Resnik, R. Intrauterine growth restriction. Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 99: 490–6.
Levine, TA, Grunau, RE, McAuliffe, FM, Pinnamaneni, R, Foran, A, Alderdice, FA. Early childhood neurodevelopment after intrauterine growth restriction: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2015; 135: 126–41.
Barker, DJP. Adult consequences of fetal growth restriction. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 49: 270–83.
Gaillard, R, Steegers, EAP, de Jongste, JC, Hofman, A, Jaddoe, VWV. Tracking of fetal growth characteristics during different trimesters and the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Int J Epidemiol. 2014; 43: 1140–53.
Gardosi, J, Kady, SM, McGeown, P, Francis, A, Tonks, A. Classification of stillbirth by relevant condition at death (ReCoDe): population based cohort study. BMJ. 2005; 331: 1113.
Partap, U, Sovio, U, Smith, GC. Fetal growth and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth in a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women. Am J Epidemiol. 2016; 184: 110–19.
Lees, C, Marlow, N, Arabin, B, Bilardo, CM, Brezinka, C, et al. Perinatal morbidity and mortality in early-onset fetal growth restriction: cohort outcomes of the Trial of Randomized Umbilical and Fetal Flow in Europe (TRUFFLE). Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 42: 400–8.
Walker, DM, Marlow, N. Neurocognitive outcome following fetal growth restriction. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008; 93: F322–5.
Barker, DJP, Godfrey, KM, Gluckman, PD, Harding, JE, Owens, JA, Robinson, JS. Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet. 1993; 341: 938–41.
Smith, GC, Wood, AM, White, IR, Pell, JP, Hattie, J. Birth weight and the risk of cardiovascular disease in the maternal grandparents. Am J Epidemiol. 2010; 171: 736–44.
Smith, GCS, Smith, MFS, McNay, MB, Fleming, JEE. First-trimester growth and the risk of low birth weight. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339: 1817–22.
Hadlock, FP, Harrist, RB, Sharman, RS, Deter, RL, Park, SK. Estimation of fetal weight with the use of head, body and femur measurements: A prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985; 151: 333–7.
Sovio, U, White, IR, Dacey, A, Pasuparthy, D, Smith, GCS. Screening for fetal growth restriction with universal third trimester ultrasonography in nulliparous women in the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2015; 386: 2089–97.
Clausson, B, Gardosi, J, Francis, A, Cnattingius, S. Perinatal outcome in SGA births defined by customised versus population-based birthweight standards. BJOG. 2001; 108 : 830–4.
Carberry, AE, Gordon, A, Bond, DM, Hyett, J, Raynes-Greenow, CH, Jeffery, HE. Customised versus population-based growth charts as a screening tool for detecting small for gestational age infants in low-risk pregnant women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; 5: CD008549.
Iliodromiti, S, Mackay, DF, Smith, GCS, Pell, JP, Sattar, N, Lawlor, DA, et al. Customised and noncustomised birth weight centiles and prediction of stillbirth and infant mortality and morbidity: a cohort study of 979,912 term singleton pregnancies in Scotland. PLoS Med. 2017; 14: e1002228
Martin, AM, Bindra, R, Curcio, P, Cicero, S, Nicolaides, KH. Screening for pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction by uterine artery Doppler at 11-14 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 18: 583–6.
Smith, GC, Yu, CK, Papageorghiou, AT, Cacho, AM, Nicolaides, KH, Fetal Medicine Foundation Second Trimester Screening Group. Maternal uterine Doppler flow velocimetry and the risk of stillbirth. Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 109: 144–51.
Figueras, F, Gratacós, E. Update on the diagnosis and classification of fetal growth restriction and proposal of a stage-based management protocol. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2014; 36: 86–98.
Eixarch, E, Meler, E, Iraola, A, Illa, M, Crispi, F, Hernandez-Andrade, E, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcome in 2-year-old infants who were small-for-gestational age term fetuses with cerebral blood flow redistribution. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 32: 894–9.
Khalil, A, Morales-Roselló, J, Townsend, R, Morlando, M, Papageorghiou, A, Bhide, A, et al. Value of third-trimester cerebroplacental ratio and uterine artery Doppler indices as predictors of stillbirth and perinatal loss. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 47: 74–80.
