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We describe here the early Spathian (Early Triassic) Paris Biota decapod fauna from the western USA basin. This fauna contains two taxa of Aegeridae (Dendobranchiata), namely Anisaeger longirostrus n. sp. and Aeger sp. that are the oldest known representatives of their family, thus extending its temporal range by 5 Myr back into the Early Triassic. This fauna also includes two representatives of Glypheida (Pleocyemata) with Litogaster turnbullensis and Pemphix krumenackeri n. sp., confirming for the former and extending for the latter the temporal ranges of their respective superfamilies back to the Early Triassic. Overall, the Paris Biota decapods are some of the oldest known representatives of Decapoda, filling in an important gap in the evolutionary history of this group, especially during the Triassic that marks the early diversification of this clade. Additionally, we compile and provide overviews for all known Triassic decapods, which leads to the revision of four species of Middle and Late Triassic Aegeridae, and to a revised family assignment of a Middle Triassic Glypheida. Based on this refined dataset, we also investigate decapod diversity throughout the Triassic. We show that the apparent increase in decapod taxonomic richness is probably driven by the heterogeneity of the fossil record and/or sampling effort, and that the decapod alpha diversity is actually relatively high as soon as the Early Triassic and remains rather stable throughout the Triassic.
Populations of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) from southern Australia have evolved resistance to the thiocarbamate herbicide prosulfocarb. The inheritance of prosulfocarb resistance was explored by crossing resistant (R) and susceptible (S) individuals. In all families within each cross, except 16.2, the response of the F1 was intermediate between the parents, suggesting that resistance is inherited as a single, partially dominant trait. For 16.2, the response of the F1 was more similar to the S parent, suggesting resistance may be a recessive trait in this population. Segregation at the discriminating dose of 1,200 g ai ha−1 prosulfocarb in population 375-14 fit the ratio (15:1) consistent with two independent dominant alleles; in population 198-15, it fit a ratio (13:3) for two independent alleles, one dominant and one recessive; and in population EP162, it fit a ratio (9:7) for two additive dominant alleles. In contrast, segregation of population 16.2 fit a ratio (7:9) consistent with two independent recessive alleles contributing to prosulfocarb resistance. Four different patterns of resistance to prosulfocarb were identified in different R populations, with inheritance as a dominant allele, dominant and recessive, additive dominant and as an independent recessive allele. This suggests there are several different mechanisms of prosulfocarb resistance present in L. rigidum.
Three resistant (R) rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) populations from southern Australia (EP162, 375-14, and 198-15) with cross-resistance to thiocarbamate, chloroacetamide, and sulfonylisoxazoline herbicides displayed reduced sensitivity to the isoxazolidinone herbicides bixlozone and clomazone. Each of these R populations was exposed to two cycles of recurrent selection (RS) in which plants were treated with the field rate of bixlozone, survivors were bulk crossed, and seed was collected. After the first cycle of recurrent selection (RS1), the LD50 to bixlozone in population 198-15 increased to 17.5-fold compared with the S population and increased further to 26.9-fold after a second cycle of recurrent selection (RS2). The recurrent selection process also increased the level of resistance to bixlozone in populations EP162 and 375-14 (7.8- to 18.4-fold) compared with the S population. Phorate antagonized bixlozone and clomazone in SLR4 (34.6- and 28.1-fold increase in LD50) and both herbicides in populations EP162 (36.5- to 46.6-fold), 375-14 (71.4- to 73.9-fold), and 198-15 (86.4- to 91.5-fold) compared with the absence of phorate. The increase in LD50 of all L. rigidum RS populations when treated with phorate suggests a lack of herbicide activation is not the likely resistance mechanism to these herbicides. This research highlights the elevated risk of thiocarbamate-resistant L. rigidum populations to rapidly evolve resistance to the isoxazolidinone herbicides bixlozone and clomazone.
