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In this paper we propose a new interpretation of Hegel's views on action and responsibility, defending it against its most plausible exegetical competitors.1 Any exposition of Hegel will face both terminological and substantive challenges, and so we place, from the outset, some interpretative constraints. The paper divides into two parts. In part one, we point out that Hegel makes a number of distinctions which any sensible account of responsibility should indeed make. Our aim here is to show that Hegel at least has the materials for a sensible and nuanced account, whatever the precise details of how they hang together. Part two then turns to a hard question concerning the relation of two different aspects of our deeds to responsibility. We consider five alternate ways of relieving the tension in Hegel's text, before putting forth our own preferred solution.
The Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus is a habitat specialist, restricted to forest patches in the Eastern Cape (EC), KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Limpopo provinces of South Africa. Recent census estimates suggest that there are less than 1,600 parrots left in the wild, although historical data suggest that the species was once more numerous. Fragmentation of the forest biome is strongly linked to climate change and exploitation of the forest by the timber industry. We examine the subpopulation structure and connectivity between fragmented populations across the distribution of the species. Differences in historical and contemporary genetic structure of Cape Parrots is examined by including both modern samples, collected from 1951 to 2014, and historical samples, collected from 1870 to 1946. A total of 114 individuals (historical = 29; contemporary = 85) were genotyped using 16 microsatellite loci. We tested for evidence of partitioning of genotypes at both a temporal and spatial scales by comparing shifts in allelic frequencies of historical (1870–1946) and contemporary (1951–2014) samples across the distribution of the species. Tests for population bottlenecks were also conducted to determine if anthropogenic causes are the main driver of population decline in this species. Analyses identified three geographically correlated genetic clusters. A southern group restricted to forest patches in the EC, a central group including birds from KZN and a genetically distinct northern Limpopo cluster. Results suggest that Cape Parrots have experienced at least two population bottlenecks. An ancient decline during the mid-Holocene (∼ 1,800-3,000 years before present) linked to climate change, and a more recent bottleneck, associated with logging of forests during the early 1900s. This study highlights the effects of climate change and human activities on an endangered species associated with the naturally fragmented forests of eastern South Africa. These results will aid conservation authorities with the planning and implementation of future conservation initiatives. In particular, this study emphasises the Eastern Cape mistbelt forests as an important source population for the species and calls for stronger conservation of forest patches in South Africa to promote connectivity of forest taxa.
We compare the efficiency of mechanical or enzymatic methods, and their combination, for the isolation of ovarian preantral follicles (PFs) from collared peccaries. The ovaries from six females were subjected to the different methods investigated here. For the enzymatic method, ovary fragments were exposed to collagenase type IV in TCM-HEPES medium; the mechanical procedure was based on ovarian cortex dissociation by using a scalpel blade. The residual solution obtained after the mechanical isolation was subjected to the enzymatic procedure. The number of isolated PFs was quantified and classified as primordial, primary, or secondary; their viability was assessed using trypan blue dye assay. To confirm the results, PFs derived from the most efficient method were evaluated for integrity using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and subjected to a 24 h in vitro culture for subsequent evaluation of viability by using fluorescent probes. A higher number of PFs (P < 0.05) was obtained from the enzymatic method (961.7 ± 132.9) in comparison with the mechanical method (434.3 ± 88.9), but no difference was observed between the two methods and their combination (743.2 ± 92.8). The trypan blue assay showed that the enzymatic method (98.7 ± 0.6%) provided the highest percentage of viable follicles (P < 0.05). Furthermore, SEM confirmed the ultrastructural integrity of the surface architecture of peccary PFs isolated by the enzymatic procedure; epifluorescence microscopy was used to confirm their viability (86.0%). In conclusion, we suggest that the enzymatic method investigated here is useful for the isolation of viable ovarian PFs from collared peccaries.
Shame is a highly prevalent, though rarely discussed, emotion experienced by trainee doctors. Seeking to avoid the pain of shame can cause significant distress and maladaptive behaviours. However, it plays a key role in helping doctors identify their moral values which, in turn, form the basis of their medical professional identity. This article uses personal doctors’ narratives together with sources from sociology, psychology and medical education to address shame as experienced by medical trainees – its causes, effects and remedies that doctors and medical educators can use to neutralise its malign effects.
This article examines the concept of dignity takings, as developed by Bernadette Atuahene, and its applicability to the Israeli situation, focusing on takings from the Arab-Palestinian minority in Israel. Although I find dignity takings a valuable concept, as it emphasizes the interconnections between land dispossession and the denial of human dignity, I offer some qualifications and suggestions. I then examine the applicability of the concept to the dispossession of Arabs/Palestinians in Israel through two case studies: one, a close reading of the (in)famous Ikrit villagers' dispossession; the other, an examination of the dispossession of Negev (southern Israel) Bedouin citizens of Israel, which takes place, not unlike terra nullius, simultaneously with a denial of this very taking. The article concludes that with some modifications, the concept of dignity taking applies to the situation of Arab/Palestinian citizens of Israel.
