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Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is reported to be associated with cancer development. To investigate the roles ANXA2 plays during the development of cancer, the RNAi method was used to inhibit the ANXA2 expression in caco2 (human colorectal cancer cell line) and SMMC7721 (human hepatocarcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that when the expression of ANXA2 was efficiently inhibited, the growth and motility of both cell lines were significantly decreased, and the development of the motility relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia, filopodia, and the polymerization of microfilaments and microtubules were obviously inhibited. The cancer cell apoptosis was enhanced without obvious significance. The possible regulating pathway in the process was also predicted and discussed. Our results suggested that ANXA2 plays important roles in maintaining the malignancy of colorectal and hepatic cancer by enhancing the cell proliferation, motility, and development of the motility associated microstructures of cancer cells based on a possible complicated signal pathway.
Phytic acid (PA) has been demonstrated to have a potent anticarcinogenic activity against colorectal cancer (CRC). Defects of the intestinal mucosal barrier and inflammation processes are involved in the development and progression of CRC. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of PA on the intestinal mucosal barrier and proinflammatory cytokines. After a 1-week acclimatisation period, sixty Wistar male rats were divided into the following five groups, with twelve rats per group: the control group (CG), model group (MG), low-PA-dose group (0·25 g/kg per d), middle-PA-dose group (0·5 g/kg per d), and high-PA-dose group (1 g/kg per d). 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dosage of 30 mg/kg of body weight was injected weekly to induce CRC for 18 weeks. We examined the expression of genes related to the intestinal mucosal barrier in the model. The results demonstrated that tumour incidence was decreased following PA treatment. The mRNA and protein expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and E-cadherin in the MG were significantly lower than those in the CG (P<0·05). The mRNA and protein expression of claudin-1 in the MG were significantly higher than those in the CG (P<0·05). PA elevated the mRNA and protein expression of MUC2, TFF3 and E-cadherin, and diminished the mRNA and protein expression of claudin-1. Furthermore, PA decreased serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, which included TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In conclusion, this study suggests that PA has favourable effects on the intestinal mucosal barrier and may reduce serum proinflammatory cytokine levels.
For 2D elastic-plastic flows with the hypo-elastic constitutive model and von Mises’ yielding condition, the non-conservative character of the hypo-elastic constitutive model and the von Mises’ yielding condition make the construction of the solution to the Riemann problem a challenging task. In this paper, we first analyze the wave structure of the Riemann problem and develop accordingly a Four-Rarefaction wave approximate Riemann Solver with Elastic waves (FRRSE). In the construction of FRRSE one needs to use an iterative method. A direct iteration procedure for four variables is complex and computationally expensive. In order to simplify the solution procedure we develop an iteration based on two nested iterations upon two variables, and our iteration method is simple in implementation and efficient. Based on FRRSE as a building block, we propose a 2nd-order cell-centered Lagrangian numerical scheme. Numerical results with smooth solutions show that the scheme is of second-order accuracy. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments with shock and rarefaction waves demonstrate the scheme is essentially non-oscillatory and appears to be convergent. For shock waves the present scheme has comparable accuracy to that of the scheme developed by Maire et al., while it is more accurate in resolving rarefaction waves.
In this study, we present clay mineral records from a late Pleistocene loess-paleosol sequence in the Ili Basin, Central Asia, and assess their significance for paleoclimatic reconstruction. The results show that the clay minerals are mainly illite (average 60%) and chlorite (28%), with minor kaolinite (9%) and smectite (3%). Illite was of detrital origin with no obvious modification to its crystal structure. Increases in illite content in the loess are ascribed to wind intensity rather than pedogenesis. High proportions of illite in the clay fraction, and of muscovite in the bulk samples of the paleosol units, may lead to an overestimation of the weathering intensity. Kaolinite was likely inherited from the sedimentary rocks, while chlorite might have been inherited from both sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The paleoclimatic signals of kaolinite and chlorite were unclear, due to reworking by both fluvial and eolian systems. Smectite was more likely formed by the transformation of biotite and illite, and its variation in the loess sequence was also controlled by wind intensity; this was largely due to aggregation and is unlikely to reflect moisture changes. Although the interpretation of paleoclimate evolution may contain some uncertainties, clay mineralogy does provide the possibility of tracing dust provenance.