In southern Australia, annual sowthistle and prickly lettuce have become more prevalent following the adoption of reduced tillage cropping systems. They are especially problematic in lentil and other pulse crops, which are weakly competitive and have few herbicide options available for POST control of broadleaf weeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of management in a previous cereal crop on weed densities in a subsequent crop. At two field sites, crop seeding density and POST herbicide treatments (a conventional choice that included metsulfuron-methyl and MCPA; and a proactive choice that included bromoxynil, picolinafen, and MCPA) were applied to a wheat crop, and weed density was assessed at the beginning of the following season to measure for a legacy effect of the treatments. Study site populations were also screened for herbicide resistance and were found to have high (≥90% survival) ALS inhibitor resistance. Crop competition treatments had no effect on weed populations, and effects of herbicide treatment were significant at only one of the sites. At this site, both herbicide treatments had lower weed densities than the nontreated in the first year, but the legacy effect was only significant for annual sowthistle density in the proactive treatment. At both sites, even where weeds were extremely sparse or completely controlled following herbicide treatment in the first year, moderate densities were observed the following year, indicating that colonization from the seedbank or adjacent areas could be contributing to weed numbers. Weed density assessments and accurate knowledge of the herbicide resistance status of target weeds should guide herbicide selection to maximize control.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goal of this study was to perform a comparative, multi-reader, retrospective clinical evaluation of prostate multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) at 3 Tesla (3T) vs. 7 Tesla (7T) primarily in terms of prostate cancer localization. Subjective measures of image quality and artifacts were also evaluated. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Nineteen subjects were imaged at 3T and 7T between March 2016 and October 2018 under IRB-approved protocols. Four radiologists retrospectively and independently reviewed the data, and completed a two-part assessment for each dataset. First, readers assessed likelihood of cancer using Prostate Imaging Reporting & Data System (PI-RADS) guidelines. Accuracy of cancer detection was compared to findings from prostate biopsy. The numbers of correctly or incorrectly classified sextants were summed across all four readers, then used to summarize detection performance. Second, readers assigned a score on a five-point Likert scale to multiple image quality characteristics for the 3T and 7T datasets. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity of 3T and 7T datasets for sextant-wise cancer detection were compared by paired two-tailed t-tests. Readers identified more sextants harboring cancer with the 3T datasets while false-positive rates were similar, resulting in significantly higher sensitivity at 3T with no significant differences in specificity. Likert scores for image quality characteristics for 3T and 7T datasets were compared by applying paired two-tailed t-tests to mean scores of the four radiologists for each dataset. Readers generally preferred the 3T datasets, in particular for staging and assessment of extraprostatic extension as well as overall quality of the contrast-enhanced data. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Readers agreed 7T prostate mpMRI produced images with more anatomic detail, though with equivocal clinical relevance and more pronounced artifacts. Reader unfamiliarity with 7T images is a major extenuating factor. Forthcoming technological developments are anticipated to improve upon the results.
Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a problematic annual weed in established turf where the intensive use of herbicides has resulted in the evolution of herbicide resistance. In 2017, 31 populations of P. annua suspected to be resistant to herbicides commonly used to control this weed in turf were collected from golf courses across southeastern Australia to check the resistance status to different herbicide groups. All populations were found to be resistant to multiple turf herbicides. Dose–response experiments confirmed resistance to propyzamide, simazine, rimsulfuron, foramsulfuron, endothall, and pinoxaden. Levels of resistance to rimsulfuron (>56-fold), foramsulfuron (>19-fold), endothall (>7-fold), and pinoxaden (>4.3-fold) compared with the susceptible population were high, but levels of resistance to propyzamide (>2-fold) and simazine (>2-fold) were lower. Considerable variation in resistance to endothall and pinoxaden was observed among the populations of P. annua. Target-site resistance was confirmed for acetolactate synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors, but not for photosystem II and microtubule assembly inhibitors. This study documented the extensive resistance to herbicides in P. annua from turf in Australia. Three of the populations investigated exhibited multiple resistance to herbicides from five mechanisms of action. The identification of multiple-resistant P. annua on several golf courses is a serious concern for turf managers.
To compare three different kinds of health-related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaires available for use in patients suffering from schizophrenia: the SF-36 (a generic instrument), the QoLI (an instrument designed to a broad range of mental illnesses), the S-QoL (a questionnaire specific to schizophrenic patients), in terms of external validity and sensitivity to change.
