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Schistosomiasis has been subjected to extensive control efforts in the People's Republic of China (China) which aims to eliminate the disease by 2030. We describe baseline results of a longitudinal cohort study undertaken in the Dongting and Poyang lakes areas of central China designed to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in humans, animals (goats and bovines) and Oncomelania snails utilizing molecular diagnostics procedures. Data from the Chinese National Schistosomiasis Control Programme (CNSCP) were compared with the molecular results obtained.
Sixteen villages from Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were surveyed; animals were only found in Hunan. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans was 1.8% in Jiangxi and 8.0% in Hunan determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while 18.3% of animals were positive by digital droplet PCR. The CNSCP data indicated that all villages harboured S. japonicum-infected individuals, detected serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), but very few, if any, of these were subsequently positive by Kato-Katz (KK).
Based on the outcome of the IHA and KK results, the CNSCP incorporates targeted human praziquantel chemotherapy but this approach can miss some infections as evidenced by the results reported here. Sensitive molecular diagnostics can play a key role in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China and inform control measures allowing for a more systematic approach to treatment.
Little is known about the impact of modifiable risk factors on blood pressure (BP) trajectories and their associations with hypertension (HTN). We aimed to identify BP trajectories in normotensive Chinese adults and explore their influencing factors and associations with HTN. We used data from 3436 adults with at least four BP measurements between 1989 and 2018 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey, an ongoing cohort study. We measured BP using mercury sphygmomanometers with appropriate cuff sizes in all surveys. We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify BP trajectories between 1989 and 2009 and multiple logistic and Cox regression models to analyse their influencing factors and associations with HTN in 2011–2018. We identified five systolic blood pressure (SBP) trajectories, ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Low–stable (LS)’, ‘Moderate-increasing (MI)’, ‘High-stable (HS)’ and ‘Moderate-decreasing (MD)’, and four diastolic blood pressure (DBP) trajectories classified as ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Moderate–stable (MS)’, ‘Low-stable (LS)’ and ‘High-increasing (HI)’. People with higher physical activity (PA) levels and lower waist circumferences (WC) were less likely to be in the SBP LI, MI, HS and MD groups (P < 0·05). People with higher fruit and vegetable intakes, lower WCs and salt intakes and higher PA levels were less likely to be in the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (P < 0·05). Participants in the SBP HS group (hazard ratio (HR) 2·01) or the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (HR 1·38, 1·40, 1·71, respectively) had higher risks of HTN (P < 0·05). This study suggests that BP monitoring is necessary to prevent HTN in the Chinese population.
As a new management reform adapting the development of the times, electronic human resource management (E-HRM) covers all possible integration mechanisms and contents between HRM and Information Technologies. E-HRM promotes employees' subject status with the network characteristics of openness and cooperation. Taking the theory of work adjustment as the instruction, this research studies the adaptive process induced by reconstructing the sense of matching when employees experience the reform, along with the influence of E-HRM on employee's initiative behavior from the perspective of job crafting. In total, 706 employees and their supervisors were investigated with matched questionnaire survey. The results show that: (1) E-HRM can stimulate employees' personal initiative behavior; (2) task crating, relational crafting and cognitive crafting as three dimensions of employees' job crafting, mediate the effect of E-HRM on personal initiative behavior and (3) the self-development motivation of employees' internet use plays a positive moderating role, steering self-oriented job crafting in the positive direction which conforms to the organizations' expectation.
Inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the development and progression of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary inflammatory index (DII), a measurement of inflammatory potential in diets, was suggested to be associated with MetS. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish the associations of DII with MetS and its components based on available observational studies.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
A comprehensive literature search of studies that assessed the associations between DII and MetS was conducted in PubMed, Medline and Embase, using a combination of search terms relating to DII and MetS.
Eighteen articles were eligible, of which fourteen were cross-sectional and four were cohort in design.
Results from the random effects meta-analysis showed significantly positive associations of higher DII (top v. bottom quartiles) with MetS (OR: 1·23 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·37)), abdominal obesity (OR: 1·15 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·29)), high blood pressure (OR: 1·17 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·29)), hyperglycaemia (OR: 1·18 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·33)) and hypertriacylglycerolaemia (OR: 1·17 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·28)). The effects of summary OR became stronger when analyses were restricted to cohorts, studies that adjudged for covariates (including BMI, physical activity and total energy intake).
