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From ensemble average to single (nano-) objects properties by X-ray microdiffraction: a short review on structure determination (local strain, composition, ...) and objects manipulation (AFM-coupled)*

  • C. Mocuta (a1) (a2), K. Mundboth (a2) (a3), J. Stangl (a3), B. Krause (a4), A. Malachias (a2), Th. Scheller (a2), T. Cornelius (a2), R. Paniago (a2), A. Diaz (a2), M. Rodrigues (a2), J. Chevrier (a2), O. Dhez (a2), T.H. Metzger (a2), G. Bauer (a3), A. Barbier (a5), A.V. Ramos (a5), M.-J. Guittet (a5), J.-B. Moussy (a5), S. Stanescu (a1), R. Mattana (a6), C. Deranlot (a6) and F. Petroff (a6)...

Abstract

In standard diffraction experiments, ensembles of objects are characterized yielding averaged, statistical properties (meaningful only if the ensemble is monodisperse). Focused x-ray beams are used here to localize single nanostructures, identifying and probing individual objects one by one. In a scanning mode, a 2-dimensional image of the sample is recorded, which allows the reproducible alignment of a specific nanostructure for analysis. The x-ray scattered signal is analyzed and modelled, to give access to the shape, strain and composition inside the single object with sub-micron resolution. Combination of x-ray microdiffraction technique with other micro-probe experiments on the very same individual object (simultaneous coupling of x-ray diffraction measurements with atomic force microscopy (AFM)) is also shown; we prove the possibility to interact with the objects and to address elastic properties for individual nano-structures out of an ensemble.

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[1] Mocuta, C. et al., Phys. Rev. B 77 (2008) 245425
[2] Krause, B. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 165502
[3] Stangl, J. et al., Chem. Phys. Chem. 10 (2009) 2923
[4] Sales, D.L. et al., Nanotechnology 18 (2007) 475503
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[6] Metzger, T.H. et al., C. R. Phys. 6 (2005) 47
[7] Scheler, T. et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 (2009) 023109; M. Rodrigues et al.,J. Appl. Phys. 106 (2009) 103525
[8] Malachias, A. et al., Phys. Rev. B 79 (2009) 035301
[9] Mocuta, C. et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 (2007) 541917; Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics 167 (2009) 53
[10] COMSOL multiphysics with structural mechanics module (http://www.comsol.com)
[11] M. Schmidbauer, X-ray Diffuse Scattering from Self-Organized Mesoscopic Semicon- ductor Structures, Springer Tracts in Mod. Phys. 199 (Springer, Berlin, 2004)
[12] Wiebach, Th. et al., Phys. Rev. B 61 (2000) 5571
[13] Dhez, O. et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 879 (2007) 1391

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