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Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Sex differences in the incidence of infections may indicate different risk factors and behaviour but have not been analysed across pathogens. Based on 3.96 million records of 33 pathogens in Germany, notified from 2001 to 2013, we applied Poisson regression to generate age-standardised incidence rate ratios and assessed their distribution across age and sex. The following trends became apparent: (a) pathogens with male incidence preponderance at infant and child age (meningococcal disease (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.19, 95% CI 1.03–1.38, age = 0–4); influenza (IRR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.06–1.13, age = 0–4)), (b) pathogens with sex-switch in incidence preponderance at puberty (e.g. norovirus (IRR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19 in age = 5–14, IRR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–0.99, age ⩾ 60), (c) pathogens with general male incidence preponderance (bacterial/parasitic infections with campylobacter, Yersinia and Giardia), (d) pathogens with male incidence preponderance at juvenile and adult age (sexually transmitted or vector-borne infections (combined-IRR = 2.53, 95% CI 2.36–2.71, age = 15–59), (e) pathogens with male preponderance at older age (tick-borne encephalitis - IRR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.21–6.24, listeriosis - IRR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.38–3.06, age ⩾ 60). Risk factor concepts only partly serve to interpret similarities of grouped infections, i.e. transmission-related explanations and sex-specific exposures not consistently explain the pattern of food-borne infections (b). Sex-specific differences in infectious disease incidence are well acknowledged regarding the sexually transmitted diseases. This has led to designing gender-specific prevention strategies. Our data suggest that for infections with other transmission routes, gender-specific approaches can also be of benefit and importance.
Radio polarization observations of spiral galaxies suggest the existence of large-scale galactic magnetic fields which are of either axisymmetric -spiral (ASS) or bisymmetric-spiral (BSS), i.e. non-axisymmetric, structure (cf. Beck, 1939). Clear evidence for a BSS field was indicated for M31 by M. Krause et al. (1989).
The present status of galactic dynamo theory is discussed. A new concept which allows the determination of marginal dynamo numbers for axisymmetric as well as non-axisymmetric large-scale magnetic field modes in axisymmetric disks is applied to a simple galaxy model. The results obtained so far show that a preference of non-axisymmetric fields can only be expected if the α-effect is highly anisotropic and the differential rotation is not too strong. Mostly axisymmetric-spiral fields have to be expected.
Energy is transported from the central regions of a star to its surface. Generally this transport is in certain layers carried on by convective motions. Because of the structure, which these motions have due to the influence of the overall rotation, the star becomes electromagnetically unstable, i.e. a large magnetic field grows from small seed fields as a result of the dynamo process. The internal structure, especially the symmetries of a star, will be, at least to some extend, reflected by the spatial structure and the time behaviour of the excited magnetic field. In this sense observations of the magnetic field on a surface of a star and the related activity phenomena can provide insight in the internal structure of the star, since characteristic parameters like thickness of the convection zone, mixing length, turnover time, profile of the differential rotation, etc. strongly influence the dynamo process.
The actual magnetic field of a star is a product of a nonlinear process. Models elaborated on the kinematical (i.e. linear) level provide insight in the excitation conditions and the linear field modes. The marginal mode, i.e. the mode which is easiest to excite, reflects properties of the nonlinear solution in case the system operates not far from the margin to the dynamo unstable region. Here the solutions show symmetries with respect to the axis of rotation and the equatorial plane, properties which are, for example, to a large extend fulfilled for the solar average magnetic field. For systems operating far from this margin irregular or even chaotic behaviour has to be expected. From observations there is a strong indication that these theoretical possibilities find their realizations within the sample of late-type stars.
According to observations of Scholz and Gerth the super-giant 𝓿 Cep has a magnetic field with a maximum field strength up to 2500 Gauss. This field shows a period of about 5 years. It is unplausible that this magnetic field is a relic since 𝓿 Cep was formed by expansion of a B-star. We claim here that 𝓿 Cep represents a dynamo exciting a magnetic field which in the average strongly deviates from symmetry about the rotation axis.
The variation in time-averaging between different types of marine skeletal accumulations within a depositional system is not well understood. Here we provide quantitative data on the magnitude of time-averaging and the age structure of the sub-fossil record of two species with divergent physical and ecological characteristics, the brachiopod Bouchardia rosea and the bivalve Semele casali. Material was collected from two sites on a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic shelf off the coast of Brazil where both species are dominant components of the local fauna.
