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The aim of this study is to develop predictive models to predict organ at risk (OAR) complication level, classification of OAR dose-volume and combination of this function with our in-house developed treatment decision support system.
Materials and methods
We analysed the support vector machine and decision tree algorithm for predicting OAR complication level and toxicity in order to integrate this function into our in-house radiation treatment planning decision support system. A total of 12 TomoTherapyTM treatment plans for prostate cancer were established, and a hundred modelled plans were generated to analyse the toxicity prediction for bladder and rectum.
The toxicity prediction algorithm analysis showed 91·0% accuracy in the training process. A scatter plot for bladder and rectum was obtained by 100 modelled plans and classification result derived. OAR complication level was analysed and risk factor for 25% bladder and 50% rectum was detected by decision tree. Therefore, it was shown that complication prediction of patients using big data-based clinical information is possible.
We verified the accuracy of the tested algorithm using prostate cancer cases. Side effects can be minimised by applying this predictive modelling algorithm with the planning decision support system for patient-specific radiotherapy planning.
Devastating disasters around the world directly contribute to significant increases in human mortality and economic costs. The objective of this study was to examine the current state of the Korea Disaster Relief Team that participated in an international training module.
The whole training period was videotaped in order to observe and evaluate the respondents. The survey was carried out after completion of the 3-day training, and the scores were reported by use of a 5-point Likert scale.
A total of 43 respondents were interviewed for the survey, and the results showed that the overall preparedness score for international disasters was 3.4±1.6 (mean±SD). The awareness of the Incident Command System for international disasters was shown to be low (3.5±1.1). Higher scores were given to personnel who took on leadership roles in the team and who answered “I knew my duty” (4.4±0.6) in the survey, as well as to the training participants who answered “I clearly knew my duty” (4.5±0.5).
The preparedness level of the Korea Disaster Relief Team was shown to be insufficient, whereas understanding of the roles of leaders and training participants in the rescue team was found to be high. It is assumed that the preparedness level for disaster relief must be improved through continued training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;1–5)
The YSTAR program is a general sky survey looking for variability. The main equipments are three 0.5-m telescopes. These telescopes have fast F/2 optics covering nearly 3.5 square degree field onto a 2K CCD. They also have very fast slew capability, which exceeds 10 degrees per second. These two factors make them most suitable for rapid target acquisition and wide-field surveys of various kinds. Our primary objective is to identify and monitor variable stars down to 18th R-magnitude, and our observing mode allows the same data set to be also useful in identifying asteroids. Our first telescope has just begun regular automated operation, and the second telescope will be installed in South Africa within this year to provide coverage of the southern sky.
Recent extensive nanomechanical experiments have revealed that the instantaneous strength and plasticity of a material can be significantly affected by the size (of sample, microstructure, or stressed zone). One more important property to be added into the list of size-dependent properties is time-dependent plastic deformation referred to as creep; it has been reported that the creep becomes more active at the small scale. Analyzing the creep in the small scale can be valuable not only for solving scientific curiosity but also for obtaining practical engineering information about the lifetime or durability of advanced small-scale structures. For the purpose, nanoindentation creep experiments have been widely performed by far. Here we critically review the existing nanoindentation creep methods and the related issues and finally suggest possible novel ways to better estimate the small-scale creep properties.
YMnO3 thin films were sputtered on Si (100) substrates under different ambient conditions. After rapid thermal annealing process at 850 °C, the YMnO3 film deposited in Ar ambient had random orientations and the YMnO3 film deposited in Ar+O2 ambient was crystallized with distinct two layers, i.e., c-axis oriented layer in top region and random oriented layer in bottom region. Relations between the microstructure and the electrical properties of Pt/YMnO3/Si capacitor were investigated. Memory window and leakage current depended on the orientation of the YMnO3 thin films and the interfacial microstructure of the YMnO3/Si, respectively
To enhance the lifetime of large-sized active matrix organic light emitting
diodes (AMOLEDs), we developed a liquid desiccant for encapsulation. The
liquid desiccant was prepared by mixing nano-sized calcium oxide (CaO)
powders and silicone binder including polyalkylalkenylsiloxane,
polyalkylhydrogensiloxane and platinum compound. It was confirmed that
liquid desiccant had an effect on absorption of penetrated moisture and
oxygen through calcium tests. Also, the test cells encapsulated with only
epoxy sealant dispensed at the edge of the cell developed dark spots within
100 hrs, which grew larger with time at 85 oC and 85 % R.H. On the other hand, the test cell sealed with epoxy
sealant and liquid desiccant showed no dark spots and retained 97% of its
initial luminance even after being stored for 800 hrs at 85 oC and 85 % R.H. Furthermore, the accelerating storage lifetimes of
31-inch bottom-emitting AMOLEDs with epoxy sealant and liquid desiccant
showed about 1000 hrs. These results suggest that the liquid desiccant can
be applied to encapsulation of large-sized AMOLEDs.
