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In the American continent, the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (F.) is the main pest in sugarcane producing areas. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of crop residue management on damage by D. saccharalis, its egg parasitoids and the ants associated with sugarcane. The study was carried out during 2011–2012, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 crop cycles, in three commercial fields located in different regions of Tucumán state, Argentina. Two types of crop residue management (= treatments) were compared: conservation of trash at the soil surface (CT) and trash burning (TB). In ‘trash conservation’ treatment, crop residue was allowed to remain over the soil surface during the whole sugarcane growing season, while the second treatment consisted of complete burning of trash blanket approximately 2 weeks after harvest. The injury level was measured by recording the number of stalks bored and internodes bored. Parasitism was estimated by counting the total number of eggs and number of black eggs (which indicates the occurrence of egg parasitoids). Ants (Formicidae) richness was calculated by two estimators; abundance-based coverage estimator and incidence-based coverage estimator, using the non-parametric richness estimators: Chao 2 and Jackknife. Finally, the indicator value was estimated through the measurement of specificity and fidelity. In all the parameters studied no significant difference was found between TB and CT treatments.
Clinically, Japanese B encephalitis (JBE) is often overlooked as its occurrence in Western countries is rare. However, its neurological, cognitive and psychiatric sequelae constitute a major public health problem in the Far East where JBE is endemic. European and American subjects may however experience the JBE when returning from a Far East journey. In such cases, misdiagnosis is frequent because of the unawareness of psychiatrists and physicians. The present review, therefore, documents the behavioural and cognitive sequelae of JBE. This reactivates the debate concerning the vaccination against the virus all the more that the literature enlightens the importance of the vaccination for those who undertake frequent and extensive tourist excursions to the Orient but still discusses it for occasional travellers. Following is a case-report of a young western European post-graduate student who has contracted JBE by experiencing an acute febrile delirium during an unusual short stay in South East Asia. Pyramidal syndrome, Parkinsonism and amnesia were the prominent acute deficits. Whereas these faded in great part during convalescence, emotional and behavioural instability associated with affective involvement, obsessive–compulsive symptoms and cognitive impairments appeared. A partial recovery was however obtained with neuroleptics, lithium and following electro-convulsive therapy. Organic personality syndrome was persistent and thereafter constituted the main sequelae syndrome. Hypersomnia and several enuretic episodes persisted.
Current healthcare delivery challenges are multi-faceted, requiring multiple perspectives to be addressed using a systems approach. However, a significant amount of healthcare systems design research work is carried out within single disciplines or at best a few disciplines working together. There appears to be little deliberate attempt to draw together a wide range of disciplines committed to working together to overcome differences and tackle some of the complex challenges in healthcare delivery. In this paper, we report on the initial outcomes of such an international initiative that, in the form of a workshop held at the University of Cambridge, brought together researchers and practitioners from a wide range of disciplines to explore the foundations of a community for Healthcare Systems Design Research and Practice.
The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is a critically endangered species endemic to southern Africa. Limited information is available on the parasite diversity associated with the species in natural settings. This study explores the diversity and incidence of parasites associated with African penguins and their nests, and records the effect of host and environmental factors on parasite infestation. Ecto-, haemo- and helminth parasites were recorded from 210 adult birds, 583 chicks and 628 nests across five colonies (two mainland and three islands) along the south-western coast of South Africa, in 2016 and 2017. Mean nest density (total and active nests) and climate variables (temperature and precipitation) were obtained for each colony. Parapsyllus humboldti was the most abundant and prevalent ectoparasite on penguins and in nests (69.10 and 57.80%, respectively), while Piroplasmorida/Haemospororida (33.51%) and Cardiocephaloides spp. (56.17%) were the most prevalent haemo- and helminth parasites of penguins, respectively. In general parasite abundance and prevalence was significantly affected by penguin age (chicks vs adults), location (mainland vs islands), nest density (total and active nests) and season (spring vs autumn/winter). It is concluded that parasite infestations are structured and that penguin chicks at mainland colonies are more susceptible to parasite infestations during spring.