Alteplase is an effective treatment for ischaemic stroke patients, and it is widely available at all primary stroke centres. The effectiveness of alteplase is highly time-dependent. Large tertiary centres have reported significant improvements in their door-to-needle (DTN) times. However, these same improvements have not been reported at community hospitals.
Red Deer Regional Hospital Centre (RDRHC) is a community hospital of 370 beds that serves approximately 150,000 people in their acute stroke catchment area. The RDRHC participated in a provincial DTN improvement initiative, and implemented a streamlined algorithm for the treatment of stroke patients. During this intervention period, they implemented the following changes: early alert of an incoming acute stroke patient to the neurologist and care team, meeting the patient immediately upon arrival, parallel work processes, keeping the patient on the Emergency Medical Service stretcher to the CT scanner, and administering alteplase in the imaging area. Door-to-needle data were collected from July 2007 to December 2017.
A total of 289 patients were treated from July 2007 to December 2017. In the pre-intervention period, 165 patients received alteplase and the median DTN time was 77 minutes [interquartile range (IQR): 60–103 minutes]; in the post-intervention period, 104 patients received alteplase and the median DTN time was 30 minutes (IQR: 22–42 minutes) (p < 0.001). The annual number of patients that received alteplase increased from 9 to 29 in the pre-intervention period to annual numbers of 41 to 63 patients in the post-intervention period.
Community hospitals staffed with community neurologists can achieve median DTN times of 30 minutes or less.
Tests of statistical significance have increasingly been used in employment discrimination cases since the Supreme Court's decision in Hazelwood. In that case, the United States Supreme Court ruled that “in a proper case” statistical evidence can suffice for a prima facie showing of employment discrimination. The Court also discussed the use of a binomial significance test to assess whether the difference between the proportion of black teachers employed by the Hazelwood School District and the proportion of black teachers in the relevant labor market was substantial enough to indicate discrimination. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has proposed a somewhat stricter standard for evaluating how substantial a difference must be to constitute evidence of discrimination. Under the so-called 80% rule promulgated by the EEOC, the difference must not only be statistically significant, but the hire rate for the allegedly discriminated group must also be less than 80% of the rate for the favored group. This article argues that a binomial statistical significance test standing alone is unsatisfactory for evaluating allegations of discrimination because many of the assumptions on which such tests are based are inapplicable to employment settings; the 80% rule is a more appropriate standard for evaluating whether a difference in hire rates should be treated as a prima facie showing of discrimination.
We investigate the domination game and the game domination number
in the class of split graphs. We prove that
for any isolate-free
-vertex split graph
, thus strengthening the conjectured
general bound and supporting Rall’s
-conjecture. We also characterise split graphs of even order with
This article describes a CDI outbreak in a long-term care (LTC) facility that used molecular typing techniques and whole-genome sequencing to identify widespread dissemination of the clonal strain in the environment which was successfully removed after terminal cleaning.
This study was conducted in a long-term care facility in Texas.
A recently hospitalized LTC patient was diagnosed with CDI followed shortly thereafter by 7 subsequent CDI cases. A stool specimen was obtained from each patient for culturing and typing. An environmental point-prevalence study of the facility was conducted before and after terminal cleaning of the facility to assess environmental contamination. Cultured isolates were typed using ribotyping, multilocus variant analysis, and whole-genome sequencing.
Stool samples were available for 5 of 8 patients; of these specimens, 4 grew toxigenic C. difficile ribotype 027. Of 50 environmental swab samples collected throughout the facility prior to the facility-wide terminal cleaning, 19 (38%) grew toxigenic C. difficile (most commonly ribotype 027, 79%). The terminal cleaning was effective at reducing C. difficile spores in the environment and at eradicating the ribotype 027 strain (P<.001). Using multilocus variance analysis and whole-genome sequencing, clinical and environmental strains were highly related and, in some cases, were identical.
Using molecular typing techniques, we demonstrated reduced environmental contamination with toxigenic C. difficile and the eradication of a ribotype 027 clone. These techniques may help direct infection control efforts and decrease the burden of CDI in the healthcare system.
The paper introduces a graph theory variation of the general position problem: given a graph
, determine a largest set
of vertices of
such that no three vertices of
lie on a common geodesic. Such a set is a max-gp-set of
and its size is the gp-number
. Upper bounds on
in terms of different isometric covers are given and used to determine the gp-number of several classes of graphs. Connections between general position sets and packings are investigated and used to give lower bounds on the gp-number. It is also proved that the general position problem is NP-complete.
