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This paper proposes the novel application of three meta-heuristic optimization algorithms namely crow search algorithm, moth flame optimization, and symbiotic organism search algorithm for the synthesis of uniformly excited multiple concentric ring array antennas. The objective of this work is to minimize the sidelobe level (SLL) and maximize the peak directivity simultaneously. Three different cases are demonstrated separately with various constraints such as optimal inter-element spacing and/or optimal ring radii. Comparative study of the algorithms using common parameters such as SLL, directivity, first null beam width, best cost, and run time has been reported. Investigation results prove the superiority of case 3 over other cases in terms of directivity and SLL. This work demonstrates the potential of these algorithms.
Attrition modeling is a direct application of extant turnover research that can favorably impact workforce planning and action planning. However, while academic research enables practitioners insights into understanding turnover phenomena, there is no single document that comprehensively translates this work to give guidance as to the many practical decisions that must be made when modeling turnover, as well as how to apply psychological research to messier operational data. This focal article introduces and provides guidance on attrition modeling by outlining early considerations when planning a study, describing how to mesh theory with operational considerations when identifying turnover predictors within organizational settings, highlighting analytical strategies to model turnover, and considering how to appropriately share results. Collectively, this article serves as a guide to conducting attrition modeling within organizations and offers suggestions for future research to inform best practices.
An analytical study of the small amplitude electron acoustic double layers in a magnetized plasma consisting of superthermal electrons and ions along with cold fluid electrons is discussed. The dispersion relation allows electron acoustic waves with the frequency within electron and ion gyro-frequency in the modelled plasma. In the process of study of the nonlinear structures, the Sagdeev pseudo-potential method for small amplitude regions is employed. The existence domains for the double layers are investigated in terms of the Mach numbers of the structures and the temperature ratios of the species for different ratios of their concentration. The effects of the compositional parameters on the nature and size of the double layers are also explored and it is observed that the plasma can support both compressive and rarefactive double layers depending on the values of those parameters and the Mach numbers.
Germany – to start with the result of this report – was correctly placed by the editors of this volume in the group of legal systems which follow a prohibitive approach towards surrogacy. Most of the questions posed in the questionnaire for the national reports have to be answered in the negative: No, there are no specific legal rules dealing with surrogacy, apart from criminal law provisions which ban surrogacy (see below Section 2.1.). No, there is no authority set up to oversee surrogacy in Germany, except the public prosecutor which will start criminal proceedings if he or she finds out that there has been a case of surrogacy in Germany. And no, there is, as far as I can see, no relevant statistical data on the number of surrogate births in Germany or the number of surrogacy arrangements undertaken by German citizens in another jurisdiction. Interestingly, the official annual criminal statistics of the Federal Ministry of the Interior, which counts with German efficiency all criminal offences committed on German soil, do not specifically mention, at least not in the last years, any violations of the provisions banning surrogacy. It appears that criminalising surrogacy has restrained the medical profession from implementing surrogacy arrangements in Germany. Doctors, of course, face losing their medical licence if found violating the provisions against surrogacy, and surrogacy without medical assistance is rather difficult. The surrogacy hostile attitude of German law can mainly be explained by the fact that the pertinent provisions date back to the beginning of the 1990s and reflect the ethical, scientific and political debates of the 1980s.
SURROGACY ARRANGEMENTS IN GENERAL
THE ILLEGALITY OF SURROGACY IN GERMANY
Therefore, the starting point of a report on the German law of surrogacy has to be criminal law. German criminal law tackles surrogacy not directly but rather indirectly from two different angles, outside general criminal law, by special legislation.
First and foremost, most reproduction techniques required for a successful surrogacy are forbidden by the provisions of the Embryonenschutzgesetz (‘ESchG’), the German Act for the protection of gametes.
We demonstrate high performance zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with low operation voltage, small channel length and low parasitic capacitance. Both the zinc tin oxide and the high-k dielectric, ZrO2, were solution processed by sol-gel methods. A self-aligned process was employed to minimize the parasitic capacitance. The transistors with a channel length of 8 μm operate at 5 V and have a saturation mobility of 2.5 cm2/V·s and an on/off ratio of 5.9×106. Gate-induced surface relief has been found to have strong effect on the performance of the active layer.
The Infectious Diseases and Beliaghata General Hospital, Kolkata, India witnessed a sudden increase in admissions of diarrhoea cases during the first 2 weeks of August 2015 following heavy rainfall. This prompted us to investigate the event. Cases were recruited through hospital-based surveillance along with the collection of socio-demographic characteristics and clinical profile using a structured questionnaire. Stool specimens were tested at bacteriological laboratory of the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED), Kolkata. Admission of 3003 diarrhoea cases, clearly indicated occurrence of outbreak in Kolkata municipal area as it was more than two standard deviation of the mean number (911; s.d. = 111) of diarrhoea admissions during the same period in previous 7 years. Out of 164 recruited cases, 25% were under-5 children. Organisms were isolated from 80 (49%) stool specimens. Vibrio cholerae O1 was isolated from 50 patients. Twenty-eight patients had this organism as the sole pathogen. Among 14 infants, five had cholera. All V. cholerae O1 isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, followed by co-trimoxazole (96%), streptomycin (92%), but sensitive to fluroquinolones. We confirmed the occurrence of a cholera outbreak in Kolkata during August 2015 due to V. cholerae O1 infection, where infants were affected.
Get to grips with the fundamental optical and optoelectronic properties of nanostructures. This comprehensive guide makes a wide variety of modern topics accessible, and includes up-to-date material on the optical properties of monolayer crystals, plasmonics, nanophotonics, UV quantum well lasers, and wide bandgap materials and heterostructures. The unified, multidisciplinary approach makes it ideal for those in disciplines spanning nanoscience, physics, materials science, and optical, electrical and mechanical engineering. Building on work first presented in Quantum Heterostructures (Cambridge, 1999), this volume draws on years of research and teaching experience. Rigorous coverage of basic principles makes it an excellent resource for senior undergraduates, and detailed mathematical derivations illuminate concepts for graduate students, researchers and professional engineers. The examples with solutions included in the text and end-of-chapter problems allows the students to use this text to enhance their understanding.