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Baseline data on local status of threatened species are often limited, and alternative information sources such as local ecological knowledge (LEK) have potential to provide conservation insights but require critical evaluation. We assess the usefulness of LEK to generate conservation evidence for the Hainan Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron katsumatae, a poorly known threatened island galliform. Interview surveys in rural communities across eight forested landscapes on Hainan provided a new dataset of sightings of Peacock-pheasants and other galliforms. Fewer respondents had seen Peacock-pheasants compared to other species across most landscapes, although Peacock-pheasant sightings showed significant across-landscape variation, with substantially more total and recent sightings from Yinggeling National Nature Reserve. However, validation of interview data with camera trapping data from Houmiling Provincial Nature Reserve, a landscape with few reported sightings, suggests a more optimistic possible status for Peacock-pheasants, which were detected as frequently as Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus and Silver Pheasant Lophura nycthemera during systematic camera trap placement. Hainan Peacock-pheasant sighting rates might be influenced by various factors (e.g. restricted local access to forests), with absolute abundance possibly greater than expected from limited sightings. Conversely, relative across-landscape abundance patterns from LEK are likely to be valid, as similar detection biases exist across surveyed landscapes.
The subduction model of the Neo-Tethys during the Early Cretaceous has always been a controversial topic, and the scarcity of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the southern part of the Gangdese batholith is the main cause of this debate. To address this issue, this article presents new zircon U–Pb chronology, zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope data for the Early Cretaceous quartz diorite dykes with adakite affinity in Liuqiong, Gongga. Zircon U–Pb dating of three samples yielded ages of c. 141–137 Ma, indicating that the Liuqiong quartz diorite was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. The whole-rock geochemical analysis shows that the Liuqiong quartz diorite is enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and is depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), which are related to slab subduction. Additionally, the Liuqiong quartz diorite has high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr contents, high Sr/Y ratios and low heavy rare-earth element (HREE) and Y contents, which are compatible with typical adakite signatures. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the Liuqiong adakite range from 0.705617 to 0.705853, and the whole-rock ϵNd(t) values vary between +5.78 and +6.24. The zircon ϵHf(t) values vary from +11.5 to +16.4. Our results show that the Liuqiong adakite magma was derived from partial melting of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate (mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) + sediment + fluid), with some degree of subsequent peridotite interaction within the overlying mantle wedge. Combining regional data, we favour the interpretation that the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust was subducted at a low angle beneath the Gangdese during the Early Cretaceous.
This study aimed to investigate the organization, workload, and psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers from the domestic Medical Aid Teams (MATs) sent to Wuhan in China.
Leaders and members of MATs involved in the care for COVID-19 patients were invited to participate in a study by completing 2 separate self-report questionnaires from April 1 to 24, 2020.
A total of 9 MAT leaders were involved and 464 valid questionnaires were collected from 140 doctors and 324 nurses. Mean age of the doctors and nurses were 39.34 ± 6.70 (26∼58 years old) and 31.88 ± 5.29 (21∼52 years old), with 72 (15.5%) being males. Nurses were identified as an independent risk factor (HR 1.898; P = 0.001) for a day working time in the multivariate analysis. The proportions of psychological consulting received among nurses were higher than those among doctors (49.7 vs 30.0%, P < 0.001). More than 50% of the anesthetists and emergency doctors who have received psychological consulting thought that it was effective according to self-evaluation.
This study focused on healthcare workers’ situation during the early period of the pandemic. Nurses worked longer than doctors. The effectiveness of psychological consulting depends on the physicians’ specialties and the working conditions of the nurses and psychological consulting targeting different specialties need to be improved.
The shock-induced evolution of a gas layer with two fast/slow interfaces is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Specifically, the gas layer is located between a lighter gas and a heavier gas, forming a light/medium/heavy (LMH) configuration. Linear stability analysis is utilised to derive a new analytical model to quantify the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) on the two interfaces of such an A/B/C-type fluid layer. Three quasi-one-dimensional (1-D) LMH fluid layers with different initial layer thicknesses are generated to study the wave patterns and interface motions. A general 1-D theory is established to describe the motions of the shock/rarefaction waves reverberating inside the fluid layer and the displacements of the two interfaces. Six quasi-2-D LMH fluid layers with diverse initial layer-thickness and amplitude combinations are created to explore the hydrodynamic instabilities of the two interfaces. It is found that the interface coupling significantly influences the interface evolution, even resulting in an abnormal phase reversal of a shocked fast/slow interface if the two interfaces are anti-phase and the initial layer is very thin. The specific conditions for the abnormal phase reversal and the instability freeze out are deduced. Moreover, the additional RMI (or Rayleigh–Taylor stabilisation) imposed by the shock (or rarefaction waves) reverberating inside an LMH fluid layer on the first (or second) interface is quantified. It is proved that the reverberating waves inside an LMH fluid layer stabilise the two interfaces. Finally, a nonlinear model is obtained by incorporating the nonlinearity effect into the linear model, which well describes the perturbation growths of the two interfaces in a later regime.
