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A synthetic review of notoedres species mites and mange

  • J. FOLEY (a1), L. E. K. SERIEYS (a2) (a3), N. STEPHENSON (a1), S. RILEY (a4), C. FOLEY (a5), M. JENNINGS (a6), G. WENGERT (a7), W. VICKERS (a8), E. BOYDSTON (a9), L. LYREN (a9), J. MORIARTY (a4) and D. L. CLIFFORD (a1) (a10)...


Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of California, Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California 95616, USA. E-mail:


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