Higher DII, representing pro-inflammatory diet, is associated with higher odds of MetS and its components, except for low HDL-cholesterol. The findings prompt dietary interventions for preventing MetS from the aspect of inflammation.
To measure the associations of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in China.
A cross-sectional study.
A 2015 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey.
Totally, 11 910 adults aged 18 to 64 years.
Adjusted log binomial regression analyses showed that adults with higher income levels had higher fruit intake than those with low income levels (medium income group, risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95 % CI: 1·16, 1·41; high income group, RR: 1·58; 95 % CI: 1·43, 1·74). Current smokers had lower fruit intake than non-smokers (RR: 0·86; 95 % CI: 0·77, 0·96). Adults living in southern China had higher vegetable intake (RR: 1·88; 95 % CI: 1·76, 2·01) but lower fruit intake (RR: 0·85; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·91) than adults in northern China. With increasing age, adults had higher fruit intake (50–64 years, RR: 1·20; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·33; reference category 18–34 years) and higher vegetable intake (35–49 years, RR: 1·13; 95 % CI: 1·05, 1·22; 50–64 years, RR: 1·22; 95 % CI: 1·13, 1·31).
Our findings identify a range of sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among Chinese adults. They also point to the need for public health nutrition interventions for socially disadvantaged populations in China.
Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection in Wuhan City, China, pediatric cases have gradually increased. It is very important to prevent cross-infection in pediatric fever clinics, to identify children with fever in pediatric fever clinics, and to strengthen the management of pediatric fever clinics. According to prevention and control programs, we propose the guidance on the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period, which outlines in detail how to optimize processes, prevent cross-infection, provide health protection, and prevent disinfection of medical staff. The present consideration statement summarizes current strategies on the pre-diagnosis, triage, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection, which provides practical suggestions on strengthening the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period.
Losing one's only child is a major traumatic life event that may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the underlying mechanisms of its psychological consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated subregional hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) networks based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and the deoxyribonucleic acid methylation of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adults who had lost their only child.
A total of 144 Han Chinese adults who had lost their only child (51 adults with PTSD and 93 non-PTSD adults [trauma-exposed controls]) and 50 controls without trauma exposure were included in this fMRI study (age: 40–67 years). FCs between hippocampal subdivisions (four regions in each hemisphere: cornu ammonis1 [CA1], CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus [DG]) and methylation levels of the NR3C1 gene were compared among the three groups.
Trauma-exposed adults, regardless of PTSD diagnosis, had weaker positive FC between the left hippocampal CA1, left DG, and the posterior cingulate cortex, and weaker negative FC between the right CA1, right DG, and several frontal gyri, relative to healthy controls. Compared to non-PTSD adults, PTSD adults showed decreased negative FC between the right CA1 region and the right middle/inferior frontal gyri (MFG/IFG), and decreased negative FC between the right DG and the right superior frontal gyrus and left MFG. Both trauma-exposed groups showed lower methylation levels of the NR3C1 gene.
Adults who had lost their only child may experience disrupted hippocampal network connectivity and NR3C1 methylation status, regardless of whether they have developed PTSD.
Exoskeleton robots have been widely used in many fields at present. When wearing the exoskeleton to operate, the wearer may be unconscious of the position of exoskeleton or affected by the surrounding environment, causing collision between two arms of exoskeleton or between arms and environment. The collision may result in the exoskeleton destroyed or even the wearer injured. This paper proposes a hierarchical safety control strategy for exoskeleton robots based on maximum correntropy Kalman filter and bounding box to ensure safe operation. Accurate joint angle prediction can be obtained by filtering out non-Gaussian impulsive noise using maximum correntropy criterion as evaluation criterion. Relative position relationship of the arms can be derived based on bounding box to realize hierarchical safe control. Enough experiments have been carried out, and the results validated the feasibility of the proposed method.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
Very few recent studies are available that compare caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of different types of dementia. We aimed to investigate caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies, as compared with caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
This study was carried out from March 2011 to January 2014. In total, 492 dyads of patient and caregiver (frontotemporal lobar degeneration, n = 131; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 36; Alzheimer's disease, n = 325) participated in this study. We compared patients with respect to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and caregivers with respect to the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients presented significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to Alzheimer's disease patients. Caregivers of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients experienced significantly more burden compared to Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Furthermore, among caregivers of both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients burden was predicted by the neuropsychiatric symptoms, PHQ-9 scores, and GAD-7 scores.