Light soaking gives rise to the increase of active acceptors as well as to the creation of dangling bonds in boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The annealing out of the metastable active dopants is slow compared with that of the created dangling bonds, results in higher conductivity than annealed value during heating the sample upon light soaking. The activation energy of the relaxation time for the metastable active dopants is ˜0.1 eV higher than that for the annealing of the created dangling bonds. We ropose a new model to explain our results.
An amorphized tungsten nitride diffusion barrier is compared with that of polycrystalline tungsten nitride preventing the diffusion of copper into Si during post annealing processes at 600 – 800 °C for 30 min. Experimental evidence such as RBS, TEM, XRD measurements shows that the amorphized tungsten nitride layer perfectly blocks the expeditious diffusion of the Cu film due to the amorphous grain boundaries stuffed with N impurities.
In this study, we have investigated microencapsulation of magenta, yellow, and cyan color polymer balls with white pigment for multi-color electrophoretic display implementation. The charged color pigments have been prepared by physical coating of magenta, yellow, and cyan with functionalized polymers, then surface charging with charge control agent. These color balls with white pigment were microencapsulated in suspending fluid through in-situ polymerization.
Hydrogen diffusion paths in top-gated polysilicon thin-film transistors have been investigated by measuring the current-voltage characteristics of the transistors with various sizes after hydrogenation. Hydrogenation has been performed in ECR plasma sysytem. It is noted that hydrogen is introduced through three main paths instead of one predominant path. The hydrogen from different paths affects the device parameters differently.
We have investigated the growth mechanism and thin film morphology of pentacene thin films by the process of low-pressure gas assisted organic vapor deposition (LP-GAOVD). As the source temperature, flow rate of the carrier gas, substrate temperature and chamber pressure were varied, the growth rate, morphology and grain size of the films were differently obtained. The electrical properties of pentacene thin films for applications in organic thin film transistor and electrophoretic displays were discussed
The complex dielectric constants of several π-conjugated materials were measured, and generalized Langevin equation was used to analyze the dielectric behavior in the frequency domain. From the results of the fitting the experimental data using the generalized Langevin equation, we suggest that the charge carriers are electrically screened by the neighboring charges through the structural relaxation, and the carriers are not interact each other. We confirmed that the generalized Langevin equation offers a very good approach to analyze and understand the transport properties of charge carriers in π-conjugated materials.
AlxGa1-xN sample with x=0.36 was epitaxially grown on sapphire by MOCVD. SAW velocity of 5420 m/s and TCF (temperature coefficient of frequency) of -51.20 ppm/°C were measured from the SAW devices fabricated on the AlxGa1-xN sample, when kh value was 0.078, at temperatures between –30 °C and 60 °C Electromechanical coupling coefficient was ranged from 1.26 % to 2.22 %. The fabricated SAW filter have shown a good device performance with insertion loss of -33.853 dB and side lobe attenuation of 20 dB.
We performed this study to investigate the effect of histone deacetylase inhibition during extended culture of in vitro matured mouse oocytes. In vitro matured mouse (BDF1) oocytes were cultured in vitro for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively, and then inseminated. During in vitro culture for 6 and 12 h, two doses of trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, were added (100 nM and 500 nM) to the culture medium and the oocytes were then inseminated. During the 24-h in vitro culture, two doses of TSA were added (100 nM and 500 nM) to the medium and the oocytes were activated with 10 mM SrCl2. After the 6-h culture, the fertilization rate was similar to that of the control group, but the blastocyst formation rate was significantly decreased. After the 12-h culture, both the fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were significantly decreased. After the 24-h culture, total fertilization failure occurred. In the oocytes cultured for 6 and 12 h, the fertilization and blastocyst formation rates did not differ between the TSA-supplemented and control groups. Although extended culture of the mouse oocytes significantly affected their fertilization and embryo development, TSA supplementation did not overcome their decreased developmental potential.
