Skip to main content Accessibility help

Borna disease virus and deficit schizophrenia

  • Yong-Ku Kim (a1), Sang-Hyun Kim (a2), Chang-Su Han (a1), Heon-Jeong Lee (a1), Hyung-Seob Kim (a3), Sung-Chul Yoon (a4), Dai-Jin Kim (a5), Ki-Joon Song (a2), Michael Maes (a6) and Jin-Won Song (a2)...



It is controversial whether Borna disease virus (BDV) infects humans and causes psychiatric disorders.


The relationship between BDV infection and schizophrenia with deficit syndrome was investigated.

Study design:

Using the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome, 62 schizophrenic in-patients were selected from three psychiatric hospitals. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and analyzed using nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with primers to detect BDV p24 and p40.

Results and conclusions:

BDV transcripts were not detected in samples from any of the 62 schizophrenic patients. These data do not support an etiologic association between BDV infection and the deficit form of schizophrenia.


Corresponding author

Department of Psychiatry, Korea University Medical Center Ansan Hospital, 516, Go-Jan Dong, Ansan city, Kyunggi Province, 425–070, Korea. Tel: + 82-31-412-5140; Fax: + 82-31-412-5144; E-mail:


Hide All
1.Carbone, KM. Borna disease virus and human disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001;14: 513527.
2.Ikuta, K, Ibrahim, MS, Kobayashi, T, Tomonaga, K. Borna disease virus and infection in humans. Front Biosci 2002;7: d470495.
3.Lieb, K, Staeheli, P. Borna disease virus – does it infect humans and cause psychiatric disorders? J Clin Virol 2001;21: 119127.
4.Taieb, O, Baleyte, JM, Mazet, P, Fillet, AM. Borna disease virus and psychiatry. Eur Psychiatry 2001;16: 310.
5.Kim, YK, Kim, SH, Choi, SHet al. Failure to demonstrate Borna disease virus genome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from psychiatric patients in Korea. J Neurovirol 1999;5: 196199.
6.Lieb, K, Hallensleben, W, Czygan, M, Stitz, L, Staeheli, P. No Borna disease virus-specific RNA detected in blood from psychiatric patients in different regions of Germany. The Bornavirus Study Group. Lancet 1997;350: 1002.
7.Richt, JA, Alexander, RC, Herzog, Set al. Failure to detect Borna disease virus infection in peripheral blood leukocytes from humans with psychiatric disorders. J Neurovirol 1997;3: 174178.
8.Selten, JP, Van Vliet, K, Pleyte, W, Herzog, S, Hoek, HW, Van Loon, AM. Borna disease virus and schizophrenia in Surinamese immigrants to the Netherlands. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 2000;189: 5557.
9.Tsuji, K, Toyomasu, K, Imamura, Y, Maeda, H, Toyoda, T. No association of borna disease virus with psychiatric disorders among patients in northern Kyushu, Japan. J Med Virol 2000;61: 336340.
10.Bode, L, Zimmermann, W, Ferszt, R, Steinbach, F, Ludwig, H. Borna disease virus genome transcribed and expressed in psychiatric patients. Nat Med 1995;1: 232236.
11.Chen, Ch, Chiu, YL, Shaw, CK, Tsai, MT, Hwang, AL, Hsiao, KJ. Detection of Borna disease virus RNA from peripheral blood cells in schizophrenic patients and mental health workers. Mol Psychiatry 1999;4: 566571.
12.Igata-Yi, R, Yamaguchi, K, Yoshiki, Ket al. Borna disease virus and the consumption of raw horse meat. Nat Med 1996;2: 948949.
13.Kishi, M, Nakaya, T, Nakamura, Yet al. Demonstration of human Borna disease virus RNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. FEBS Lett 1995;364: 293297.
14.Planz, O, Rentzsch, C, Batra, Aet al. Pathogenesis of borna disease virus: granulocyte fractions of psychiatric patients harbor infectious virus in the absence of antiviral antibodies. J Virol 1999;73: 62516256.
15.Sauder, C, Muller, A, Cubitt, Bet al. Detection of Borna disease virus (BDV) antibodies and BDV RNA in psychiatric patients: evidence for high sequence conservation of human blood-derived BDV RNA. J Virol 1996;70: 77137724.
16.Iwahashi, K, Watanabe, M, Nakamura, Ket al. Borna disease virus infection and negative syndromes in Japanese schizophrenia patients. Psychiatr Clin Neurosci 1998;52: 119.
17.Iwahashi, K, Watanabe, M, Nakamura, Ket al. Positive and negative syndromes, and Borna disease virus infection in schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiol 1998;37: 5964.
18.Waltrip, RW, Buchanan, RW, Carpenter, WT Jret al. Borna disease virus antibodies and the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1997;23: 253257.
19.Carpenter, WT Jr,Heinrichs, DW, Wagman, AM. Deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia: the concept. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145: 578583.
20.American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1994.
21.First, M, Spitzer, RL, Gibbon, M, William, JB. Structured clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder – Patient Edition (SCID-I/P), Version 2.0. New York: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1998.
22.Kirkpatrick, B, Buchanan, RW, McKenney, PD, Alphs, LD, Carpenter, WT Jr.The Schedule for the Deficit syndrome: an instrument for research in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 1989;30: 119123.
23.Sauder, C, De La Torre, JC. Sensitivity and reproducibility of RT-PCR to detect Borna disease virus (BDV) RNA in blood: implications for BDV epidemiology. J Virol Meth 1998;71: 229245.
24.Tokunaga, K, Taniguchi, H, Yoda, K, Shimizu, M, Sakiyama, S. Nucleotide sequence of a full-length cDNA for mouse cytoskeletal beta-actin mRNA. Nucl Acids Res 1986;14: 2829.
25.Schwemmle, M. Borna disease virus infection in psychiatric patients: are we on the right track? Lancet Infect Dis 2001;1: 4652.
26.Billich, C, Sauder, C, Frank, Ret al. High-avidity human serum antibodies recognizing linear epitopes of Borna disease virus proteins. Biol Psychiatry 2002; 51: 979987.
27.Czygan, M, Hallensleben, W, Hofer, Met al. Borna disease virus in human brains with a rare form of hippocampal degeneration but not in brains of patients with common neuropsychiatric disorders. J Infect Dis 1999;180: 16951699.
28.Nakamura, Y, Takahashi, H, Shoya, Yet al. Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain tissue. J Virol 2000;74: 46014611.
29.Schwemmle, M, Jehle, C, Formella, S, Staeheli, P. Sequence similarities between human bornavirus isolates and laboratory strains question human origin. Lancet 1999;354: 19731974.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed