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Land masking of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is generally accomplished by applying either archived shoreline databases or image segmentation. However, those methods cannot be solely applied to geographical areas complicated with many small islands and exposed rocks. Therefore, we have proposed a new procedure where Sobel edge extraction is applied to detect the edges of all objects from KOMPSAT-5 X-band SAR images, followed by a merging process with the edges from the land objects based on Electronic Navigational Chart (ENC) coastlines. Using the land mask data, geometrically corrected SAR images were masked before applying a ship detection algorithm. This land masking procedure was applied to several images covering different areas of the Korean Peninsula. The results show that land targets such as newly constructed and natural objects were also masked, and thus did not create false alarms during ship detection. Therefore, this method can be used to assist precise ship detection using SAR images in coastal waters.
Despite the rapid expansion of online educational resources for emergency medicine, barriers remain to their effective use by emergency physicians and trainees. This article expands on previous descriptions of techniques to aggregate online educational resources, outlining four strategies to help learners navigate, evaluate, and contribute online. These strategies include 1) cultivating digital mentors, 2) browsing the most popular free open access medical education (FOAM) websites, 3) using critical appraisal tools developed for FOAM, and 4) contributing new online content.
This study examined the role of transcription skills (including spelling and handwriting fluency) and oral language skills in Chinese writing development among upper elementary grade students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, spelling, handwriting fluency, oral narrative skills, syntactic skills, and written composition were administered to 97 students in Grade 4 (n = 47) and Grade 6 (n = 50). Hierarchical multiple regression results showed that spelling and oral narrative skills were unique predictors of Chinese writing performance. The significant interaction effect of grade and spelling showed that transcription skills played a more important role in Chinese writing performance among sixth graders than among fourth graders. Together, the present results provide important support for the “simple view of writing” model and underscore the importance of transcription skills and oral narrative skills in children's writing development in Chinese.
Recent results from helioseismology (see Goode, these Proceedings) have shown that the inferred contours of the solar angular velocity are more or less radial in the convection region, and the rotation becomes uniform below. These observations contradict the prevailing numerical models of Taylor columns which predict angular velocity contours parallel to the rotation axis of the Sun. Thus, an alternative explanation of solar differential rotation is called for.
Presently, it is not feasible to construct a thermally-relaxed, dynamically self-consistent numerical model of the solar convection zone (see Chan and Serizawa, these Proceedings). It is then appropriate to explore simplified models that may shed some light. A number of analytical models have been proposed for the solar differential rotation, and the reader is referred to the book by Rüdiger (1989) for a comprehensive review of this subject. Here, we report on some recent development on the convective resonance model proposed by Chan et al. (1987; hereafter referred as CSM).
Using a three-dimensional numerical spectral model, we simulate the outermost layer of Jupiter’s convective envelope (two depth cases: 1-23 bars, 1-115 bars). The physical parameters (e.g. internal energy flux, rotation rate) are chosen to be close to those expected, but solar heating as well as dynamical influences from deeper layers are ignored. The model generates a wind field pattern remarkably similar to that observed. There is a narrow, super-rotating jet at the equator, and two prominent humps in temperature also develop in the subtropics. The strength of the jet streams does not change much over depth. The maximum wind speed occasionally reach 100 m/s, but the mean amplitude of the equatorial jet is about a factor of 2-3 lower than the nominal value. The latitudes of the secondary pro-grade jets are higher than those observed, but they are dependent on the depth of the model. Though the quantitative agreement is not quite satisfactory (as might have been caused by neglected physical effects like solar radiation), this model demonstrates, in principle, the feasibility of generating a Jovian type wind pattern through the interaction of fast rotation and convection in a thin shell.
This chapter argues that ‘communicating with Asia’ requires intercultural competence. Such competence will not only imply awareness but also understanding of cultural differences. Traditional descriptivist approaches in sociolinguistics, arguably, do not or only insufficiently capture this cultural dimension. Using Hong Kong English as an example, the chapter will attempt to show how the newly emerging paradigms of Cognitive Sociolinguistics and Cultural Linguistics can contribute to a more comprehensive linguistic description and hence to intercultural understanding. The chapter will be divided into three parts: The first part will stress the hermeneutic nature of intercultural communication in English. The second part will demonstrate how cultural patterns expressed in Hong Kong English − specifically conceptualizations pertaining to ghosts1 and related concepts – can be systematically elicited and analyzed. The third part will introduce a concrete lexicographic application of the insights discussed in the preceding parts, as realized in A Dictionary of Hong Kong English (Cummings and Wolf 2011).
The need for higher energy density batteries has spawned recent renewed interest in alternatives to lithium ion batteries, including multivalent chemistries that theoretically can provide twice the volumetric capacity if two electrons can be transferred per intercalating ion. Initial investigations of these chemistries have been limited to date by the lack of understanding of the compatibility between intercalation electrode materials, electrolytes, and current collectors. This work describes the utilization of hybrid cells to evaluate multivalent cathodes, consisting of high surface area carbon anodes and multivalent nonaqueous electrolytes that are compatible with oxide intercalation electrodes. In particular, electrolyte and current collector compatibility was investigated, and it was found that the carbon and active material play an important role in determining the compatibility of PF6-based multivalent electrolytes with carbon-based current collectors. Through the exploration of electrolytes that are compatible with the cathode, new cell chemistries and configurations can be developed, including a magnesium-ion battery with two intercalation host electrodes, which may expand the known Mg-based systems beyond the present state of the art sulfide-based cathodes with organohalide-magnesium based electrolytes.
A novel nano-scale manipulator capable of handling low-dimensional materials with three-dimensional linear motion, gripping action, and push–pull action of the gripper was developed for an in situ experiment in transmission electron microscopy. X-Y-Z positioning and push–pull action were accomplished by a piezotubing system, combined with a specially designed assembly stage that consisted of a lever-action gripping tip backed by a push–pull piezostack. The gripper tip consisted of tungsten wire fabricated by electrochemical etching followed by a focused ion beam process. Performance of the nano-scale manipulator was demonstrated in a grab-and-pick test of a single silver nanowire and in an in situ tensile test of a pearlitic steel sample with a specific orientation.
Recent studies that describe the multidimensionality of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) challenge the traditional dual-factor paradigm of personal and role strains (Whitlatch et al., 1991). These studies consistently reported a distinct dimension of worry about caregiver performance (WaP) comprising items 20 and 21.The present study aims to compare WaP against conventional ZBI domains in a predominantly Chinese multi-ethnic Asian population.
We studied 130 consecutive dyads of family caregivers and patients. Factor analysis of the 22-item ZBI revealed four factors of burden. We compared WaP (factor 4) with the other three factors, personal strain, and role strain via: internal consistency; inter-factor correlation; item-to-total ratio across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) stages; predictors of burden; and interaction effect on total ZBI score using two-way analysis of variance.
WaP correlated poorly with the other factors (r = 0.05–0.21). It had the highest internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.92) among the factors. Unlike other factors, WaP was highly endorsed in mild cognitive impairment and did not increase linearly with disease severity, peaking at CDR 1. Multiple regression revealed younger caregiver age as the major predictor of WaP, compared with behavioral and functional problems for other factors. There was a significant interaction between WaP and psychological strain (p = 0.025).
Our results corroborate earlier studies that WaP is a distinct burden dimension not correspondent with traditional ZBI domains. WaP is germane to many Asian societies where obligation values to care for family members are strongly influential. Further studies are needed to better delineate the construct of WaP.
The in vitro corrosion mechanism of the biodegradable cast Mg–10% Ca binary alloy in Hanks' solution was evaluated through transmission electron microscopy observations. The corrosion behavior depends strongly on the microstructural peculiarity of Mg2Ca phase surrounding the island-like primary Mg phase and the fast corrosion induced by the interdiffusion of O and Ca via the Mg2Ca phase of lamellar structure. At the corrosion front, we found that a nanosized crack-like pathway was formed along the interface between the Mg2Ca phase and the primary Mg phase. Through the crack-like pathway, O and Ca are atomically exchanged each other and then the corroded Mg2Ca phase was transformed to Mg oxides. The in vitro corrosion by the exchange of Ca and O at the nanosized pathway led to the rapid bulk corrosion in the Mg–Ca alloys.
We developed the Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist for Junior Secondary School Students (BCL-JS) for teachers to rate the frequency of 52 reading-related behavioral characteristics of Chinese secondary school students. An item factor analysis based on ratings on 947 students yielded seven distinct dimensions. In a separate sample of 90 students, the seven constructs of the BCL-JS significantly correlated with students’ performances on most literacy and reading-related cognitive measures, and differentiated adolescents with or without dyslexia. Discriminant analysis showed that the BCL-JS had a high rate of correct classification (82.2%). These findings support that the BCL-JS is a reliable screening tool for Chinese junior secondary school students at risk for dyslexia.
The longitudinal predictive power of four important reading-related skills (phonological skills, rapid naming, orthographic skills, and morphological awareness) to Chinese word reading and writing to dictation (i.e., spelling) was examined in a 3-year longitudinal study among 251 Chinese elementary students. Rapid naming, orthographic skills, and morphological awareness assessed in Grade 1 were significant longitudinal predictors of Chinese word reading in Grades 1 to 4. As for word spelling, rapid naming was the only significant predictor across grades. Morphological awareness was a robust predictor of word spelling in Grade 1 only. Phonological skills and orthographic skills significantly predicted word spelling in Grades 2 and 4. After controlling for autoregressive effects, morphological awareness and orthographic skills were the significant longitudinal predictors of Chinese word reading and word spelling, respectively. These findings reflected the impacts of the Chinese orthography on children's reading and spelling development.
Since the discovery of the first exoplanet in 1989, though over 850 candidates have been verified (Schneider 2012), few are similar to our Earth in terms of mass and size. Hence here we would like to propose the revival and improvement of optical intensity interferometry to achieve sub-milliarcsecond resolution, which promises also to be less sensitive to weather conditions, light pollution and optomechanical alignments, yet only requiring baselines <100m.
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to coat cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogel scaffolds with a thin conformal layer of Al2O3. Electron probe microanalysis indicates that the penetration of Al2O3 into the aerogel was greater than 50 μm. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that Al2O3 coated CNC aerogel composites have improved temperature and oxidation resistance.
We present a rapid and sensitive surface acoustic wave (SAW) immunosensor that utilizes gold staining as a signal enhancement method. A sandwich immunoassay was performed on sensing area of the SAW sensor, which could specifically capture and detect cardiac markers (cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase (CK)-MB, and myoglobin). The analytes in human serum were captured on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that were conjugated in advance with detection antibodies. Introduction of these complexes to the capture antibody-immobilized sensor surface resulted in a classic AuNP-based sandwich immunoassay format that has been used for signal amplification. In order to achieve further signal enhancement, a gold staining method was performed, which demonstrated that it is possible to obtain gold staining-mediated signal augmentation on a mass-sensitive device. The sensor response due to gold staining varied as a function of cardiac marker concentration.
We investigated the pressure dependence of the inductive coupled plasma (ICP) oxidation on the electrical characteristics of the thin oxide films. Activation energies and electron temperatures with different pressures were estimated. To demonstrate the pressure effect on the plasma oxide quality, simple N type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) transistors were fabricated and investigated in a few electrical properties. At higher pressure than 200mTorr, plasma oxide has a slightly higher on-current and a lower interfacial trap density. The on-current gain seems to be related to the field mobility increase and the lower defective interface to the electron temperature during oxidation.
In this study, the quality of thin film diode (TFD) as a switching device for active-matrix liquid-crystal-displays (AM-LCDs) was enhanced by low temperature annealing conditions with high reliability and good electrical properties. Device was composed with Ta as bottom electrode, anodic Ta2O5 as insulator layer and top electrode. Two types of material such as Ti and Cr were evaluated as a top electrode of the TFD device to optimize the symmetry of current-voltage characteristic curve, respectively. The annealing was done at low temperature conditions below 350°C. The low temperature annealing improved the TFD device with nearly perfect symmetry under high electric field.