During water entry, a projectile can entrain an air cavity that trails behind it. Most previous studies focus on the formation and pinch-off dynamics of the air cavity, but only a few have investigated the long-term cavity dynamics after pinch-off. In this study, we examine the ripple formation following the pinch-off of an air cavity generated by a cone, with different cone angles and impact velocities. The amplitude and wavelength of these ripples are measured, and the force on the cone is experimentally determined. It was observed that the ripple amplitude and wavelength increase linearly with the cone impact velocity, which is predicted by our acoustic model of the compressible air cavity. In addition, the measured force exhibits distinct amplitudes and wavelengths. By measuring the length of the cavity, the resulting pressure variation was averaged inside the air cavity leading to a theoretical force amplitude, which matched our observations. We noted that the force wavelength also follows the same acoustic model, which agrees very well with the wavelength of the ripples.
The sloshing of water waves in a vertical cylindrical tank is an archetypal damped oscillator in fluid mechanics. The wave frequency is traditionally derived in the potential flow limit (Lamb, Hydrodynamics, Cambridge University Press, 1932), and the damping rate results from the combined effects of the viscous dissipation at the wall, in the bulk and at the free surface (Case & Parkinson, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 2, 1957, pp. 172–184). Still, the classic theoretical prediction accounting for these effects significantly underestimates the damping rate when compared to careful laboratory experiments (Cocciaro et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 246, 1993, pp. 43–66). Specifically, theory provides a unique value for the damping rate, while experiments reveal that the damping increases as the sloshing amplitude decreases. Here, we investigate theoretically the effects of capillarity at the contact line on the decay time of capillary–gravity waves. To this end, we marry a model for the inviscid waves to a nonlinear empiric law for the contact line that incorporates contact angle hysteresis. The resulting system of equations is solved by means of a weakly nonlinear analysis using the method of multiple scales. Capillary effects have a dramatic influence on the calculated damping rate, especially when the sloshing amplitude gets small: this nonlinear interfacial term increases in the limit of zero wave amplitude. In contrast to viscous damping, where the wave motion decays exponentially, the contact angle hysteresis can act as Coulomb solid friction, thus yielding the arrest of the contact line in a finite time.
We investigate the Rayleigh–Taylor instability of a thin liquid film coated on the inside of a cylinder whose axis is orthogonal to gravity. We are interested in the effects of geometry on the instability, and contrast our results with the classical case of a thin film coated under a flat substrate. In our problem, gravity is the destabilizing force at the origin of the instability, but also yields the progressive drainage and stretching of the coating along the cylinder’s wall. We find that this flow stabilizes the film, which is asymptotically stable to infinitesimal perturbations. However, the short-time algebraic growth that these perturbations can achieve promotes the formation of different patterns, whose nature depends on the Bond number that prescribes the relative magnitude of gravity and capillary forces. Our experiments indicate that a transverse instability arises and persists over time for moderate Bond numbers. The liquid accumulates in equally spaced rivulets whose dominant wavelength corresponds to the most amplified mode of the classical Rayleigh–Taylor instability. The formation of rivulets allows for a faster drainage of the liquid from top to bottom when compared to a uniform drainage. For higher Bond numbers, a two-dimensional stretched lattice of droplets is found to form on the top part of the cylinder. Rivulets and the lattice of droplets are inherently three-dimensional phenomena and therefore require a careful three-dimensional analysis. We found that the transition between the two types of pattern may be rationalized by a linear optimal transient growth analysis and nonlinear numerical simulations.
The absence of a dedicated transport for disaccharides in the intestine implicates that the metabolic use of dietary lactose relies on its prior hydrolysis at the intestinal brush border. Consequently, lactose in blood or urine has mostly been associated with specific cases in which the gastrointestinal barrier is damaged. On the other hand, lactose appears in the blood of lactating women and has been detected in the blood and urine of healthy men, indicating that the presence of lactose in the circulation of healthy subjects is not incompatible with normal physiology. In this cross-over study we have characterised the postprandial kinetics of lactose, and its major constituent, galactose, in the serum of fourteen healthy men who consumed a unique dose of 800 g milk or yogurt. Genetic testing for lactase persistence and microbiota profiling of the subjects were also performed. Data revealed that lactose does appear in serum after dairy intake, although with delayed kinetics compared with galactose. Median serum concentrations of approximately 0·02 mmol/l lactose and approximately 0·2 mmol/l galactose were observed after the ingestion of milk and yogurt respectively. The serum concentrations of lactose were inversely correlated with the concentrations of galactose, and the variability observed between the subjects’ responses could not be explained by the presence of the lactase persistence allele. Finally, lactose levels have been associated with the abundance of the Veillonella genus in faecal microbiota. The measurement of systemic lactose following dietary intake could provide information about lactose metabolism and nutrient transport processes under normal or pathological conditions.