The shear-band propagation in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) during deformation plays a key role in determining their macroscopic ductility. In this work, the shear band propagation during plastic deformation was investigated in the Cu46Zr46Al8 BMG and its in situ or ex situ prepared BMG composites. Compared with the brittle BMG, both types of ductile BMG composites show a more stable shear banding behavior as revealed by a larger power-law scaling exponent obtained from statistical analysis of serrations recorded in compressive curves. A higher cut-off elastic energy density (δc) linked with the multiplication of shear bands is observed for the in situ prepared BMG composites. However, the ex situ fabricated BMG composites show an almost equivalent or slightly larger δc since the dominant shear band but not multiple shear bands mainly governs their deformation. Such observations imply that the shear banding stability of BMGs during deformation is enhanced not only by inducing multiple shear bands but also by obstructing the movement of the dominant shear band at its driven path.
Studies from high-income countries report moderate-to-strong positive associations between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and other mental disorders, but there is little evidence about the comorbidity of AUD from low-and-middle-income countries.
A sample of 74 752 adults from five provinces that account for >12% of China's adult population was screened using the General Health Questionnaire, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was administered by psychiatrists to a subsample of 9619 males. The associations between AUD and other mental disorders at each site and the characteristics of men with AUD with and without comorbid mental disorders were estimated using logistic regression and summarized across sites using meta-analysis. Generalized estimation equations estimated the associations between the clinical features of alcohol dependence and comorbidity.
Robust inverse associations were found between current AUD and any mood disorder (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8) and any anxiety disorder (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3–1.0). Compared with men without AUD, men with AUD without comorbid disorders were more likely to be middle-aged, to be currently married, and to have higher family incomes. Men with comorbid AUD and other disorders were more likely to have the clinical features of alcohol dependence than men with AUD without comorbid disorders.
Inverse associations between AUD and other mental disorders and the higher social status of men with AUD than men without AUD found in this large, representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese males highlight the importance of considering the local substance-use culture when designing clinical or preventive interventions for addictive conditions.
Bacillary dysentery continues to be a major health issue in developing countries and ambient temperature is a possible environmental determinant. However, evidence about the risk of bacillary dysentery attributable to ambient temperature under climate change scenarios is scarce. We examined the attributable fraction (AF) of temperature-related bacillary dysentery in urban and rural Hefei, China during 2006–2012 and projected its shifting pattern under climate change scenarios using a distributed lag non-linear model. The risk of bacillary dysentery increased with the temperature rise above a threshold (18·4 °C), and the temperature effects appeared to be acute. The proportion of bacillary dysentery attributable to hot temperatures was 18·74% (95 empirical confidence interval (eCI): 8·36–27·44%). Apparent difference of AF was observed between urban and rural areas, with AF varying from 26·87% (95% eCI 16·21–36·68%) in urban area to −1·90% (95 eCI −25·03 to 16·05%) in rural area. Under the climate change scenarios alone (1–4 °C rise), the AF from extreme hot temperatures (>31·2 °C) would rise greatly accompanied by the relatively stable AF from moderate hot temperatures (18·4–31·2 °C). If climate change proceeds, urban area may be more likely to suffer from rapidly increasing burden of disease from extreme hot temperatures in the absence of effective mitigation and adaptation strategies.
The Myanmar snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus strykeri was discovered in 2010 on the western slopes of the Gaoligong Mountains in the Irrawaddy River basin in Myanmar and subsequently in the same river basin in China, in 2011. Based on 2 years of surveying the remote and little disturbed forest of the Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve in China, with outline transect sampling and infrared camera monitoring, a breeding group comprising > 70 individuals was found on the eastern slopes of the Gaoligong Mountains in the Salween River Basin. Given the Critically Endangered status of this primate (a total of < 950 individuals are estimated to remain in the wild), efforts to protect the relatively undisturbed habitat of this newly discovered population and to prevent hunting are essential for the long-term survival of this species.
The classical dynamic recrystallization (DRX) kinetics models, such as Avrami equation, are often used to describe the DRX behaviors of alloys. However, it is found that the classical DRX kinetics models cannot be directly applied to evaluate DRX volume fractions under inconstant deformation conditions, such as at fluctuant deformation temperature and strain rate. It obviously limits their application in the practical industrial production. Therefore, an improved DRX kinetics model is proposed based on the hypothesis that the derivatives of DRX volume fraction with respect to strain only depends on the current deformation temperature, strain rate, and DRX volume fraction. To verify the improved DRX kinetics model, the hot compressive tests in which the strain rate is inconstant are carried out on a solution-treated Ni-based superalloy. Experimental results indicate that the improved DRX kinetics model can well predict the DRX behavior under inconstant deformation conditions.