Gender-based Violence (GBV) is costly, from a human, psychological, and economic point of view. It is estimated to represent worldwide a loss equivalent to Canada's GDP (1.5 trillion dollars). This loss is seen but not heard. GBV has taken the lives of over 200 million women worldwide, comparable in number to the population of Brazil, Pakistan, or Nigeria. GBV has destroyed the lives of millions of women and girls, who are survivors of this everyday violence. In this respect, GBV again is seen but not heard. In this speech Sandie Okoro, the General Counsel of the World Bank, reflected on her personal experience as a female international lawyer and on her journey toward achieving recognition and leadership in her field. She presented the life stories of courageous and inspirational women on every continent who have suffered extreme violence, yet who have persevered and fought ferociously for the rights of other women who suffer a similar plight. The focus was on women who have employed their efforts toward shaping and influencing the direction of international law and national jurisprudence so they can be seen and heard. Sandie's speech also homed in on the fragmentation that exists with respect to women's rights, both in terms of enforcement and implementation. She illustrated the fact that even in instances where laws tackling GBV or gender inequality exist, in certain contexts there are still severe gaps in their application. It is indisputable that the agenda to combat GBV is of paramount importance. Yet the question remains as to what our individual and collective roles in this regard ought to be. It is incumbent upon us, the legal community at large, to ensure that it is both seen and heard from this point on.
Bells are recorded in many published excavation reports from Roman sites, but there has been no previous study of the British material. This paper explores the significance of bells in the Roman world from both a ritual and a functional perspective. We create a first typology of Romano-British bells, provide an understanding of their chronology and examine any spatial and social differences in their use. Special attention is paid to bells from funerary or ritual contexts in order to explore the symbolic significance of these small objects. Bells from other parts of the Roman world are considered to provide comparisons with those from Roman Britain. The paper demonstrates that small bells were used as protective charms and may have been preferentially placed into the graves of children and young women. The paper identifies a new, probably Roman type of bell that has no parallels within the Empire, although similar pieces occur in first- and second-century graves in the Black Sea region.
Reasoning about risk, overtly or by implication, has long been part of English tort law, particularly within the analysis of whether the defendant was at fault. But in the last half-century, risk-reasoning has, to varying degrees, also permeated the analysis of other elements of liability, such as causation and damage. This chapter has two aims. First, it provides an overview of the ways in which risk-reasoning features in the elements of liability in English tort law. Second, it aims to assess the benefits or otherwise which flow from reasoning in risk-based terms.
The chapter is structured as follows. In brief, we first consider whether riskimposition can ever amount to a legal wrong in itself, before considering the role that risk plays within basic tort law concepts, such as fault, causation and damage. Two overarching conclusions emerge from our analysis. First, risk is relevant to different elements of liability for different reasons: sometimes, it partly determines the permissibility of an act in tort; sometimes, the creation of risk is a reason of fairness which forms part of the case for imposing liability upon a person; and sometimes, it acts merely epistemically as evidence in favour of some factual proposition. Second, risk-based reasoning is normatively necessary in tort law: we cannot do without it.
It should also be noted by way of introduction that English tort law is most commonly structured according to particular causes of action: that is, discrete sets of circumstances which give rise to liability. Some causes of action require relatively specific sets of facts to exist (for example, the tort of defamation, which is only concerned with protection of one particular interest: reputation), while others are broader (for example, negligence, which is concerned with unreasonable infliction of harm in breach of a duty of care). There are then defences, most of which apply to multiple causes of action. However, there is a significant debate in England and other common law countries about whether tort law should be so structured, or whether we should focus on rights that are said to underlie the particular causes of action. Indeed, there is even a vigorous debate over whether we should call the area of law ‘tort’ or ‘torts’, the plural implying that English law is more like a collection of individual torts than it is a coherent set of principles of tort.
Changes of the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) in eastern Nepal have been studied using glacier inventory data. The toe-to-headwall altitude ratios (THARs) for individual glaciers were calculated for 1992, and used to estimate the ELA in 1959 and at the end of the LIA. THAR for debris-free glaciers is found to be smaller than for debris-covered glaciers. The ELAs for debris-covered glaciers are higher than those for debris-free glaciers in eastern Nepal. There is considerable variation in the reconstructed change in ELA (ΔELA) between glaciers within specific regions and between regions. This is not related to climate gradients, but results from differences in glacier aspect: southeast- and south-facing glaciers show larger ΔELAs in eastern Nepal than north- or west-facing glaciers. The data suggest that the rate of ELA rise may have accelerated in the last few decades. The limited number of climate records from Nepal, and analyses using a simple ELA–climate model, suggest that the higher rate of the ΔELA between 1959 and 1992 is a result of increased warming that occurred after the 1970s at higher altitudes in Nepal.
Serial sectioning (also referred to as serial grinding) is used to investigate the internal structures of three-dimensional (rock or fossil). In this process series of sections are ground or cut in sequence through a specimen to reveal its internal structures. The specimen is ground down against an abrasive surface (e.g., abrasive powder on a sheet of steel or a rotating diamond wheel on a lathe) or cut with a saw blade. The details of each section can be recorded by drawing or photography. A permanent record of each surface can be made by taking acetate peels and mounting them in glass slides (Wilson and Palmer, this volume, Chapter 13). Serial section information can be digitized and reconstructed in three-dimensions using computer techniques (Chapman, this volume, Chapter 15).