Cepheids are excellent stellar tracers: they are bright enough to be observed even at large distances; their distances can be accurately determined via period-luminosity relations; their spectra contain numerous lines that enable us to derive abundances for many α, iron-peak or neutron-capture elements. Classical Cepheids are yellow supergiants that trace the young populations (⩽ 300 Myr); Type II Cepheids are post Horizontal Branch, low-mass, Population II stars (⩾ 10 Gyr). Both can be used for many purposes in Milky Way archaeology.
Probiotic yogurt and milk supplemented with probiotics have been investigated for their role in ‘low-grade’ inflammation but evidence for their efficacy is inconclusive. This study explores the impact of probiotic yogurt on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers, with a parallel study of gut microbiota dynamics. The randomised cross-over study was conducted in fourteen healthy, young men to test probiotic yogurt compared with milk acidified with 2 % d-(+)-glucono-δ-lactone during a 2-week intervention (400 g/d). Fasting assessments, a high-fat meal test (HFM) and microbiota analyses were used to assess the intervention effects. Baseline assessments for the HFM were carried out after a run-in during which normal milk was provided. No significant differences in the inflammatory response to the HFM were observed after probiotic yogurt compared with acidified milk intake; however, both products were associated with significant reductions in the inflammatory response to the HFM compared with the baseline tests (assessed by IL6, TNFα and chemokine ligand 5) (P<0·001). These observations were accompanied by significant changes in microbiota taxa, including decreased abundance of Bilophila wadsworthia after acidified milk (log 2-fold-change (FC)=–1·5, Padj=0·05) and probiotic yogurt intake (FC=–1·3, Padj=0·03), increased abundance of Bifidobacterium species after acidified milk intake (FC=1·4, Padj=0·04) and detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus (FC=7·0, Padj<0·01) and Streptococcus salivarius spp. thermophilus (FC=6·0, Padj<0·01) after probiotic yogurt intake. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation that is associated with a HFM while inducing distinct changes in the gut microbiota of healthy men. These observations could be relevant for dietary treatments that target ‘low-grade’ inflammation.
Since September 2016, the first release (DR1) of the Gaia catalogue was appeared. The optical Gaia positions of sources will be linked to the ICRF (VLBI radio positions of mostly quasars, QSOs). For high accurate link we need to investigate variations of optical flux of QSOs via their magnitude variations using data of ground-based telescopes. To do that, from 2013 we observed 47 QSOs and other sources; nine optical telescopes were used for that monitoring. To increase the total number of objects for the link, after a first set of 70 objects (Bourda et al. 2008), Bourda et al. (2011) established a second set of 47 objects. It is necessary to investigate the photometry and morphology of these objects. We collected ground-based data of QSOs (B, V and R mag) and compared with G mag of Gaia DR1; some results are presented here.
This paper represents a conversation between two disciplines that too rarely enter into dialogue: New Testament studies and the history of Byzantine art. Two gospel passages have been chosen for analysis here: the first is a parable, the parable of the fig tree (Luke 13:6–9); the second, which follows immediately upon the first, is a miracle story that provokes a controversy (Luke 13:10–17). Both passages appear exclusively in the Gospel of Luke. Our joint study will start with exegetical notes on the Gospel of Luke and the history of the interpretation of these particular verses and will then turn to the miniatures that illustrate them in an eleventh-century Byzantine manuscript in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Parisinus graecus 74 (figs. 1–2). François Bovon has interpreted the Gospel of Luke in a German collection, the Evangelisch-katholischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament, a series attentive to the history of the reception (Wirkungsgeschichte) of the biblical text in the life of the Christian church. He will explain the two New Testament passages and follow the path of patristic and Byzantine interpretation during these periods.