Magnetic Fe3O4–polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) particles with Si-OH were prepared by hydrosilylation reaction between the Fe3O4–SiH and POSS with hydroxyl and vinyl groups. The magnetic Fe3O4–POSS particles were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The magnetic saturation value of Fe3O4–POSS particles was 18.77 emu/g. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/Fe3O4–POSS nanofibers mats were subsequently fabricated by electrospinning technique. The electret properties of PAN/Fe3O4–POSS nanofibers mats and their aerosol filtration property as electrets filter media were characterized. The stability of the surface potential was remarkably improved and the surface potential retention reached 50% for PAN/Fe3O4–POSS mats with 1 wt% Fe3O4–POSS. Compared with pure PAN, the charge retention of PAN/Fe3O4–POSS was increased by 21% and reached 52.40%. Moreover, the collection efficiency increased and the filter resistance decreased when the PAN nanofibers with Fe3O4–POSS were used as electrets filter media. Our study provided an effective method to prepare novel filter materials with high efficiency and low resistance.
There have been a number of studies that have attempted to estimate the past radiocarbon reservoir effects in Qinghai Lake, China. This article reports on measurements on modern samples collected at the lake in October 2003 and October 2009, which allow us to better understand the systematics of the lake and shed new insights on the processes occurring in the lake. The results indicate that atmospheric exchange of 14C is the main process affecting surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the lake, but dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can be explained as a combination of sources. We also conclude that sediment carbon can be explained by a model where input from the surrounding rivers and groundwater are important, in agreement with the model of Yu et al. (2007).
We have carried out a multiproxy analysis of high-resolution eutrophic peat/mud, sand dune, and loess/paleosol sequences covering the Holocene period in both southern and northern China, in order to test the hypothesis of a time-transgressive Holocene optimum in the East Asian monsoon area (An et al. 2000). Samples were radiocarbon dated to establish the chronology. Our results indicate that the Holocene optimum occurred between ∼10,000–5000 cal yr ago in both southern and northern China, consistent with a global pattern rather than simply a local expression. Our data also support the conclusion that the evolution of Holocene climate in China is consistent with changes in Northern Hemisphere solar radiation.
Efforts to extract weak geomagnetic excursion signals from Chinese loess-paleosol 10Be have generally been unsuccessful due to the complexities of its accumulation, because the geomagnetic and climate (precipitation and dust) signals contained in loess-paleosol sequence are tightly overprinted. Here, we present a reconstruction of geomagnetic relative paleointensities for the past 130 kyr from 10Be records in 2 Chinese loess-paleosol sections using a correction based on the correlation of 10Be with magnetic susceptibility (SUS) to remove the climatic contamination. Both these records reveal the Laschamp and Blake events, which lie in the loess and paleosol (L1SS1 and S1SS3) horizons corresponding to mid-MIS 3 and 5e, respectively. The good agreement between our results and other geomagnetic intensities reconstructions from Atlantic and Pacific sediments indicates that our method is robust. Our study suggests the potential application of loess-paleosol 10Be for reconstructing geomagnetic intensity variations spanning the whole Quaternary.
Fabrication methods and performance characteristics of spiral stretchable interconnects fabricated using drop-on-demand printing of silver reactive inks are discussed. This work details ink optimization, device fabrication, and device characterization while demonstrating the potential applications for reactive inks and new design strategies in stretchable electronics. Devices were printed with an ethanol stabilized silver diamine reactive ink and cycled to 160 % over 100 cycles with less than 10% increase in electrical resistance. Maximum deformation before failure was measured at 180% elongation. A novel method for fabrication of a stretchable electronics device has been studied and verified.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
This study aimed to explore whether the presence of a Y chromosome azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletion confers any adverse effect on embryonic development and clinical outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Fifty-seven patients with AZF microdeletion were included in the present study and 114 oligozoospermia and azoospermia patients without AZF microdeletion were recruited as controls. Both AZF and control groups were further divided into subgroups based upon the methods of semen collection: the AZF-testicular sperm extraction subgroup (AZF-TESE, n = 14), the AZF-ejaculation subgroup (AZF-EJA, n = 43), the control-TESE subgroup (n = 28) and the control-EJA subgroup (n = 86). Clinical data were analyzed in the two groups and four subgroups respectively. A retrospective case–control study was performed. A significantly lower fertilization rate (69.27 versus 75.70%, P = 0.000) and cleavage rate (89.55 versus 94.39%, P = 0.000) was found in AZF group compared with the control group. Furthermore, in AZF-TESE subgroup, the fertilization rate (67.54 versus 74.25%, P = 0.037) and cleavage rate (88.96 versus 94.79%, P = 0.022) were significantly lower than in the control-TESE subgroup; similarly, the fertilization rate (69.85 versus 75.85%, P = 0.004) and cleavage rate (89.36 versus 94.26%, P = 0.002) in AZF-EJA subgroup were significantly lower than in the control-EJA subgroup; however, the fertilization rate and cleavage rate in AZF-TESE (control-TESE) subgroup was similar to that in the AZF-EJA (control-EJA) subgroup. The other clinical outcomes were comparable between four subgroups (P > 0.05). Therefore, sperm from patients with AZF microdeletion, obtained either by ejaculation or TESE, may have lower fertilization and cleavage rates, but seem to have comparable clinical outcomes to those from patients without AZF microdeletion.
