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Despite the magnitude and protracted nature of the Rohingya refugee situation, there is limited information on the culture, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of this group. This paper, drawing on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Rohingya refugees, including an examination of associated cultural factors. The ultimate objective is to assist humanitarian actors and agencies in providing culturally relevant Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) for Rohingya refugees displaced to Bangladesh and other neighbouring countries.
We conducted a systematic search across multiple sources of information with reference to the contextual, social, economic, cultural, mental health and health-related factors amongst Rohingya refugees living in the Asia-Pacific and other regions. The search covered online databases of diverse disciplines (e.g. medicine, psychology, anthropology), grey literature, as well as unpublished reports from non-profit organisations and United Nations agencies published until 2018.
The legacy of prolonged exposure to conflict and persecution compounded by protracted conditions of deprivations and displacement is likely to increase the refugees' vulnerability to wide array of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation. High rates of sexual and gender-based violence, lack of privacy and safe spaces and limited access to integrated psychosocial and mental health support remain issues of concern within the emergency operation in Bangladesh. Another challenge is the limited understanding amongst the MHPSS personnel in Bangladesh and elsewhere of the language, culture and help-seeking behaviour of Rohingya refugees. While the Rohingya language has a considerable vocabulary for emotional and behavioural problems, there is limited correspondence between these Rohingya terms and western concepts of mental disorders. This hampers the provision of culturally sensitive and contextually relevant MHPSS services to these refugees.
The knowledge about the culture, context, migration history, idioms of distress, help-seeking behaviour and traditional healing methods, obtained from diverse sources can be applied in the design and delivery of culturally appropriate interventions. Attention to past exposure to traumatic events and losses need to be paired with attention for ongoing stressors and issues related to worries about the future. It is important to design MHPSS interventions in ways that mobilise the individual and collective strengths of Rohingya refugees and build on their resilience.
Clostridium difficile, the most common cause of hospital-associated diarrhoea in developed countries, presents major public health challenges. The high clinical and economic burden from C. difficile infection (CDI) relates to the high frequency of recurrent infections caused by either the same or different strains of C. difficile. An interval of 8 weeks after index infection is commonly used to classify recurrent CDI episodes. We assessed strains of C. difficile in a sample of patients with recurrent CDI in Western Australia from October 2011 to July 2017. The performance of different intervals between initial and subsequent episodes of CDI was investigated. Of 4612 patients with CDI, 1471 (32%) were identified with recurrence. PCR ribotyping data were available for initial and recurrent episodes for 551 patients. Relapse (recurrence with same ribotype (RT) as index episode) was found in 350 (64%) patients and reinfection (recurrence with new RT) in 201 (36%) patients. Our analysis indicates that 8- and 20-week intervals failed to adequately distinguish reinfection from relapse. In addition, living in a non-metropolitan area modified the effect of age on the risk of relapse. Where molecular epidemiological data are not available, we suggest that applying an 8-week interval to define recurrent CDI requires more consideration.
Objectives: Caregivers of youth with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure report impaired communication, which can significantly impact quality of life. Using data collected as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD), we examined whether cognitive variables predict communication ability of youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods: Subjects (ages 10–16 years) comprised two groups: adolescents with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and non-exposed controls (CON). Selected measures of executive function (NEPSY, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System), working memory (CANTAB), and language were tested in the child, while parents completed communication ratings (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales – Second Edition). Separate multiple regression analyses determined which cognitive domains predicted communication ability. A final, global model of communication comprised the three cognitive models. Results: Spatial Working Memory and Inhibition significantly contributed to communication ability across groups. Twenty Questions performance related to communication ability in the CON group only while Word Generation performance related to communication ability in the AE group only. Effects remained significant in the global model, with the exception of Spatial Working Memory. Conclusions: Both groups displayed a relation between communication and Spatial Working Memory and Inhibition. Stronger communication ability related to stronger verbal fluency in the AE group and Twenty Questions performance in the CON group. These findings suggest that alcohol-exposed adolescents may rely more heavily on learned verbal storage or fluency for daily communication while non-exposed adolescents may rely more heavily on abstract thinking and verbal efficiency. Interventions aimed at aspects of executive function may be most effective at improving communication ability of these individuals. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1026–1037)
Both direct observations and reconstructions from various datasets, suggest that conditions were radically different during the Maunder Minimum (MM) than during the space era. Using an MHD model, we develop a set of feasible solutions to infer the properties of the solar wind during this interval. Additionally, we use these results to drive a global magnetospheric model. Finally, using the 2008/2009 solar minimum as an upper limit for MM conditions, we use results from the International Reference Ionosphere (ILI) model to speculate on the state of the ionosphere. The results describe interplanetary, magnetospheric, and ionospheric conditions that were substantially different than today. For example: (1) the solar wind density and magnetic field strength were an order of magnitude lower; (2) the Earth’s magnetopause and shock standoff distances were a factor of two larger; and (3) the maximum electron density in the ionosphere was substantially lower.