Two hundred and five patients were included at D0 and one-third retested at D30. Socio-demographic data and clinical history were recorded, clinical evaluation comprised psychotic symptoms (PANSS), depression (Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia), global functioning (GAF), clinical severity (CGI), and extrapyramidal symptoms (ESRS). HRQL was assessed using the SF-36, the QoLI and the S-QoL.
A better agreement is observed between the SF-36 and the S-QoL than between the QoLI and the two other instruments. S-QoL and SF-36 are more strongly correlated with clinical status than QoLI. Compared to the SF-36 and the QoLI, the S-QoL better discriminates patients with comorbidity from others. The S-QoL shows better responsiveness than the QoLI and the SF-36.
For descriptive purpose, either generic tools like SF-36 or specific ones should be used, whereas when aiming at evaluating health treatment and care for schizophrenic patients, specific instruments like the S-QoL should be favoured.
Organophosphate insecticides, which have the capacity to inhibit specific herbicide-degrading (cytochrome P450) enzymes, have been used to explore metabolic herbicide-resistance mechanisms in weeds. This study investigates the response of seven field-selected rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) populations to herbicides from three different sites of action in the presence or absence of the P450 inhibitor phorate. Phorate antagonized the thiocarbamate herbicides triallate and prosulfocarb (8-fold increase in LD50) in multiple resistant L. rigidum populations with resistance to three different site-of-action herbicides. In contrast, phorate synergized trifluralin and propyzamide in some populations, reducing the LD50 by 50%. Conversely, treatment with phorate had no significant effect on the LD50 for S-metolachlor or pyroxasulfone (inhibitors of very-long-chain fatty-acid synthesis). Phorate has diverse effects that are herbicide and population dependant in field-selected L. rigidum, suggesting P450 involvement in the metabolism of trifluralin and failure to activate thiocarbamate herbicides in these populations. This research highlights the need for implementation of diverse approaches other than herbicide alone as part of a long-term integrated strategy to reduce the likelihood of metabolism-based resistance to PPI herbicides in L. rigidum.
We report on a two-arm hybrid high-power laser system (HPLS) able to deliver 2 × 10 PW femtosecond pulses, developed at the Bucharest-Magurele Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) Facility. A hybrid front-end (FE) based on a Ti:sapphire chirped pulse amplifier and a picosecond optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier based on beta barium borate (BBO) crystals, with a cross-polarized wave (XPW) filter in between, has been developed. It delivers 10 mJ laser pulses, at 10 Hz repetition rate, with more than 70 nm spectral bandwidth and high-intensity contrast, in the range of 1013:1. The high-energy Ti:sapphire amplifier stages of both arms were seeded from this common FE. The final high-energy amplifier, equipped with a 200 mm diameter Ti:sapphire crystal, has been pumped by six 100 J nanosecond frequency doubled Nd:glass lasers, at 1 pulse/min repetition rate. More than 300 J output pulse energy has been obtained by pumping with only 80% of the whole 600 J available pump energy. The compressor has a transmission efficiency of 74% and an output pulse duration of 22.7 fs was measured, thus demonstrating that the dual-arm HPLS has the capacity to generate 10 PW peak power femtosecond pulses. The reported results represent the cornerstone of the ELI-NP 2 × 10 PW femtosecond laser facility, devoted to fundamental and applied nuclear physics research.
Evidence from observational studies indicates that seaweed consumption may reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type two diabetes, and obesity. Accumulating evidence from in vitro and animal studies suggest seaweed have antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which may in part be attributed to the high content of soluble dietary fibre in seaweeds. The viscosity of seaweed fibres is suggested to mediate antihyperlipdiemic effects via the alteration of lipid/bile acid absorption kinetics to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL). Thus, there is a need to evaluate the efficacy of seaweed derived dietary fibre in the management of dyslipidemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a fibre rich extract from Palmaria palmata on the lipid profile as well as markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy adults. A total of 60 healthy participants (30 male and 30 female) aged 20 to 58 years, were assigned to consume the Palmaria palmata fibre extract (5g/day), Synergy-1 and the placebo (maltodextrin) for a duration of 4 weeks with a minimum 4 week washout between each treatment in a double blind, randomised crossover study conducted over 5 months. Fasting concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were analysed and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and LDL: HDL ratio was calculated. C-reactive protein (CRP) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) were analysed as markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, respectively. Supplementation for 4 weeks with Palmaria palmata resulted in favourable changes to lipid profiles with a reduced LDL:HDL ratio; however intention-to-treat univariate ANCOVA identified no significant difference between the treatment groups over time on any of the lipid profile markers. A non-significant increase in CRP and triglyceride concentration along with lower FRAP was also observed with Palmaria palmata supplementation. Evidence from this study suggests that Palmaria palmata may have effects on lipid metabolism and appears to mobilise triglycerides. More research is needed in individuals with dyslipidaemia to fully elucidate these effects.
