide association
studies (GWAS) and brain eQTL.
To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence
expression levels of genes associated with bipolar disorder, we jointly
analysed data from a bipolar disorder GWAS (7481 cases and 9250 controls)
and a genome-wide brain (cortical) eQTL (193 healthy controls) using a
Bayesian statistical method, with independent follow-up replications. The
identified risk SNP was then further tested for association with
hippocampal volume (n = 5775) and cognitive performance
(n = 342) among healthy individuals.
Integrative analysis revealed a significant association between a brain
eQTL rs6088662 on chromosome 20q11.22 and bipolar disorder (log Bayes
factor = 5.48; bipolar disorder P =
5.85×10–5). Follow-up studies across multiple independent
samples confirmed the association of the risk SNP (rs6088662) with gene
expression and bipolar disorder susceptibility (P =
3.54×10–8). Further exploratory analysis revealed that
rs6088662 is also associated with hippocampal volume and cognitive
performance in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that 20q11.22 is likely a risk region for bipolar
disorder; they also highlight the informative value of integrating
functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression in
advancing our understanding of the biological basis underlying complex
disorders, such as bipolar disorder.
Different from previous triennial reports, this report covers the activities of IAU Commission 36 ‘Theory of Stellar Atmospheres’ over the past six years†, and will be the last report from the ‘old’ Commission 36. After the General Assembly in Honolulu (August 2015), a new Commission ‘Stellar and Planetary Atmospheres’ (C.G5, under Division G, ‘Stars and Stellar Physics’) has come into life, and will continue our work devoted to the outer envelopes of stars, as well as extend it to the atmospheres of planets (see Sect. 4).
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition expected to be the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is problematic in older adults (>75 years) where the presence of comorbidities is more prevalent. Exercise has been recommended irrespective of age and comorbidity. The purpose of this project was to develop a combined exercise and self-management intervention to help older adults with OA to manage their comorbidities.
Literature reviews were conducted to inform the development of an intervention followed by a pilot study to assess feasibility and test outcome measures. Participant interviews and session observation were used to evaluate the pilot study.
Evidence from the literature reviews suggested that a combined intervention consisting of behavioural change/self-management education and exercise was the most appropriate. Each component was developed and then tested as a combined package in a pilot study which comprised 12 sessions delivered over six weeks. Four males and six females aged between 75 and 92 years took part. The average attendance was 89%. Most participants reported some benefit and satisfaction with the programme along with changes in physical ability. The majority of participants continued with some form of exercise at three months.
The intervention was well received and has encouraged 80% of participants to continue exercising after the programme. The small but positive changes seen in comorbidities, benefit of the intervention, satisfaction and general health are promising. Randomised controlled trial evidence of effectiveness and cost effectiveness is needed before such interventions can be recommended.
Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient.
As the financial crisis of 2007–2008 has compellingly shown, highly leveraged financial institutions create negative externalities. When a bank is highly leveraged and has little equity to absorb losses, even a small decrease in asset value can lead to distress and potential insolvency. In a deeply interconnected financial system, this can cause the system to freeze, ultimately leading to severe repercussions for the rest of the economy. To minimize social damage, governments may feel compelled to spend large amounts on bailouts and recovery efforts. Even when insolvency is not an immediate problem, following a small decrease in asset values, highly leveraged banks may be compelled to sell substantial amounts of assets in order to reduce their leverage; such sales can put strong pressure on asset markets and prices and, thereby, indirectly on other banks.
Avoidance of such “systemic risk” and the associated social costs is a major objective of financial regulation. Because market participants, acting in their own interests, tend to pay too little attention to systemic concerns, financial regulation and supervision are intended to step in and safeguard the functioning of the financial system. Given the experience of the recent crisis, it is natural to consider a requirement that banks have significantly less leverage—that is, that they use relatively more equity funding so that inevitable variations in asset values do not lead to distress and insolvency.
A pervasive view that underlies most discussions of capital regulation is that “equity is expensive,” and that equity requirements, while offering substantial benefits in preventing crises, also impose costs on the financial system, and possibly on the economy. Bankers have mounted a campaign against increasing equity requirements. Policymakers and regulators are particularly concerned by assertions that increased equity requirements would restrict bank lending and would impede economic growth. Possibly, as a result of such pressure, the proposed Basel III requirements, while moving in the direction of increasing capital, still allow banks to remain very highly leveraged (Blundell-Wignall et al., this volume). We consider this very troubling, because, as we show below, the view that equity is expensive is flawed in the context of capital regulation.
A description of the new mineral innsbruckite, Mn33(Si2O5)14(OH)38, a hydrous manganese phyllosilicate found in Tyrol, Austria is given. The crystal structure was determined by singlecrystal synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments at the X06DA beamline at the Swiss Light Source (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland). The space group is Cm and lattice parameters are a = 17.2760(19), b = 35.957(5), c = 7.2560(8) Å , β = 91.359(7)º, V = 4506.1(10) Å3, Z = 2. Innsbruckite belongs to the group of modulated 1:1 layer silicates and is chemically and structurally quite closely related to bementite, Mn7(Si2O5)3(OH)8. The chemical analysis revealed a close to ideal composition with only minor amounts of Al, Fe and Mg. Using Liebau’s nomenclature for silicate classification the silicate anion can be described as an unbranched siebener single layer. Innsbruckite shows a complex topology of the silicate sheet, exhibiting 4-, 5-, 6- and 8-membered rings. The silicate sheet is fully characterized using vertex symbols, and its topology is compared to those in other complex sheet silicates. Furthermore, the structural investigation is complemented with Raman spectroscopic studies.
We use a WISE-2MASS-Pan-STARRS1 galaxy catalog to search for a supervoid in the direction of the Cosmic Microwave Background Cold Spot. We obtain photometric redshifts using our multicolor data set to create a tomographic map of the galaxy distribution. The radial density profile centred on the Cold Spot shows a large low density region, extending over 10's of degrees. Motivated by previous Cosmic Microwave Background results, we test for underdensities within two angular radii, 5°, and 15°. Our data, combined with an earlier measurement by Granett et al. 2010, are consistent with a large Rvoid=(192 ± 15)h−1 Mpc (2σ) supervoid with δ ≃ −0.13 ± 0.03 centered at z=0.22 ± 0.01. Such a supervoid, constituting a ∼3.5 σ fluctuation in the ΛCDM model, is a plausible cause for the Cold Spot.