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Heart rate variability (HRV) is a proxy measure of autonomic function and can be used as an indicator of swine stress. While traditional linear measures are used to distinguish between stressed and unstressed treatments, inclusion of nonlinear HRV measures that evaluate data structure and organization shows promise for improving HRV interpretation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of nonlinear HRV measures in response to an acute heat episode. Twenty 12- to 14-week-old growing pigs were individually housed for 7 days and acclimated to thermoneutral conditions (20.35°C ± 0.01°C; 67.6% ± 0.2% RH) before undergoing one of the two treatments: (1) thermoneutral control (TN; n = 10 pigs) or (2) acute heat stress (HS; n = 10 pigs; 32.6°C ± 0.1°C; 26.2% ± 0.1% RH). In Phase 1 of the experimental procedure (P1; 60 min), pigs underwent a baseline HRV measurement period in thermoneutral conditions before treatment [Phase 2; P2; 60 min once gastrointestinal temperature (Tg) reached 40.6°C], where HS pigs were exposed to heated conditions and TN pigs remained in thermoneutral conditions. After P2, all pigs were moved back to thermoneutral conditions (Phase 3; P3; 60 min). During each phase, Tg data were collected every 5 min and behavioural data were collected to evaluate the amount of time each pig spent in an active posture. Additionally, linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear [sample entropy (SampEn), de-trended fluctuation analysis, percentage recurrence, percentage determinism (%DET), mean diagonal line length in a recurrence plot] HRV measures were quantified. Heat stressed pigs exhibited greater Tg (P = 0.002) and spent less time in an active posture compared to TN pigs during P2 (P = 0.0003). Additionally, low frequency to high frequency ratio was greater in HS pigs during P3 compared to TN pigs (P = 0.02). SampEn was reduced in HS pigs during P2 (P = 0.01) and P3 (P = 0.03) compared to TN pigs. Heat stressed pigs exhibited greater %DET during P3 (P = 0.03) and tended to have greater %DET (P = 0.09) during P2 than TN pigs. No differences between treatments were detected for the remaining HRV measures. In conclusion, linear HRV measures were largely unchanged during P2. However, changes to SampEn and %DET suggest increased heat stress as a result of the acute heat episode. Future work should continue to evaluate the benefits of including nonlinear HRV measures in HRV analysis of swine heat stress.
Evidence on long-term influences of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency or concentrations on infant cognition is limited. We examined associations between maternal plasma vitamin B12 and cognitive development in 24-month-old infants. Maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were measured at 26–28 weeks’ gestation; infant cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III at 24 months, for 443 mother–infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort. Linear regressions adjusted for key confounders examined associations of maternal vitamin B12 with cognitive, receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor subscales. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamin B12 with folate or vitamin B6 insufficiencies on child’s cognition was explored. Average maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations was 220·5 ± 80·5 pmol/l; 15 % and 41 % of mothers were vitamin B12 deficient (<148 pmol/l) and insufficient (148–220·9 pmol/l), respectively. Infants of mothers with vitamin B12 deficiency had 0·42 (95 % CI −0·70, −0·14) sd lower cognitive scores, compared with infants of mothers with sufficient vitamin B12. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamins B12 and B6 insufficiencies was associated with 0·37 (95 % CI −0·69, −0·06) sd lower cognitive scores in infants compared with infants of mothers sufficient in both vitamins. No significant associations were observed with other subscales. Study findings suggest the possible need to ensure adequate vitamin B12 during pregnancy. The impact of co-occurrence of maternal B-vitamins insufficiencies on early cognitive development warrants further investigation.
This study investigates numerically the performance of applying aerospike nozzle in a hydrogen peroxide mono-propellant propulsion system. A set of governing equations, including continuity, momentum, energy and species conservation equations with extended k-ε turbulence equations, are solved using the finite-volume method. The hydrogen peroxide mono-propellant is assumed to be fully decomposed into water vapor and oxygen after flowing through a catalyst bed before entering the nozzle. The aerospike nozzle is expected to have high performance even in deep throttling cases due to its self-compensating characteristics in a wide range of ambient pressure environments. The results show that the thrust coefficient efficiency (Cf,η) of this work exceeds 90% of the theoretical value with a nozzle pressure ratio (PR) in the range of 20 ~ 45. Many complex gas dynamics phenomena in the aerospike nozzle are found and explained in the paper. In addition, performance of the aerospike nozzle is compared with that of the bell-shape nozzle.
Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec) is an investigational retroviral replicating vector that selectively infects dividing cancer cells, integrates into the genome and replicates due to immune defects in tumors. Toca 511 spreads through tumors and stably delivers the gene encoding an optimized yeast cytosine deaminase that converts the prodrug Toca FC (investigational, extended-release of 5-fluorocytosine) into 5-fluorouracil. In preclinical models, 5-fluorouracil kills infected dividing cancer cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells and tumor associated macrophages, enabling immune activation against the tumor. In this dose ascending Ph1 trial (NCT01470794), Toca 511 was injected into the resection cavity wall of patients with rHGG, followed by courses of oral Toca FC. Additional cohorts included combination with bevacizumab or lomustine. Across the Ph1 program, the safety profile remains favorable. Objective responses (ORs) were assessed by IRR using MRI scans prior to Toca FC treatment as baseline. ORs occurred 6-19 months after Toca 511 administration, suggesting an immunologic mechanism. The ORs were observed in 4 patients with IDH1-wildtype and 2 patients with IDH1-mutant tumors, including 5 complete responses (CRs) with the investigational therapy alone, and 1 CR in combination with bevacizumab. The median duration of response (mDoR) was 35.1+ months. As of AUG2017, all responders were CR and remain alive. In a 23-patient subgroup who received high doses of Toca 511 and met Ph3 trial criteria, mOS was 14.4 months, 3-year survival rate was 26.1%, and mDoR was 35.7+ months with a durable response rate of 21.7%. Data suggest a positive association of durable response with OS.
The increasing tropospheric ozone concentration [O3] strongly affects plant growth. However, the response of belowground processes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems to higher O3 is not well understood. The grain production, belowground biomass partitioning, root morphology and activity of rice (cv. Shanyou 63) were investigated in a free-air O3 enrichment platform at four key growth stages. Elevated O3 (EO3, 50% above the ambient O3) significantly decreased the grain yield and total biomass at the grain milky mature stage, root biomass at the tillering stage and root to shoot ratios (RRS) at the flowering and grain filling stages. The effects of EO3 on root morphology and activity varied among rice growth stage. EO3 significantly decreased root length, density, area, diameter and volume at the flowering stage, but EO3 significantly decreased various root morphological indices at the tillering, grain filling and milky mature stages. EO3 significantly increased the specific root respiration rate (root activity) and root respiration rate (autotrophic respiration) at grain filling and milky mature stages. Higher root autotrophic respiration and lower RRS in response to EO3 would reduce allocation of assimilated carbon to root growth, adversely affecting rice productivity. Our findings are critical for understanding the O3-induced impairment of belowground processes and carbon cycling in rice cropping systems and breeding of O3-tolerant cultivars under higher [O3] scenarios.
Diarrhea is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the incidence of diarrhea in the world has changed little over the past four decades. To assess the prevalence of and healthcare practices for diarrhea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Pudong, Shanghai, China. In October 2014, a total of 5324 community residents were interviewed. Respondents were asked if they had experienced diarrhea (defined as ⩾3 passages of watery, loose, bloody, or mucoid stools within a 24-h period) in the previous month prior to the interview. The monthly prevalence of diarrhea was 4·1% (95% CI: 3·3–4·8), corresponding to an incidence rate of 0·54 episodes per person-year. The proportion of individuals with diarrhea who sought healthcare was 21·2% (95% CI: 13·4–29·0). Diarrhea continues to impose a considerable burden on the community and healthcare system in Pudong. Young age and travel were identified as predictors of increased diarrhea occurrence.
Introduction/Innovation Concept: Estimates suggest that up to eighty-seven percent of human trafficking victims have come into contact with a healthcare provider during their exploitation and yet less than ten percent of emergency medicine (EM) physicians feel confident in identifying a victim. When provided with the relevant tools, medical personnel can aid in the recognition of victims and take the necessary steps in providing appropriate care when they present to the emergency department. Identifying this need for increased awareness in the urgent care setting, a module on human trafficking was implemented into the undergraduate medical education and departmental grand rounds. Methods: After identifying gaps in current medical education regarding screening for victims of human trafficking, a literature review was completed on the topic in medical education and utilized in constructing a list of objectives. These were then reviewed by community organizations that aid victims of trafficking and the Canadian Alliance of Medical Students Against Human Trafficking. Undergraduate medical students completed surveys prior to and following the learning module, in order to evaluate improvement in acquired knowledge. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: A one-hour lecture from ACT Alberta was given to undergraduate medical students as well as to residents and staff in departmental grand rounds. The session met the following objectives: defining human trafficking, recognition of victims, and identification of next steps in providing care. Additionally, an online module from Fraser Health was made available as an additional resource with case studies specific to emergency departments. The surveys consisted of 13 questions evaluating students’ knowledge on human trafficking and its prevalence in emergency medicine. The questions were a combination of a Likert scale, multiple choice, and short answer. There was a large amount of positive feedback from the students and comparison of the surveys showed that their knowledge in identifying victims had significantly improved. Conclusion: Medical students, residents, and staff may come into contact with victims of trafficking in the emergency department and yet less than three percent of emergency physicians have had training on how to recognize a victim. Implementing human trafficking awareness will impact EM medical education by providing victims a greater chance of being recognized and offered help when they present to the emergency room.
Results are presented from our ongoing studies of Titan using ALMA during the period 2012-2015, including a confirmation of the previous detection of vinyl cyanide (C2H3CN), as well as the first spatial map for this species on Titan. Simultaneous mapping of HC3N, CH3CN and C2H5CN reveal characteristic abundance patterns for each species that provide insight into their individual photochemical lifetimes, and help inform our understanding of Titan’s unique, time-variable atmospheric chemistry and global circulation. A time-sequence of HC3N maps covering 38 months reveals a dramatic change in the distribution of this gas consistent with high-altitude photochemical production followed by advection towards the southern (winter) pole, combined with rapid loss in the north after Titan’s 2009 seasonal equinox. The 2015 C2H3CN and C2H5CN maps show abundance peaks in Titan’s southern hemisphere, similar to those observed for the short-lived HC3N molecule. The longer-lived CH3CN, on the other hand, remains more concentrated in the north.
A compact hybrid rocket motor design that incorporates a dual-vortical-flow (DVF) concept is proposed. The oxidizer (nitrous oxide, N2O) is injected circumferentially into various sections of the rocket motor, which are sectored by several solid fuel “rings” (made of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, HTPB) that are installed along the central axis of the motor. The proposed configuration not only increases the residence time of the oxidizer flow, it also implies an inherent “roll control” capability of the motor. Based on a DVF motor geometry with a designed thrust level of 11.6 kN, the characteristics of the turbulent reacting flow within the motor and its rocket performance were analyzed with a comprehensive numerical model that implements both real-fluid properties and finite-rate chemistry. Data indicate that the vacuum specific impulse (Isp) of the DVF motor could reach 278 s. The result from a preliminary ground test of a lab-scale DVF hybrid rocket motor (with a designed thrust level of 3,000 N) also shows promising performance. The proposed DVF concept is expected to partly resolve the issue of scalability, which remains challenging for hybrid rocket motors development.
Little is known about time perception, its putative role as cognitive endophenotype, and its neuroanatomical underpinnings in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Twenty adults with ADHD, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives and 20 typically developing controls matched for age and gender undertook structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry with DARTEL was performed to obtain regional grey-matter volumes. Temporal processing was investigated as a putative cognitive endophenotype using a temporal reproduction paradigm. General linear modelling was employed to examine the relationship between temporal reproduction performances and grey-matter volumes.
ADHD participants were impaired in temporal reproduction and unaffected first-degree relatives performed in between their ADHD probands and typically developing controls. Increased grey-matter volume in the cerebellum was associated with poorer temporal reproduction performance.
Adults with ADHD are impaired in time reproduction. Performances of the unaffected first-degree relatives are in between ADHD relatives and controls, suggesting that time reproduction might be a cognitive endophenotype for adult ADHD. The cerebellum is involved in time reproduction and might play a role in driving time performances.
There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001–2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2–3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2–3-year intervals during 2001–2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=−0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=−0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding.
In long-term care facilities (LTCFs), the elderly are apt to be infected because those with latent tuberculosis infections (LTBIs) are at an increased risk for reactivation and post-primary TB disease. We report an outbreak of TB in staff and residents in a LTCF. An outbreak investigation was conducted after two TB cases were reported from the LTCF. A tuberculin skin test (TST), bacteriological examination and chest radiograph were administered to all facility staff and residents. An outbreak is defined as at least two epidemiologically linked cases that have identical Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype isolates. This outbreak infected eight residents and one staff member, who were confirmed to have TB in a LTCF between September 2011 and October 2012. Based on the Becker method, the latent and infectious periods were estimated at 223·6 and 55·9 days. Two initial TST-negative resident contacts were diagnosed as TB cases through comprehensive TB screening. Observing elderly people who have a negative TST after TB screening appears to be necessary, given the long latent period for controlling a TB outbreak in a LTCF. It is important to consider providing LTBI treatment for elderly contacts.