Southern Iceland is one of the main outlets of the Icelandic ice sheet and is subject to seismicity of both tectonic and volcanic origins along the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ). A sedimentary complex spanning Marine Isotopic Stage 6 (MIS 6) to the present includes evidence of both activities. It includes a continuous sedimentary record since the Eemian interglacial period, controlled by a rapid deglaciation, followed by two marine glacioisostasy-forced transgressions, separated by a regression phase connected to an intra-MIS 5e glacial advance. This record has been constrained by tephrostratigraphy and dating. Analysis of this record has provided better insights into the interconnectedness of hydrology and volcanic and tectonic activity during deglaciations and glaciations. Low-intensity earthquakes recurrently affected the water-laid sedimentation during the early stages of unloading, accompanying rifting events, dyke injection, and fault reactivations. During full interglacial periods, earthquakes were significantly less frequent but of higher magnitude along the SISZ, due to stress accumulation, favored by low groundwater levels and more limited magma production. Occurrence of volcanism and seismicity in Iceland is commonly related to rifting events. Subglacial volcanic events seem moreover to have been related to stress unlocking related to limited or full unloading/deglaciation events. Major eruptions were mostly located at the melting margin of the ice sheet.
Two field experiments were conducted during 2018 at Paskeville and Arthurton, South Australia, to identify effective herbicide options for the control of thiocarbamate-resistant rigid ryegrass in wheat. Dose–response experiments confirmed resistance in both field populations (T1 and A18) of rigid ryegrass to triallate, prosulfocarb, trifluralin, and pyroxasulfone. T1 and A18 were 17.9- and 20-fold more resistant to triallate than susceptible SLR4. The level of resistance detected in T1 to prosulfocarb (5.9-fold) and pyroxasulfone (4-fold) was lower compared to A18, which displayed 12.1- and 7.8-fold resistance to both herbicides, respectively. Despite resistance, the mixture of two different preplant-incorporated (PPI) site-of-action herbicides improved rigid ryegrass control and wheat yield compared to a single PPI herbicide only. Prosulfocarb + triallate and prosulfocarb + S-metolachlor + triallate did not reduce rigid ryegrass seed set when compared to prosulfocarb applied alone at the higher rate (2,400 g ai ha–1). Pyroxasulfone + triallate PPI followed by glyphosate (1,880 g ai ha-1) as a weed seed set control treatment reduced rigid ryegrass seed production by 93% and 95% at both sites, respectively. These herbicides also significantly improved grain yield of wheat at Paskeville (22%) and Arthurton (38%) compared to the untreated.
There is an urgent need to identify and develop cross-sectoral policies which promote and support a healthy, safe and sustainable food system. To help shape the political agenda, a critical first step is a shared definition of such a system among policy makers across relevant sectors. The aim of the present study was to determine how Australian policy actors define, and contribute to, a healthy, safe and sustainable food system.
A Delphi survey, consisting of two rounds, was conducted. Participants were asked how they define, and contribute to, a healthy, safe and sustainable food system (Round 1) and indicate their level of agreement with summary statements (Round 2).
This was an online Delphi survey conducted in Australia.
Twenty-nine and fourteen multisectoral and multilevel policy makers completed Round 1 and Round 2, respectively.
The definition included food processing regulation, environmentally friendly food production and access to nutritious food. All agreed that it was important for them to improve access and supply of healthy food and ensure healthy planning principles are applied.
There were cross-sectoral differences in definitions and contributions; however, critical consensus was achieved. The study contributes to the definition of key elements of a cross-sectoral food and nutrition policy to meet today’s environmental, health, social and economic challenges; however, further research using a more representative multisectoral sample is warranted.