Vollgraff Heidweiller-Schreurs, CA, De Boer, MA, Heymans, MW, Schoonmade, LJ, Bossuyt, PMM, Mol, BWJ, et al. Prognostic accuracy of cerebroplacental ratio and middle cerebral artery Doppler for adverse perinatal outcome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 51: 313–22.
Morris, RK, Selman, TJ, Verma, M, Robson, SC, Kleijnen, J, Khan, KS. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the test accuracy of ductus venosus Doppler to predict compromise of fetal/neonatal wellbeing in high risk pregnancies with placental insufficiency. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010; 152: 3–12.
Lees, CC, Marlow, N, vas Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A, Arabin, B, Bilardo, CM, Brezinka, C, et al. 2 year neurodevelopmental and intermediate perinatal outcomes in infants with very preterm fetal growth restriction (TRUFFLE): a randomised trial. Lancet. 2015; 385: 2162–72.
Gaccioli, F, Aye, ILMH, Sovio, U, Charnock-Jones, DS, Smith, GCS. Screening for fetal growth restriction using fetal biometry combined with maternal biomarkers. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 218: S725–37.
Smith, GC, Stenhouse, EJ, Crossley, JA, Aitken, DA, Cameron, AD, Connor, JM. Early pregnancy levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and the risk of intrauterine growth restriction, premature birth, preeclampsia and stillbirth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 1762–7.
Dugoff, L, Hobbins, JC, Malone, FD, Vidaver, J, Sullivan, L, Canick, JA, et al. Quad screen as a predictor of adverse pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 106: 260–7.
McCowan, LME, Thompson, JMD, Taylor, RS, Baker, PN, North, RA, Poston, L, et al. Prediction of small for gestational age infants in healthy nulliparous women using clinical and ultrasound risk factors combined with early pregnancy biomarkers. PLoS One. 2017; 12: e0169311.
Smith, GC, Shah, I, Crossley, JA, Aitken, DA, Pell, JP, Nelson, SM, et al. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and alpha-fetoprotein and prediction of adverse perinatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 107: 161–6.
Lesmes, C, Gallo, DM, Gonzalez, R, Poon, LC, Nicolaides, KH. Prediction of small-for-gestational-age neonates: screening by maternal serum biochemical markers at 19–24 weeks. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 46: 341–9.
Karagiannis, G, Akolekar, R, Sarquis, R, Wright, D, Nicolaides, KH. Prediction of small-for-gestation neonates from biophysical and biochemical markers at 11–13 weeks. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2011; 29: 148–54.
Valiño, N, Giunta, G, Gallo, DM, Akolekar, R, Nicolaides, KH. Biophysical and biochemical markers at 30–34 weeks’ gestation in the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 47: 194–202.
Valiño, N, Giunta, G, Gallo, DM, Akolekar, R, Nicolaides, KH. Biophysical and biochemical markers at 35–37 weeks’ gestation in the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 47: 203–9.
Cleaton, MAM, Dent, CL, Howard, M, Corish, JA, Gutteridge, I, Sovio, U, et al. Fetus-derived DLK1 is required for maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy and is associated with fetal growth restriction. Nat Genet. 2016; 48: 1473–80.
Hutcheon, JA, Zhang, X, Platt, RW, Cnattingius, S, Kramer, MS. The case against customised birthweight standards. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2011; 25: 11–16.
Gaccioli, F, Sovio, U, Cook, E, Hund, M, Charnock-Jones, DS, Smith, GCS. Screening for fetal growth restriction using ultrasound and the sFLT1:PlGF ratio in a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018; 2: 569–81.
Duley, L, Henderson-Smart, DJ, Meher, S, King, JF. Antiplatelet agents for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; 2: CD004659.
Groom, KM, McCowan, LM, Mackay, LK, Lee, AC, Said, JM, Kane, SC, et al. Enoxaparin for the prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction in women with a history: a randomized trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 216: e1–296.
Sharp, A, Cornforth, C, Jackson, R, Harrold, J, Turner, MA, Kenny, LC, et al. Maternal sildenafil for severe fetal growth restriction (STRIDER): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018; 2: 93–102.
Wyrwoll, CS, Noble, J, Thomson, A, Tesic, D, Miller, MR, Rog-Zielinska, EA, et al. Pravastatin ameliorates placental vascular defects, fetal growth, and cardiac function in a model of glucocorticoid excess. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113: 6265–70.
Brownfoot, FC, Tong, S, Hannan, NJ, Binder, NK, Walker, SP, Cannon, P, et al. Effects of pravastatin on human placenta, endothelium, and women with severe preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2015; 66: 687–97.
