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We trace Sn nanoparticles (NPs) produced from SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) during lithiation initialized by high energy e-beam irradiation. The growth dynamics of Sn NPs is visualized in liquid electrolytes by graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. The observation reveals that Sn NPs grow on the surface of SnO2 NTs via coalescence and the final shape of agglomerated NPs is governed by surface energy of the Sn NPs and the interfacial energy between Sn NPs and SnO2 NTs. Our result will likely benefit more rational material design of the ideal interface for facile ion insertion.
To evaluate the appropriateness of the screening strategy for healthcare personnel (HCP) during a hospital-associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak, we performed a serologic investigation in 189 rRT-PCR–negative HCP exposed and assigned to MERS patients. Although 20%–25% of HCP experienced MERS-like symptoms, none of them showed seroconversion by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).
In this paper, we propose and examine a force-resisting balance control strategy for a walking biped robot under the application of a sudden unknown, continuous force. We assume that the external force is acting on the pelvis of a walking biped robot and that the external force in the z-direction is negligible compared to the external forces in the x- and y-directions. The main control strategy involves moving the zero moment point (ZMP) of the walking robot to the center of the robot's sole resisting the externally applied force. This strategy is divided into three steps. The first step is to detect an abnormal situation in which an unknown continuous force is applied by examining the position of the ZMP. The second step is to move the ZMP of the robot to the center of the sole resisting the external force. The third step is to have the biped robot convert from single support phase (SSP) to double support phase (DSP) for an increased force-resisting capability. Computer simulations and experiments of the proposed methods are performed to benchmark the suggested control strategy.
Mutation breeding techniques have been used to induce new genetic variations and improve agronomic traits in soybean. In Korea, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has unique radiation facilities to induce plant mutations and has been conducting soybean mutation breeding programmes since the mid-1960s. Until now, the KAERI has developed five soybean mutant cultivars exhibiting early maturity, high yield and seed-coat colour change. In this paper, we review these five mutant cultivars in terms of how to successfully induce unique agronomic characteristics through mutation breeding programmes. A number of induced mutants exhibiting null lipoxygenase enzymes, altered protein patterns or Kunitz trypsin inhibitor activity could serve as genetic resources for the genetic analysis of target genes, and one mutant population has been developed for a reverse genetic study.
We report the preliminary results for the detection of H2 and [Fe II] line features around the Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) from the UWISH2 and UWIFE surveys that cover the first galactic quadrant of 7°<l<65° and |b|<1.3°. By this time, we have found a total of 17 H2-emitting and 14 [Fe II]-emitting SNRs in the coverage, and more than a half of them are detected in both H2 and [Fe II] emissions, which implies that the environment of these SNRs might be complex and composed of multi-phase medium. In this paper, we present our identification strategy and some preliminary results including H2 and [Fe II] luminosity distributions.
Vitamin D insufficiency is known to be related to cardiometabolic disorders; however, the associations among serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents have not yet been clearly delineated. For this reason, we investigated the relationship among serum 25(OH)D concentration and metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adolescents.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analysis models to adjust for confounding variables.
We used the data gathered during the 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
Our subjects included 1504 Korean adolescents aged 12–18 years who participated in the KNHANES.
Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/l, was found in 75·3 % of Korean adolescents and was associated with an increased risk of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference and BMI were the most closely correlated cardiometabolic components of metabolic syndrome according to serum 25(OH)D status, but no significant relationship was found between serum 25(OH)D concentration and insulin resistance or for the risks for high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, reduced HDL-cholesterol or hypertriacylglycerolaemia, with or without adjustment for confounding variables.
Low serum 25(OH)D concentration appears to be associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors and an increased risk of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents.
An amorphized tungsten nitride diffusion barrier is compared with that of polycrystalline tungsten nitride preventing the diffusion of copper into Si during post annealing processes at 600 – 800 °C for 30 min. Experimental evidence such as RBS, TEM, XRD measurements shows that the amorphized tungsten nitride layer perfectly blocks the expeditious diffusion of the Cu film due to the amorphous grain boundaries stuffed with N impurities.
Residual compressive stress of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was measured by beam deflection method. DLC films were deposited on thin Si wafers using r.f. plasma decomposition of methane and benzene. Negative bias voltage of the cathode was varied from -100 to -800 V and deposition pressure from 3 to 100 mTorr. When using benzene as precursor gas, the residual stress monotonically increases as increasing . (Here, Vb is the negative bias voltage of cathode and P the deposition pressure.) In case of using methane, however, the residual stress has a maximum value at between 70 and 100 V/mTorr1/2. Because of the difference in molecular size between benzene and methane, the mean free path of ions in benzene discharge is 5 times shorter than that in methane discharge. The contrasting behavior of residual stress is discussed in terms of the difference in ion energies at the specimen surface due to the difference in mean free path. On the other hand, total hydrogen concentration decreases as increasing in both cases. This result thus shows that the total hydrogen concentration cannot be a key to understand the behavior of residual stress.
The effect of the post plasma treatment on the dielectric properties and reliability of fluorine doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films was studied. Also, the thermal stability of a Cu/WN interconnect system with SiOF intermetal dielectrics was examined by RTA. The surface roughness of SiOF films increased with the increasing plasma treatment power due to ion bombardment effect during the plasma treatment. As the plasma treatment power increased, the dielectric constant increased from 3.16 to 3.43, while the change in the relative dielectric constant of the plasma treated films by the boiling treatment was decreased in magnitude. Furthermore, the chemical properties of the plasma treated SiOF films near the top layer tend to resemble those of thermal oxides by the plasma treatment of sufficient power because of the reduction in the Si-F bonding in the films. In the case of Cu/WN/SiOF/Si multilayer structure, surface oxidation and densification due to the plasma treatment seemed to play an important role in protecting the interdiffusion between SiOF and metal interconnects.
Plasma doping (PLAD) process utilizing PH3 plasma to fabricate n-type junction with supplied bias of −1 kV and doping time of 60 sec under the room temperature is presented. The RTA process is performed at 900 °C for 10 sec. A defect-free surface is corroborated by TEM and DXRD analyses, and examined SIMS profiles reveal that shallow n+ junctions are formed with surface doping concentration of 1021atoms/cm3. The junction depth increases in proportion to the O2 gas flow when the N2 flow is fixed during the RTA process, resulting in a decreased sheet resistance. Measured doping profiles and the sheet resistance confirm that the n+ junction depth less than 52 nm and minimum sheet resistance of 313 Ω/□ are feasible.