Human milk contains an abundant supply and diverse array of oligosaccharides that are known to impart significant health benefits to the nursing infant including establishment and maintenance of a healthy gut microflora, immune development and protection against gastrointestinal infections. When breastfeeding is not possible or insufficient, infant formulas are commonly used as an alternative. However, limited information is available about the presence of naturally occurring oligosaccharides in these infant formulas and their likely health benefits. The present study examined the presence of naturally occurring oligosaccharides in commercial goats’ milk-based stage 1 and stage 2 infant formulas and their prebiotic and anti-infection properties. LC/MS was used to detect and quantify oligosaccharides and their prebiotic potential was assessed by their ability, at concentrations present in reconstituted ready-to-use infant formula, to promote the growth of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12, B. longum BB536, Lactobacillus acidophilus 4461 and L. casei 2607 in vitro. For anti-infection properties, the ability of goat milk oligosaccharides to prevent the adhesion of Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 and a Salmonella typhimurium isolate to Caco-2 cells was investigated. The results showed the presence of fourteen quantifiable oligosaccharides in stage 1 and stage 2 goats’ milk-based infant formula. This was similar to the number of oligosaccharides detected in the fresh goats’ milk. Of these, five were structurally similar to those found in human milk. These oligosaccharides were shown to significantly enhance the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and reduce the adhesion of E. coli NCTC 10418 and S. typhimurium to Caco-2 cells. Together, these results suggest that oligosaccharides naturally present in goats’ milk-based infant formula exhibit strong prebiotic and anti-pathogen adhesion properties and may confer gut health benefits to infants.
The measured hardness of a metal crystal depends on a variety of length scales. Microstructural features, such as grain size and precipitate spacing, determine the intrinsic material length scale. Extrinsic (test) length scales, such as the indentation depth, lead to the indentation size effect (ISE), whereby it is typically found that smaller is stronger. Nix and Gao [J. Mech. Phys. Solids46, 411 (1998)] developed a widely used model for interpreting the ISE based on forest hardening in single crystalline pure metals. This work extends that model to consider the hardness of polycrystals and alloys, as well as introducing a finite limit to the hardness at very small extrinsic length scales. The resulting expressions are validated against data from the literature. It is shown that a reasonable estimate of the intrinsic material length scale can be extracted from a suite of hardness tests conducted across a range of indentation depths using spherical indenters of various radii.
Five populations of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) from fields across cropping regions in southern Australia were suspected of having resistance to thiocarbamates, chloroacetamides, and sulfonylisoxazoline herbicides. Resistant (R) populations 375-14, 198-15, 16.2, EP162, RAC1, and A18 and two susceptible (S) populations (SLR4 and VLR1) were included in a dose–response study. All suspected R populations expressed resistance to one or all herbicides (thiocarbamates, chloroacetamides, and pyroxasulfone). Population 198-15 exhibited the highest LD50 to triallate (44.7-fold), prosulfocarb (45.7-fold), S-metolachlor (31.5-fold), and metazachlor (27.2-fold) compared with the S populations. Populations 198-15 and 375-14 were also resistant to pyroxasulfone (13.5- and 14.9-fold) compared with the S populations, as was population EP162. This study documents the first case of field-evolved resistance to thiocarbamate, chloroacetamide, and sulfonylisoxazoline herbicides in L. rigidum.
A population of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) from a field on the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia, was suspected of resistance to thiocarbamate herbicides. Dose–response studies were conducted on this population (EP162) and two susceptible populations (SLR4 and VLR1). The resistant population exhibited cross-resistance to triallate, prosulfocarb, EPTC, and thiobencarb with higher LD50 to triallate (14.9-fold), prosulfocarb (9.4-fold), EPTC (9.7-fold), and thiobencarb (13.6-fold) compared with the susceptible populations SLR4 and VLR1. The resistant population also displayed resistance to trifluralin, pyroxasulfone, and propyzamide. The LD50 of the resistant population was higher for trifluralin (13.8-fold), pyroxasulfone (8.1-fold), and propyzamide (2.7-fold) compared with the susceptible populations. This study documents the first case of field-evolved resistance to thiocarbamate herbicides in L. rigidum.