Individual shells (n = 178) were dated using amino acid racemization (aspartic acid) calibrated with 24 AMS radiocarbon dates. Shell ages range from modern to 8118 years b.p. for brachiopods, and modern to 4437 years for bivalves. Significant differences in the shape and central tendency of age-frequency distributions are apparent between each sample. Such differences in time-averaging magnitude confirm the assumption that taphonomic processes are subject to stochastic variation at all spatial and temporal scales. Despite these differences, each sample is temporally incomplete at centennial resolution and three of the four samples have similar right-skewed age-frequency distributions. Simulations of temporal completeness indicate that samples of both species from the shallow site are consistent with a more strongly right-skewed and less-complete age-frequency distribution than those from the deep site.
We conclude that intrinsic characteristics of each species exert less control on the time-averaging signature of these samples than do extrinsic factors such as variation in rates of sedimentation and taphonomic destruction. This suggests that brachiopod-dominated and bivalve-dominated shell accumulations may be more similar in temporal resolution than previously thought, and that the temporal resolution of multi-taxic shell accumulations may depend more on site-to-site differences than on the intrinsic properties of the constituent organisms.
In humans, obesity before and during pregnancy is associated with both fetal macrosomia and growth restriction, and long-term cardiovascular risk in the offspring. We aimed to determine whether overweighted pregnant guinea pig sows results in an increased fetal weight at term and the effects on the vascular reactivity in fetal systemic and umbilical arteries. Pregnant guinea pigs were classified as control (n=4) or high weight (HWS, n=5) according to their pre-mating weight, and their fetuses extracted at 0.9 gestation (~60 days). Segments of fetal femoral and umbilical arteries were mounted in a wire myograph, where the contractile response to KCl (5–125 mM), and the relaxation to nitric oxide synthase-dependent agents (insulin, 10−10–10−7 and acetylcholine, 10−10–10−5) and nitric oxide [sodium nitroprusside (SNP), 10−10–10−5] were determined. Fetuses from HWS (HWSF) were grouped according to their body weight as low (<76 g) or high (>85 g) fetal weight, based on the confidence interval (76.5–84.9 g) of the control group. No HWSF were observed in the normal range. Umbilical arteries from HWSF showed a lower response to KCl and insulin compared with controls, but a comparable response with SNP. Conversely, femoral arteries from HWSF showed an increased response to KCl and acetylcholine, along with a decreased sensitivity to SNP. These data show that overweight sows have altered fetal growth along gestation. Further, large and small fetuses from obese guinea pig sows showed altered vascular reactivity at umbilical and systemic vessels, which potentially associates with long-term cardiovascular risk.
An outline of the mean-field magnetohydrodynamics suggested and developed by M. Steenbeck and the authors and its application to the dynamo theory of the solar cycle is presented. Four basic requirements are formulated which have to be satisfied by any dynamo model which claims to explain the solar cycle. The models investigated allow conclusions about the differential rotation. In this connection Leighton's work is criticized.
In an earlier publication Rosenauer et al. introduced a method for determination of composition in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures from high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) images. Static atomic displacements (SADs) were neglected during simulation of reference data because of the similar covalent radii of Al and Ga. However, SADs have been shown (Grillo et al.) to influence the intensity in HAADF images and therefore could be the reason for an observed slight discrepancy between measured and nominal concentrations. In the present study parameters of the Stillinger–Weber potential were varied in order to fit computed elastic constants, lattice parameters and bonding energies to experimental ones. A reference data set of HAADF images was simulated, in which the new parameterization was used to account for SADs. Two reference samples containing AlGaN layers with different Al concentrations were investigated and Al concentrations in the layers determined based on the new data set. We found that these concentrations were in good agreement with nominal concentrations as well as concentrations determined using alternative techniques such as strain state analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.
The composition of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-film solar cell absorbers was varied to induce the.formation of secondary impurity phases. For their identification, the samples have been investigated by Cu L3 and S L2,3 soft x-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy. We find that Cu L3 XAS is especially sensitive to the presence of copper sulfides as well as copper oxides and/or changes in the electron configuration, suggesting a basis for future studies of the surface, defect, and interface characterization of similar samples. Additionally, it is shown that the S L2,3 absorption data can be used as a very sensitive probe of the variations in the prevalence of S-Zn bonds in the near-surface region of the investigated samples.
Samples of SIMOX have been prepared by implantation in a high-current implanter (density ≍ 1 mA/cm2) and by annealing at 1300°C for 6 hours. Transmission electron microscopy reveals unusual structure in these samples. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to analyze these structures. Ellipsometric measurements were collected at an angle of incidence of 75. deg, with photon energies from 1.5 to 5.0 eV, and using a rotating polarizer configuration. The measurements were analyzed with three models: a three-layer model, a four-layer model, and a five-layer model. The five-layer model provided the best fit of the three. This model identified a layer of crystalline Si inclusions (“islands”) within the SiO2 layer. A method is presented that provides initial estimates for the thicknesses of the top three layers to help start the regression analysis.