Reconstructions of long-term solar variability underpin our understanding of the solar dynamo, potential tropospheric climate implications and future space weather scenarios. Prior to direct spacecraft measurements of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) and solar wind, accurate annual reconstructions are possible using geomagnetic and sunspot records. On longer timescales, information about the HMF can be extracted from cosmogenic radionuclide records, particularly 14C in ancient trees and 10Be in ice sheets. These proxies, and what they reveal about the HMF and solar wind, are briefly reviewed here.
Little is known about Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Asia. The aims of our study were to explore (i) the prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of CDI and colonization in a tertiary academic hospital in North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia; (ii) the rate of carriage of C. difficile among the elderly in the region; (iii) the awareness level of this infection among the hospital staffs and students. For stool samples collected from hospital inpatients with diarrhea (n = 76) and healthy community members (n = 138), C. difficile antigen and toxins were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Stool samples were subsequently analyzed by culture and molecular detection of toxin genes, and PCR ribotyping of isolates. To examine awareness among hospital staff and students, participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. For the hospital and community studies, the prevalence of non-toxigenic C. difficile colonization was 16% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of CDI among hospital inpatients with diarrhea was 13%. Out of 22 C. difficile strains from hospital inpatients, the toxigenic ribotypes 043 and 017 were most common (both 14%). In univariate analysis, C. difficile colonization in hospital inpatients was significantly associated with greater duration of hospitalization and use of penicillin (both P < 0·05). Absence of these factors was a possible reason for low colonization in the community. Only 3% of 154 respondents answered all questions correctly in the awareness survey. C. difficile colonization is prevalent in a Malaysian hospital setting but not in the elderly community with little or no contact with hospitals. Awareness of CDI is alarmingly poor.
The so-called Carrington Event on September 1, 1859, is clearly the solar outburst that brought the realization to the inhabitants of Earth that weather existed in space, and that space weather was important to the rapidly developing technological infrastructure on Earth. It is important to understand not only how space weather affects our technological systems, but like the case of atmospheric weather, the possible intensity of such weather, the frequency of extreme events, and how to predict them. This paper reviews what we know about one class of extreme space weather events, the superfast arrival events, how best to compare them given our limited diagnostics in past events and even at the current time, and suggests a direction for progress in this field.
Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.
The following list contains samples of geologic interest that were processed from June 1980 through March 1983 at the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. The benzene liquid scintillation technique was used following laboratory procedures previously reported by Coleman (1973, 1974).
We describe an outbreak of tuberculosis (TB) in the food preparation area of a hospital, which demonstrates that employees in healthcare settings may serve as potential risks for spread of TB even if they have no direct patient contact.
To assess alcoholic beverage intake among Australian adults and its contribution to dietary energy intake.
Secondary analysis of a national dietary survey using 24 h dietary recall.
Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) conducted from May 2011 to June 2012.
Adults (n 9341) aged 19 years and over.