The frequency and severity of behavioral disturbances in patient and caregiver stress accounted for the increased caregiver burden, which suggests that frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies caregivers should receive more support than is currently available.
Magnesium oxide aerogels were made by sol-gel process using magnesium methoxide as precursor, methanol and deionized water as solvent with ethanol supercritical fluid drying. The influences of the different factors on the gel time and the specific surface area of magnesium oxide aerogels were studied, and the structure and morphology were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the Small Angle X-ray Scatter (SAXS) was utilized to determine the fractural structure of the magnesium oxide aerogels. The results show that MgO aerogels belong to the typical mesoporous materials with rich network and highly developed pore structure, and the specific surface area is 904.9 m2/g, the apparent density is 0.055 g/cm3, the average pore size is 19.6 nm. The results of SAXS analysis show that the fractal dimension of the MgO aerogels is 2.32 in high q area which proves the existence of rough surface and pore fractal structure.
In this study low temperature micro-photoluminescence technology was employed to investigate effects of the irradiation and nitrogen concentration on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) luminescence, with the photochromic and vibronic properties of the NV defects. Results showed that the NV luminescence was weakened due to recombination of self-interstitials created by electron irradiation in diamond and the vacancies within the structure of NV centers. For very pure diamond, the vacancies migrated the long distance to get trapped by N atoms only after sufficient high temperature annealing. As with the increase in nitrogen content, the migration distance of vacancies got smaller. The nitrogen also favored the formation of negatively charged NV centers with the donating electrons. Under the high-energy ultraviolet laser excitation, the photochromic property of the NV− center was also observed, though it was not stable. Besides, the NV centers showed very strong broad sidebands, and the vibrations involved one phonon with energy of ~42 meV and another with ~67 meV energy.
Nanobelt-like precipitates in an Al–Si–Mg–Hf alloy were studied using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and focused ion beam (FIB) scanning electron microscopy techniques. One grain of the Al matrix with a near  normal direction was identified by EBSD and the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of nanobelt-like precipitates in this grain was studied using 3D-FIB. Ten growth directions of the nanobelt-like precipitates in the grain were identified.
This paper presents a method to improve the speed and accuracy rate for space robot visual target recognition based on illumination and affine invariant feature extraction. The method takes illumination changes, strong nonlinear light due to refraction and reflection, target affine transformation and occlusion into consideration, all of which occur on the cabin target surface and affect the target recognition accuracy seriously. In this paper, a method is proposed to capture a same target at multi-viewpoints to establish feature library for high recognition accuracy and speed at any viewpoint. By using an analysis of the light intensity and gray level transformation, we obtain the corrected image which reduce the influence of illumination change. Then the affine moment invariants features of the correction images at multi-viewpoints were extracted and the average feature datum were stored in the library. To verify the validity of the method, a robot vision system provided images, followed by image preprocessing, dynamic local threshold segmentation and feature extraction. These methods were verified on a target recognition system of space robot built for this research. The experimental results showed that the methods were feasible and effective.
Grape seed extract (GSE), a rich source of polyphenols, is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The objective of the present study was to determine whether GSE could attenuate the heat stress-induced responses of jejunum epithelial cells (JEC) in cattle. The JEC of a steer (Simmental × Qinchuan) were exposed to heat stress for 2 h in the absence (0 μg/ml) or presence (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml) of GSE in the culture medium. When cultured at 40°C, JEC supplemented with GSE exhibited increased glutathione peroxidase activity (P= 0·04), viability (P= 0·004), and mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF; P= 0·03) and EGF receptor (EGFR; P= 0·01). Under the same conditions, the cells exhibited decreased mRNA expression of IL-8 (P= 0·01) and TNF-α (P= 0·03) and decreased protein concentrations of IL-1β (P= 0·02), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4; P= 0·04) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70; P< 0·001). When cultured at 43°C, JEC supplemented with GSE exhibited increased catalase activity (P= 0·04), viability (P< 0·001), and mRNA expression of EGF (P< 0·001) and EGFR (P< 0·001) and decreased protein concentrations of IL-1β (P< 0·001), TLR4 (P= 0·03) and HSP70 (P< 0·001), as well as mRNA expression of IL-8 (P< 0·001), TLR4 (P= 0·002) and TNF-α (P< 0·001). Temperature × GSE concentration interactions were also observed for the concentrations of IL-1β (P< 0·001), IL-8 (P< 0·001), TNF-α (P= 0·01) and HSP70 (P= 0·04) and viability (P< 0·001) of JEC. The results of the present study indicate that GSE can attenuate the responses of JEC induced by heat stress within a certain range of temperatures.
