1.Lawson, PA et al. (2016) Reclassification of Clostridium difficile as Clostridioides difficile (Hall and O'Toole 1935) Prévot 1938. Anaerobe 40, 95–99.
2.Barbut, F and Petit, JC (2001) Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated infections. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 7, 405–410.
3.Henderson, DK and Palmore, TN (2010) Critical gaps in knowledge of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of healthcare-associated infections. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 31, S4–S6.
4.Elliott, B et al. (2016) Clostridium difficile infection: evolution, phylogeny and molecular epidemiology. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 49, 1–11.
5.Kamboj, M et al. (2011) Relapse versus reinfection: surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases 53, 1003–1006.
6.Wilcox, MH et al. (2012) Changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection following the introduction of a national ribotyping-based surveillance scheme in England. Clinical Infectious Diseases 55, 1056–1063.
7.Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in HealthCare (2011) Implementation guide for surveillance of Clostridium difficile Infection. Commonwealth of Australia.
8.Lawley, TD and Walker, AW (2013) Intestinal colonization resistance. Immunology 138, 1–11.
9.Garey, K et al. (2008) Meta-analysis to assess risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Journal of Hospital Infection 70, 298–304.
10.Johnson, S (2009) Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: a review of risk factors, treatments, and outcomes. Journal of Infection 58, 403–410.
11.Barbut, F et al. (2000) Epidemiology of recurrences or reinfections of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38, 2386–2388.
12.Durovic, A et al. (2017) Distinguishing Clostridium difficile recurrence from reinfection: independent validation of current recommendations. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 38, 891–896.
13.McDonald, LC et al. (2007) Recommendations for surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 28, 140–145.
14.Taori, SK, Wroe, A and Poxton, IR (2013) Clostridium difficile infections in south east Scotland: mortality and recurrence in a region without PCR ribotype 027. Journal of Medical Microbiology 62, 1468–1477.
15.Rodrigues, R, Barber, GE and Ananthakrishnan, AN (2017) A comprehensive study of costs associated with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 38, 196–202.
16.Mani, S et al. (2016) Risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplantation 51, 713–717.
17.Cheng, AC et al. (2011) Australasian society for infectious diseases guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Medical Journal of Australia 194, 353–358.
18.Trubiano, JA et al. (2016) Australasian society of infectious diseases updated guidelines for the management of Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children in Australia and New Zealand. Internal Medicine Journal 46, 479–493.
19.Olsen, MA et al. (2015) Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is associated with increased mortality. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 21, 164–170.
20.Kociolek, LK et al. (2015) Molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections in children: a retrospective cohort study. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 36, 445–451.
24.Putsathit, P et al. (2015) Evaluation of the BD max Cdiff assay for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in human stool specimens. Pathology 47, 165–168.
25.Marsh, JW et al. (2012) Association of relapse of Clostridium difficile disease with BI/NAP1/027. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 50, 4078–4082.
26.Sandell, S et al. (2016) Clostridium difficile recurrences in Stockholm. Anaerobe 38, 97–102.
27.Chen, Y et al. (2017) Molecular characteristics of Clostridium difficile strains from patients with a first recurrence more than 8 weeks after the primary infection. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection 50, 532–536.
28.Thomas, E et al. (2016) Clostridium difficile infections: analysis of recurrence in an area with low prevalence of 027 strain. Journal of Hospital Infection 93, 109–112.
29.Sim, JH et al. (2017) Determining the cause of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection using whole genome sequencing. Diagnosis Microbiology and Infectious Disease 87, 11–16.
30.Johnson, S et al. (1989) Recurrences of Clostridium difficile diarrhea not caused by the original infecting organism. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 159, 340–343.
31.O'neill, G, Beaman, M and Riley, T (1991) Relapse versus reinfection with Clostridium difficile. Epidemiology and Infection 107, 627–635.
32.Eyre, DW et al. (2013) Diverse sources of C. difficile infection identified on whole-genome sequencing. New England Journal of Medicine 369, 1195–1205.
33.Knight, DR et al. (2017) Genome analysis of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 014 lineage in Australian pigs and humans reveals a diverse genetic repertoire and signatures of long-range interspecies transmission. Frontiers in Microbiology 7, 2138.
34.Kumar, N et al. (2016) Genome-based infection tracking reveals dynamics of Clostridium difficile transmission and disease recurrence. Clinical Infectious Diseases 62, 746–752.
35.Kamboj, M et al. (2012) Hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection rates in persons with cancer or hematopoietic stem cell transplant: a C3IC network report. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 33, 1162–1165.
36.Gerding, DN and Lessa, FC (2015) The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection inside and outside health care institutions. Infectious Disease Clinics 29, 37–50.
37.Keel, K et al. (2007) Prevalence of PCR ribotypes among Clostridium difficile isolates from pigs, calves, and other species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 45, 1963–1964.
38.Rupnik, M et al. (2008) Clostridium difficile toxinotype V, ribotype 078, in animals and humans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46, 2146–2146.
39.Debast, SB et al. (2009) Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 toxinotype V found in diarrhoeal pigs identical to isolates from affected humans. Environmental Microbiology 11, 505–511.
40.Arroyo, LG et al. (2005) PCR ribotyping of Clostridium difficile isolates originating from human and animal sources. Journal of Medical Microbiology 54, 163–166.
41.Pirs, T, Ocepek, M and Rupnik, M (2008) Isolation of Clostridium difficile from food animals in Slovenia. Journal of Medical Microbiology 57, 790–792.
42.Avbersek, J et al. (2009) Diversity of Clostridium difficile in pigs and other animals in Slovenia. Anaerobe 15, 252–255.
43.McDonald, LC et al. (2018) Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA) and society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA). Clinical Infectious Diseases 66, e1–e48.
44.Moono, P, Lim, SC and Riley, TV (2017) High prevalence of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in public space lawns in western Australia. Scientific Reports 7, 41196.
45.Lim, SC et al. (2018) High prevalence of Clostridium difficile on retail root vegetables, western Australia. Journal of Applied Microbiology 124, 585–590.
46.Drekonja, D et al. (2015) Fecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine 162, 630–638.
47.Louie, TJ et al. (2011) Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection. New England Journal of Medicine 364, 422–431.
48.Levin, J et al. (2013) The effect of portable pulsed xenon ultraviolet light after terminal cleaning on hospital-associated Clostridium difficile infection in a community hospital. American Journal of Infection Control 41, 746–748.