To describe the current state of academic emergency medicine (EM) funding in Canada and develop recommendations to grow and establish sustainable funding.
A panel of eight leaders from different EM academic units was assembled. Using mixed methods (including a literature review, sharing of professional experiences, a survey of current EM academic heads, and data previously collected from an environmental scan), 10 recommendations were drafted and presented at an academic symposium. Attendee feedback was incorporated, and the second set of draft recommendations was further distributed to the Canadian Association Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Section for additional comments before being finalized.
Recommendations were developed around the funding challenges identified and solutions developed by academic EM university-based units across Canada. A strategic plan was seen as integral to achieving strong funding of an EM unit, especially when it aligned with departmental and institutional priorities. A business plan, although occasionally overlooked, was deemed an important component for planning and sustaining the academic mission. A number of recommendations surrounding philanthropy consisted of creating partnerships with existing foundations and engaging multiple stakeholders and communities. Synergy between academic and clinical EM departments was also viewed as an opportunity to ensure integration of common missions. Education and networking for current and future leaders were also viewed as invaluable to ensure that opportunities are optimized through strong leadership development and shared experiences to further the EM academic missions across the country.
These recommendations were designed to improve the financial circumstances for many Canadian EM units. There is a considerable wealth of resources that can contribute to financial stability for an academic unit, and an annual networking meeting and continuing education on these issues will facilitate more rapid implementation of these recommendations.
Surface rotation rates of young solar-type stars display drastic changes at the end of the pre-main sequence through the early main sequence. This may trigger corresponding changes in the magnetic dynamos operating in these stars, which ought to be observable in their surface magnetic fields. We present here the first results of an observational effort aimed at characterizing the evolution of stellar magnetic fields through this critical phase. We observed stars from open clusters and associations, which range from 20 to 600 Myr, and used Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize their complex magnetic fields. We find a clear trend towards weaker magnetic fields for older ages, as well as a tight correlation between magnetic field strength and Rossby number over this age range. Comparing to results for younger T Tauri stars, we observe a very significant change in magnetic strength and geometry, as the radiative core develops during the late pre-main sequence.
Recent Herschel and Planck observations of submillimeter dust emission revealed the omnipresence of filamentary structures in the interstellar medium (ISM). The ubiquity of filaments in quiescent clouds as well as in star-forming regions indicates that the formation of filamentary structures is a natural product of the physics at play in the magnetized turbulent cold ISM. An analysis of more than 270 filaments observed with Herschel in 8 regions of the Gould Belt, shows that interstellar filaments are characterized by a narrow distribution of central width sharply peaked at ~0.1 pc, while they span a wide column density range. Molecular line observations of a sample of these filaments show evidence of an increase in the velocity dispersion of dense filaments with column density, suggesting an evolution in mass per unit length due to accretion of surrounding material onto these star-forming filaments. The analyses of Planck dust polarization observations show that both the mean magnetic field and its fluctuations along the filaments are different from those of their surrounding clouds. This points to a coupling between the matter and the
-field in the filament formation process. These observational results, derived from dust and gas tracers in total and polarized intensity, set strong constraints on our understanding of the formation and evolution of filaments in the ISM. They provide important clues on the initial conditions of the star formation process along interstellar filaments.
The Antennae galaxies are a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies, being an ideal source to understand how the dynamics of galaxy mergers drives star formation. We present archive ALMA CO(3−2) and VLT near-IR H2 spectro-imaging observations, and new ALMA 13CO(2−1) and dust continuum observations, at ~50 pc resolution. Combining tracers of density and velocity structure of the gas and its energetics, we demonstrate that star formation involves a complex interplay of merger-driven gas dynamics and turbulence, and the dissipation of the gas kinetic energy. We focus on a compact, bright H2 source, associated with cold molecular gas and dust continuum emission, located where the velocity gradient in the interaction region is observed to be the largest. The characteristics of this source suggest that we are witnessing the formation, initiated by turbulent dissipation, of a cloud massive enough (~4×106M⊙) to form a super star cluster within 1 Myr.