A crucial problem is the risk that a manipulator arm would be damaged by twisting or bending during and after contacting a target satellite. This paper presents a solution to minimize the risk of damage to the arm and thereby enhance contact performance. First, a hand-eye servo controller is proposed as a method for accurately tracking and capturing a target satellite. Next, a motion planning strategy is employed to obtain the best-fit contacting moments. Also, an impedance control law is implemented to increase protection during operation and to ensure more accurate compliance. Finally, to overcome the challenge of verifying algorithms for a space manipulator while on the ground, a novel experimental system with a 6-DOF (degree of freedom) manipulator on a chaser field robot is presented and implemented to capture a target field robot; the proposed methods are then validated using the experimental platform.
An energy measurement system in a Large-aperture high power laser experiment platform
is introduced. The entire measurement system includes five calorimeters, which carry
out the energy measurement of the fundamental frequency before the frequency
conversion unit, remaining fundamental frequency, remain second-harmonics, third
harmonics, as well as the energy balance measurement after the frequency conversion
unit. Combinational indirect calibration and direct calibration are employed to
calibrate the sampling coefficients of the calorimeters. The analysis of the data
showed that, regarding the energy balance coefficients, combinational calibration
approach gives a higher precision, and leads to an energy balance with 1%; and
regarding the energy sampling coefficients for the various wavelengths after the
frequency conversion, the results from direct and combinational calibration are
consistent. The uncertainties for all energy sampling coefficients are within 3%,
which guarantees the reliability of the energy measurement for the laser
α-Tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) has been shown to be a potent apoptosis inducer and growth inhibitor in a variety of cancer cells. Our previous studies showed the important role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the apoptosis induced by α-TOS. However, the relationship of oxidative stress with ER stress is still controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate the interplay between the two stress responses induced by α-TOS in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. In response to α-TOS, cytological changes typical of apoptosis, induction of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein transcription factor (CHOP), and activation of caspase-4 were observed. And the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine inhibited induction of both GRP78 and CHOP by α-TOS transcriptionally and translationally. Furthermore, knocking down CHOP by RNA interference decreased ROS generation, increased glutathione level and induced glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression in α-TOS-treated cells, whereas catalase and superoxide dismutases mRNA expression were not altered. The results imply that α-TOS induces ER stress response through ROS production, while CHOP perturbs the redox state of SGC-7901 cells treated with α-TOS.
Lactoferrin has antimicrobial activity associated with peptide fragments lactoferricin (LFC) and lactoferrampin (LFA) released on digestion. These two fragments have been expressed in Photorhabdus luminescens as a fusion peptide linked to protein cipB. The construct cipB–LFC–LFA was tested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters in pig production. Sixty piglets with an average live body weight of 5·42 (sem 0·59) kg were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and randomly assigned to four treatment groups fed a maize–soyabean meal diet containing either no addition (C), cipB at 100 mg/kg (C+B), cipB–LFC–LFA at 100 mg/kg (C+L) or colistin sulfate at 100 mg/kg (C+CS) for 3 weeks. Compared with C, dietary supplementation with C+L for 3 weeks increased daily weight gain by 21 %, increased recovery from diarrhoea, enhanced serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxidase (POD) and total antioxidant content (T-AOC), liver GPx, POD, superoxide dismutase and T-AOC, Fe, total Fe-binding capacity, IgA, IgG and IgM levels (P < 0·05), decreased the concentration of E. coli in the ileum, caecum and colon (P < 0·05), increased the concentration of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the ileum, caecum and colon (P < 0·05), and promoted development of the villus–crypt architecture of the small intestine. Growth performance was similar between C+L- and C+CS-supplemented pigs. The present results indicate that LFC–LFA is an effective alternative to the feed antibiotic CS for enhancing growth performance in piglets weaned at age 21 d.
Lanthanum-modified lead titanate (PLT) ferroelectric thin films were fabricated by the RF magnetron sputtering system on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the PLT films showed that the pure perovskite structure was formed in the PLT thin films. The Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) was used for determining the domain structure of these films. It was found that the 90 degree domain was the main domain structure of PLT thin films. It was found that the PLT films prepared by RF sputtering have relatively large pyroelectric coefficient γ=2.20×10-8C·(cm2·K)-1 and relatively high figures of merit for current responsivity, voltage responsivity and specific detectivity.
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