Brownfoot, FC, Hastie, R, Hannan, NJ, Cannon, P, Tuohey, L, Parry, LJ, et al. Metformin as a prevention and treatment for preeclampsia: effects on soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin secretion and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 214: e1–356.
Nawaz, FH, Khalid, R, Naru, T, Rizvi, J. Does continuous use of metformin throughout pregnancy improve pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome? J Obstet Gynecol Res. 2008; 34: 832–7.
Onda, K, Tong, S, Beard, S, Binder, N, Muto, M, Senadheera, SN, et al. Proton pump inhibitors decrease soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin secretion, decrease hypertension and rescue endothelial dysfunction. Hypertension. 2017; 69: 457–68.
Miller, SL, Yawno, T, Alers, NO, Castillo-Melendez, M, Supramaniam, VG, van Zyl, N, et al. Antenatal antioxidant treatment with melatonin to decrease newborn neurodevelopmental deficits and brain injury caused by fetal growth restriction. J Pineal Res. 2014; 56: 283–94.
Chang, EY, Barbosa, E, Paintila, MK, Singh, A, Singh, I. The use of N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of hypertension in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure model for preeclampsia in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 193: 952–6.
Roes, EM, Raijmakers, MT, de Boo, TM, Zusterzeel, PL, Merkus, HM, Peters, WH, et al. Oral N-acetylcysteine administration does not stabilise the process of established severe preeclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 127: 61–7.
Soothill, PW, Nicolaides, KH, Bilardo, CM, Campbell, S. Relation of fetal hypoxia in growth retardation to mean blood velocity in the fetal aorta. Lancet. 1986; 2: 1118–20.
GRIT Study Group. A randomised trial of timed delivery for the compromised preterm fetus: short-term outcomes and Bayesian interpretation. BJOG. 2003; 110: 27–32.
Walker, DM, Marlow, N, Upstone, L, Gross, H, Hornbuckle, J, Vail, A, et al. The Growth Restriction Intervention Trial: long-term outcomes in a randomized trial of timing of delivery in fetal growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 2014: e1–9.
Morris, RK, Malin, G, Robson, SC, Kleijnen, J, Zamora, J, Khan, KS. Fetal umbilical artery Doppler to predict compromise of fetal/neonatal wellbeing in a high-risk population: systematic review and bivariate meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 37: 135–42.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin no. 134: fetal growth restriction. Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 121: 1122–33.
Whitehead, CL, Walker, SP, Mendis, S, Lappas, M, Tong, S. Quantifying mRNA coding growth genes in the maternal circulation to detect fetal growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 209: e1–9.
Wӧlter, M, Rӧwer, C, Koy, C, Rath, W, Pecks, U, Glocker, MO. Proteoform profiling of peripheral blood serum proteins from pregnant women provides a molecular IUGR signature. J Proteomics. 2016; 149: 44–52.
Maitre, L, Fthenou, E, Athersuch, T, Coen, M, Toledano, MB, Holmes, E, et al. Urinary metabolic profiles in early pregnancy are associated with preterm birth and fetal growth restriction in the Rhea mother–child cohort study. BMC Med. 2014; 12: 10.
Pantichob, N, Widdows, KL, Crocker, IP, Johnstone, ED, Please, CP, Sibley, CP, et al. Computational modelling of placental amino acid transfer as an integrated system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1858: 1451–61.
Chappell, LC, David, AL. Improving the Pipeline for Developing and Testing Pharmacological Treatments in Pregnancy. PLoS Med. 2016; 13: e1002161.
King, A, Ndifon, C, Lui, S, Widdows, K, Kotamraju, VR, Agemy, L, et al. Tumor-homing peptides as tools for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta. Sci Adv. 2016; 2: e1600349.
Cureton, N, Korotkova, I, Baker, B, Greenwood, S, Wareing, M, Kotamraji, VR, et al. Selective targeting of a novel vasodilator to the uterine vasculature to treat impaired uteroplacental perfusion in pregnancy. Theranostics. 2017; 7: 3715–31.
Spencer, R, Ambler, G, Brodszki, J, Diemert, A, Figueras, F, Gratacós, E, et al. EVERREST prospective study: a 6-year prospective study to define the clinical and biological characteristics of pregnancies affected by severe early onset fetal growth restriction. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017; 17: 43.