To examine the effects of complex cognitive (mahjong) and physical (Tai Chi) activities on dementia severity in nursing home residents with dementia.
Cluster-randomized open-label controlled design. 110 residents were randomized by nursing home into three conditions: mahjong, Tai Chi, and simple handicrafts (control). Activities were conducted three times a week for 12 weeks. Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) was taken at 0 (baseline), 3 (post-treatment), 6, and 9 months. The outcome measure was CDR sum-of-box, which is a composite measure of both cognitive and functional deterioration in dementia.
Intent-to-treat analyses were performed using multilevel regression models. Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and education were included as covariates. Neither treatments had effects on the cognitive and functional components of the CDR, but mahjong had a significant interaction with time on the CDR sum-of-box total, suggesting a slower rate of global deterioration in the mahjong group as compared with the control group.
Mahjong led to a gradual improvement in global functioning and a slightly slower rate of dementia progression over time. The effect was generalized and was not specific to cognition or daily functioning.
Blockage of pathogen transmission through water decontamination is considered an important strategy for the prevention of schistosome infection. Many believe that this strategy is feasible, but it has yet to be achieved. Silver has a long history of use as a disinfectant. With the emergence of nanotechnology, silver can be shaped into nanoparticles which have been found to possess superb antimicrobial activities. In this light, we investigated the effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. AgNPs rapidly induced cercarial tail-shedding, agitated behaviour and a decrease in cercarial secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Prolonged treatment was found to be cercariocidal, which nevertheless might be attributable to AgNP-induced cercarial tail loss rather than to toxicity. Higher concentrations of AgNPs (125 μg mL−1 and above) completely blocked cercarial infectivity. Despite decreased infectivity, cercariae exposed to lower concentrations of AgNPs for 30 min were still found capable of infecting hosts even without their tails, suggesting that tail loss does not necessarily signify a total loss of infective ability. We also found that silver ions (Ag+) were heavily involved in the observed cercarial responses of AgNPs. Our observations provide insight into the interactions between the larvae of helminth parasites and nanoparticles.
Physical model experiments were performed to clarify the influence of orifice configuration on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient during ladle purging. Bubble behavior was recorded by a high speed video camera in the present study. And carbon dioxide desorption from an aqueous NaOH solution was used to measure the volumetric mass transfer coefficient. It is found that bubbles for multi-hole orifice are generally smaller than those for 1-hole orifice. However, when the hole distance in the multi-hole orifice is too short to avoid bubble coalescence, large bubbles will be formed. It is shown that there is a decreasing tendency of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient when the hole diameter increases. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient firstly increases with increasing the hole distance and hole number. Thereafter, it remains approximately constant with further increase in the hole distance and hole number.
There is little information about seed dormancy release and germination behaviour in Vitis amurensis, which is one of the most important wild Vitis species. This work aimed to investigate the dormancy release and germination characteristics and their variation in V. amurensis seed. Seed dormancy was released by: (1) stratification at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 15/5°C, respectively; (2) stratification at 25°C followed by stratification at 5°C; (3) 5°C stratification before or after seed drying; and (4) stratification at a series of relative humidities (RHs) at 5 and 25°C. The freshly harvested and dormancy-released seeds were germinated at three fluctuating and four constant temperatures. In V. amurensis: (1) dormancy release could occur at temperature ≤ 25°C, but was maximal at 5°C for all varieties; (2) dormancy release and induction occurred simultaneously during stratification; (3) the rates of dormancy release and induction were dependent on temperature; (4) seed moisture content affected dormancy release with a temperature-dependent pattern; (5) seeds germinated better at fluctuating temperature than at constant temperature. However, the optimum condition for stratification and germination, the rates of dormancy release and induction, and the response of seeds to warm stratification, to drying and to germination temperature varied significantly among the V. amurensis varieties. Our data imply that seed dormancy and germination in V. amurensis not only have intra-species similarity, but also vary within species, which may be due to differences in environmental conditions at the original growth and cultivated sites.