On the day preceding the survey, 32·8% of Australian adults consumed one or more alcoholic drinks. The median contribution to total energy intake for consumers did not differ significantly between males and females (13·7% and 12·9%, respectively; P=0·10). The prevalence of consumption of alcoholic drinks on Friday, Saturday and Sunday was 38·8 (95% CI 37·1, 40·5)%, higher than the other days (28·6 (95% CI 27·5, 29·8)%). Consumers had a median daily intake of 4·0 standard drinks on the weekend compared with 3·0 standard drinks during the week (P<0·001). Beer was the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverage for men and white wine for women. The highest prevalence of alcoholic beverage intake occurred in the highest quintile of adjusted household income (42·7 (95% CI 40·4, 45·0)%) and the ‘overweight’ BMI category (40·3 (95% CI 38·5, 42·0)%). Alcoholic beverage intake among consumers was significantly different by household income quintile (median 3·84 (highest) v. 3·05 standard drinks (lowest); P<0·05) and by waist circumference category (median 4·09 standard drinks (highest)).
Alcoholic drinks contribute substantially to the dietary energy intake of Australian adults. The type and pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverage intake should be considered in the development of strategies to improve dietary intake.
Jovian auroral emissions are observed at infrared, visible, ultraviolet, and x-ray wavelengths. As at Earth, pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles into the atmospheric loss cone and the acceleration of current-carrying electrons in field-aligned currents both play a role in exciting the auroral emissions. The x-ray aurora is believed to result principally from heavy ion precipitation, while the ultraviolet aurora is produced predominantly by precipitating energetic electrons. The magnetospheric processes responsible for the aurora are driven primarily by planetary rotation. Acceleration of Iogenic plasma by rotationally-induced electric fields results in both the formation of the energetic ions that are scattered and the formation of strong, field-aligned currents that communicate the torques from the ionosphere. In addition to rotation-driven processes, solar-wind-modulated processes in the outer magnetosphere may lead to highly, time-dependent acceleration and thus also contribute to jovian auroral activity. Observational evidence for both sources will be presented. See Waite et al. (2001, Nat., 410, 787).
Sedimentological data acquired by thin section petrography is a rich source of information to better understand and interpret depositional environments that are dominated by fine-grained deposits. This study provides an evaluation of the sedimentological and geochemical changes recorded over Upper Viséan to Lower Namurian successions preserved in a core section from a well drilled in the southern part of the Netherlands. Facies analysis and the recognition of microfacies associations allow detailed interpretations of depositional environments. Interpretation of additional geochemical data acquired by portable X-ray fluorescence analyses has resulted in a chemostratigraphic zonation for the core section. The zonation reflects stratigraphic changes in the mineralogy of the sedimentary successions. Integration of the microfacies associations and the chemostratigraphic zonation has led to the identification of three so-called depositional zones, which show the development of depositional settings from Late Viséan to Early Namurian times. Depositional Zone 1 consists of fine-grained turbiditic limestones and mudstones deposited in a distal carbonate ramp setting during Latest Viséan times. The overlying Depositional Zone 2 corresponds to the Geverik Member (Lower Namurian) and is particularly heterogeneous in geochemical and lithological terms: the zone reflects a complex interplay between different parameters such as sediment source, transport mechanisms and oxygen content that are assumed to be governed by fluctuating sea levels and changing depositional environments (from basinal to shallow marine settings). Sandy lenticular mudstones are predominant in the lower part of Depositional Zone 2 and show that sedimentation was via erosive bedload, whilst the common fossiliferous mudstones present within the upper part of the same zone yield evidence for increased endobenthic activity in dysoxic conditions. The successions assigned to Depositional Zone 3 ( = Epen Formation – Namurian) are the products of cyclic sedimentation of a terrestrial sourced delta.
A map of the NH3 (1,1) emission in Heiles 2 dust cloud, observed with 2.2 arc min. resolution, is presented and compared with that of the J = 9 → 8 transition of HC5N. Although the distribution of both molecules lies on a ridge, there is a marked anti-correlation in the observed antenna temperatures of the two molecules along it. This appears to be best explained as a variation in the relative abundances of the two molecules along the ridge by a factor 8-20 in a distance of 1018 cm.