We describe three approaches to identify novel product affordances: affordance of absence; insights from lead users, specifically do-it-yourselfers (DIYers); and natural-language searches. While these approaches were separately pursued, we show their connection to each other in this paper. We begin by describing the affordance of absence, inspired by insights on affordances arising from a lack of resources. For example, in the absence of specialized tools, more general tools are used to accomplish similar tasks. Such absence clarifies how other tools could be modified to add relevant features and identifies critical features of the absent tool. In addition, the temporary removal of physical features and objects enables user interaction in ways that may not emerge in their presence. Affordance of absence has the potential to more fully specify affordances for a given object and to help overcome functional fixedness. For the second approach, we describe insights from DIYers obtained from the “IKEA hackers” online community. We consider DIYers lead users for seeking out and exploiting product affordances, often transforming product functions dramatically. We also discuss their projects through the lens of affordance of absence. For the third approach, we outline our natural-language approach to affordance extraction, beginning with consumer product reviews provided for Canadian Tire, a major Canadian retailer. We describe efforts toward automatically identifying less common affordances, and the use of cue phrases to highlight insightful DIY transformations from the IKEA hackers community. Finally, we comment on the potential value of this work for product design in general.
Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes were grown on carbon fiber surface in order to provide a way to tailor the thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of the fiber-resin interface of a polymer composite. As the deposition temperature of the nanotubes is very high, an elevated exposure time can lead to degradation of the carbon fiber. To overcome this obstacle we have developed a deposition technique where the fiber is exposed to an atmosphere of growth for just one minute, and different concentrations of precursor solution were used.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are characterized by distorted body image and are frequently co-morbid with each other, although their relationship remains little studied. While there is evidence of abnormalities in visual and visuospatial processing in both disorders, no study has directly compared the two. We used two complementary modalities – event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) – to test for abnormal activity associated with early visual signaling.
We acquired fMRI and ERP data in separate sessions from 15 unmedicated individuals in each of three groups (weight-restored AN, BDD, and healthy controls) while they viewed images of faces and houses of different spatial frequencies. We used joint independent component analyses to compare activity in visual systems.
AN and BDD groups demonstrated similar hypoactivity in early secondary visual processing regions and the dorsal visual stream when viewing low spatial frequency faces, linked to the N170 component, as well as in early secondary visual processing regions when viewing low spatial frequency houses, linked to the P100 component. Additionally, the BDD group exhibited hyperactivity in fusiform cortex when viewing high spatial frequency houses, linked to the N170 component. Greater activity in this component was associated with lower attractiveness ratings of faces.
Results provide preliminary evidence of similar abnormal spatiotemporal activation in AN and BDD for configural/holistic information for appearance- and non-appearance-related stimuli. This suggests a common phenotype of abnormal early visual system functioning, which may contribute to perceptual distortions.
Mentalizing deficits are a hallmark of the autism spectrum condition (ASC) and a potential endophenotype for atypical social cognition in ASC. Differences in performance and neural activation on the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ task (the Eyes task) have been identified in individuals with ASC in previous studies.
Performance on the Eyes task along with the associated neural activation was examined in adolescents with ASC (n = 50), their unaffected siblings (n = 40) and typically developing controls (n = 40). Based on prior literature that males and females with ASC display different cognitive and associated neural characteristics, analyses were stratified by sex. Three strategies were applied to test for endophenotypes at the level of neural activation: (1) identifying and locating conjunctions of ASC–control and sibling–control differences; (2) examining whether the sibling group is comparable to the ASC or intermediate between the ASC and control groups; and (3) examining spatial overlaps between ASC–control and sibling–control differences across multiple thresholds.
Impaired behavioural performance on the Eyes task was observed in males with ASC compared to controls, but only at trend level in females; and no difference in performance was identified between sibling and same-sex control groups in both sexes. Neural activation showed a substantial endophenotype effect in the female groups but this was only modest in the male groups.
Behavioural impairment on complex emotion recognition associated with mental state attribution is a phenotypic, rather than an endophenotypic, marker of ASC. However, the neural response during the Eyes task is a potential endophenotypic marker for ASC, particularly in females.