This study aimed to investigate whether aquaporin 3 (Aqp3) mRNAs are expressed in immature oocytes and altered during in vitro maturation process. Five- to 6-week-old female ICR mice were primed by gonadotropin for 24 and 48 h. Immature oocytes obtained 48 h after priming were also matured in vitro for 17 to 18 h. In vivo matured oocytes were obtained after 48 h priming followed by hCG injection. Total RNAs were extracted from 80 to 150 oocytes in each experimental group, and the levels of Aqp3 mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The experiments were repeated twice using different oocytes. The Aqp3 mRNA was expressed in immature oocytes, as well as in in vitro and in vivo matured oocytes. The expression level was higher in immature oocytes obtained 48 h after priming (17.2 ± 8.6, mean ± SD) than those with no priming (5.7 ± 0.8) or obtained 24 h after priming (2.5 ± 0.8). The expression of Aqp3 mRNA decreased after in vitro maturation (1.2 ± 0.5), which was similar to in vivo matured oocytes (1.0 ± 0.0). Our work demonstrated that Aqp3 mRNA expression increased during the development of immature oocyte but decreased after completion of in vitro maturation. The results indicate that AQP3 is certainly needed for the acquisition of immature oocytes’ full growing potential within antral follicles.
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (PSH) is a relatively benign clinical entity with a low risk of recurrent bleeding. The precise etiology of PSH has not yet been determined. We report here three cases of PSH with clinical and radiological features that support a venous system as a cause.
The first patient, a 72-year-old woman, had PSH and venous hemorrhagic infarct in the left thalamus on non-contrast CT. Subsequent cerebral angiography revealed widespread thrombosis in the cerebral venous system, a potential cause for reflux overflow hemorrhage. The second patient, a 55-year-old man with an established diagnosis of neuro-Behçet's disease, a well-known cause for cerebral venulitis, presented with PSH one year later. The third patient, a 39-year-old female, with incomplete Behçet's disease was admitted with PSH.
Current concepts on the anatomic origin and the possible pathophysiologic mechanism leading to PSH are discussed. The underlying pathological conditions in the venous system in our cases provide theoretical clues to the anatomic origin of PSH in general.
The neurobiological mechanism of auditory hallucination (AH) in schizophrenia remains elusive, but AH can be caused by the abnormality in the speech perception system based on the speech perception neural network model.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether schizophrenic patients with AH have the speech processing impairment as compared with schizophrenic patients without AH, and whether the speech perception ability could be improved after AH had subsided.
Twenty-four schizophrenic patients with AH were compared with 25 schizophrenic patients without AH. Narrative speech perception was assessed using a masked speech tracking (MST) task with three levels of superimposed phonetic noise. Sentence repetition task (SRT) and auditory continuous performance task (CPT) were used to assess grammar-dependent verbal working memory and non-language attention, respectively. These tests were measured before and after treatment in both groups.
Before treatment, schizophrenic patients with AH showed significant impairments in MST compared with those without AH. There were no significant differences in SRT and CPT correct (CPT-C) rates between both groups, but CPT incorrect (CPT-I) rate showed a significant difference. The low-score CPI-I group showed a significant difference in MST performance between the two groups, while the high-score CPI-I group did not. After treatment (after AH subsided), the hallucinating schizophrenic patients still had significant impairment in MST performance compared with non-hallucinating schizophrenic patients.
Our results support the claim that schizophrenic patients with AH are likely to have a disturbance of the speech perception system. Moreover, our data suggest that non-language attention might be a key factor influencing speech perception ability and that speech perception dysfunction might be a trait marker in schizophrenia with AH.
It is controversial whether Borna disease virus (BDV) infects humans and causes psychiatric disorders.
The relationship between BDV infection and schizophrenia with deficit syndrome was investigated.
Using the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome, 62 schizophrenic in-patients were selected from three psychiatric hospitals. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and analyzed using nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with primers to detect BDV p24 and p40.
Results and conclusions:
BDV transcripts were not detected in samples from any of the 62 schizophrenic patients. These data do not support an etiologic association between BDV infection and the deficit form of schizophrenia.
The purpose of the present study was to characterize the Ca2+ channels in smooth
muscle cells from human stomach and to examine the effects of osmotic swelling on
the channel activity. Ca2+ channel current with either Ca2+ or Ba2+ as charge carrier
was recorded from freshly isolated smooth muscle cells using the conventional
whole-cell patch clamp technique. The degree of cell swelling as a result of hypotonic
challenge was monitored using a video image analysis system. The changes in
intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were measured by microfluorimetry. The
pharmacological and voltage activation profile suggests a typical
dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type Ca2+ current. Cell swelling, induced by hypotonic
challenge, enhanced the amplitude of currents through L-type Ca2+ channels without
significant effects on steady-state voltage dependency. After treatment with the
L-type Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644 (0.1-2 µM), no further significant increase in
calcium channel current or corresponding [Ca2+]i transients were provoked by the
swelling. The above results demonstrated that the presence of L-type Ca2+ current in
smooth muscle cells of the human stomach and the augmentation of the current are
closely associated with the volume increase resulting from hypotonic swelling.
Experimental Physiology (2000) 85.5, 497-504.