We consider two-dimensional one-sided convection of a solute in a fluid-saturated porous medium, where the solute decays via a first-order reaction. Fully nonlinear convection is investigated using high-resolution numerical simulations and a low-order model that couples the dynamic boundary layer immediately beneath the distributed solute source to the slender vertical plumes that form beneath. A transient-growth analysis of the boundary layer is used to characterise its excitability. Three asymptotic regimes are investigated in the limit of high Rayleigh number
, in which the domain is considered deep, shallow or of intermediate depth, and for which the Damköhler number
is respectively large, small or of order unity. Scaling properties of the flow are identified numerically and rationalised via the analytic model. For fully established high-
convection, analysis and simulation suggest that the time-averaged solute transfer rate scales with
and the plume horizontal wavenumber with
, with coefficients modulated by
in each case. For large
, the rapid reaction rate limits the plume depth and the boundary layer restricts the rate of solute transfer to the bulk, whereas for small
the average solute transfer rate is ultimately limited by the domain depth and the convection is correspondingly weaker.
Prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) result in behavioral issues related to poor executive function (EF). This overlap may hinder clinical identification of alcohol-exposed children. This study examined the relation between parent and neuropsychological measures of EF and whether parent ratings aid in differential diagnosis. Neuropsychological measures of EF, including the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), were administered to four groups of children (8–16 years): alcohol-exposed with ADHD (AE+, n=80), alcohol-exposed without ADHD (AE−, n=36), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=93), and controls (CON, n=167). Primary caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). For parent ratings, multivariate analyses of variance revealed main effects of Exposure and ADHD and an interaction between these factors, with significant differences between all groups on nearly all BRIEF scales. For neuropsychological measures, results indicated main effects of Exposure and ADHD, but no interaction. Discriminant function analysis indicated the BRIEF accurately classifies groups. These findings confirm compounded behavioral, but not neuropsychological, effects in the AE+ group over the other clinical groups. Parent-report was not correlated with neuropsychological performance in the clinical groups and may provide unique information about neurobehavior. Parent-report measures are clinically useful in predicting alcohol exposure regardless of ADHD. Results contribute to a neurobehavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–13)
This review article provides the state-of-art research and developments of the rectenna device and its two main components – the antenna and the rectifier. Furthermore, the history, efficiency trends, and socioeconomic impact of its research are also featured.
The rectenna (RECTifying antENNA), which was first demonstrated by William C. Brown in 1964 as a receiver for microwave power transmission, is now increasingly researched as a means of harvesting solar radiation. Tapping into the growing photovoltaic market, the attraction of the rectenna concept is the potential for devices that, in theory, are not limited in efficiency by the Shockley–Queisser limit. In this review, the history and operation of this 40-year old device concept are explored in the context of power transmission and the ever increasing interest in its potential applications at terahertz frequencies, through the infrared and visible spectra. Recent modeling approaches that have predicted controversially high efficiency values at these frequencies are critically examined. It is proposed that to unlock any of the promised potential in the solar rectenna concept, there is a need for each constituent part to be improved beyond the current best performance, with the existing nanometer scale antennas, the rectification and the impedance matching solutions all falling short of the necessary efficiencies at terahertz frequencies. Advances in the fabrication, characterization, and understanding of the antenna and the rectifier are reviewed, and common solar rectenna design approaches are summarized. Finally, the socioeconomic impact of success in this field is discussed and future work is proposed.
In this work, a laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source and a free electron laser were used to create Ne photo-ionized plasmas. In both cases, a radiation beam was focused onto a gas stream injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Extreme ultraviolet radiation from the plasma spanned a wide spectral range with pronounced maximum centered at λ = 11 ± 1 nm while the free electron laser pulses were emitted at a wavelength of 32 nm. The power density of the focused plasma radiation was approximately 2 × 107 W/cm2 and was seven orders of magnitude lower compared with the focused free electron laser beam. Radiation fluences in both experimental conditions were comparable. Despite quite different spectral characteristics and extremely different power densities, emission spectra of both photo-ionized plasmas consist of the same spectral lines within a wavelength range of 20 to 50 nm, however, with different relative intensities of the corresponding lines. The dominating spectral lines originated from singly charged ions (Ne II); however, Ne III lines were also detected. Additionally, computer simulations of the emission spectra, obtained for photo-ionized plasmas, driven by the plasma extreme ultraviolet source, were performed. The corresponding measured and calculated spectra are presented. An electron temperature and ionic composition were estimated. Differences between the experimental spectra, obtained for both irradiation conditions, were analyzed. The differences were attributed mainly to different energies of driving photons.