Accumulating evidence suggests that supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω−3 PUFAs) was associated with reduction in risk of major cardiovascular events. This meta-analysis was to systematically evaluate whether daily supplementation and accumulated intake of ω−3 PUFAs is associated with improved left ventricular (LV) remodeling in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Articles were obtained from Pubmed, Clinical key and Web of Science from inception to January 1 in 2021, and a total of 12 trials involving 2162 participants were eligible for inclusion. The sources of study heterogeneity were explained by I2 statistic and subgroup analysis. Compared with placebo groups, ω−3 PUFAs supplementation improved LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (11 trials, 2112 participants, WMD=2.52, 95%CI 1.25 to 3.80, I2=87.8%) and decreased LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) (5 studies, 905 participants, WMD=−3.22, 95%CI −3.67 to −2.77, I2=0.0%) by using the continuous variables analysis. Notably, the high accumulated ω−3 PUFAs dosage groups (≥600g) presented a prominent improvement in LVEF, while the low and middle accumulated dosage (≤300g and 300-600g) showed no effects on LVEF. In addition, ω−3 PUFAs supplementation decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor−α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hypersensitive-c-reactive protein (Hs-CRP). Therefore, the present meta-analysis demonstrated that ω−3 PUFAs consumption was associated with a substantial improvement of LV function and remodeling in patients subjected to CHF. The accumulated dosage of ω-3 PUFAs intake is vital for its cardiac protective role.
This survey examined and compared the disaster perception and preparedness of 2421 residents with and without chronic disease in Shenzhen, China.
The participants were recruited and were asked to complete a survey in 2018.
Three types of disasters considered most likely to happen in Shenzhen were: typhoons (73.5% vs 74.9%), major transport accidents (61.5% vs 64.7%), and major fires (60.8% vs 63.0%). Only 5.9% and 5% of them, respectively, considered infectious diseases pandemics to be likely. There were significant differences between those with and without chronic disease in disaster preparedness, only a small percentage could be considered to have prepared for disaster (20.7% vs 14.5%). Logistic regression analyses showed that those aged 65 or older (odds ratio [OR] = 2.76), who had attained a Master’s degree or higher (OR = 2.0), and with chronic disease (OR = 1.38) were more prepared for disasters.
Although participants with chronic disease were better prepared than those without, overall, Shenzhen residents were inadequately prepared for disasters and in need of public education.
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has shown tremendous potential in rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). In the current study, we performed WGS on drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from Shanghai (n = 137) and Russia (n = 78). We aimed to characterise the underlying and high-frequency novel drug-resistance-conferring mutations, and also create valuable combinations of resistance mutations with high predictive sensitivity to predict multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) phenotype using a bootstrap method. Most strains belonged to L2.2, L4.2, L4.4, L4.5 and L4.8 lineages. We found that WGS could predict 82.07% of phenotypically drug-resistant domestic strains. The prediction sensitivity for rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB), streptomycin (STR), ofloxacin (OFL), amikacin (AMK) and capreomycin (CAP) was 79.71%, 86.30%, 76.47%, 88.37%, 83.33%, 70.00% and 70.00%, respectively. The mutation combination with the highest sensitivity for MDR prediction was rpoB S450L + rpoB H445A/P + katG S315T + inhA I21T + inhA S94A, with a sensitivity of 92.17% (0.8615, 0.9646), and the mutation combination with highest sensitivity for XDR prediction was rpoB S450L + katG S315T + gyrA D94G + rrs A1401G, with a sensitivity of 92.86% (0.8158, 0.9796). The molecular information presented here will be of particular value for the rapid clinical detection of MDR- and XDR-TB isolates through laboratory diagnosis.
Shock-induced light-fluid-layer evolution is firstly investigated experimentally and theoretically. Specifically, three quasi-one-dimensional helium gas layers with different layer thicknesses are generated to study the wave patterns and interface motions. Six quasi-two-dimensional helium gas layers with diverse layer thicknesses and amplitude combinations are created to explore the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability of a light-fluid layer. Due to the multiple reflected shocks reverberating inside a light-fluid layer, the speeds of the two interfaces gradually converge, and the layer thickness saturates eventually. A general one-dimensional theory is adopted to describe the two interfaces’ motions and the layer thickness variations. It is found that, for the first interface, the end time of its phase reversal determines the influence of the reflected shocks on it. However, the reverberated shocks indeed lead to the second interface being more unstable. When the two interfaces are initially in phase, and the initial fluid layer is very thin, the two interfaces’ spike heads collide and stabilise the two interfaces. Linear and nonlinear models are successfully adopted by considering the interface-coupling effect and the reverberated shocks to predict the two interfaces’ perturbation growths in all regimes. The interfacial instability of a light-fluid layer is quantitatively compared with that of a heavy-fluid layer. It is concluded that the kind of waves reverberating inside a fluid layer significantly affects the fluid-layer evolution.
Shock-induced fluid-layer evolution has attracted much attention but remains a challenge mainly because the coupling between layers remains unknown. Linear solutions are first derived to quantify the layer-coupling effect on the shocked dual-layer evolution. Next, the motions of the waves and interfaces of a dual layer are examined based on the one-dimensional gas dynamics theory. Shock-tube experiments on the dual-layer, single-layer and single-mode interface are then performed to validate the linear solutions and investigate the reverberating waves inside the layers. It is proved that the layer-coupling effect destabilises the dual layer, especially when the initial layers are thin, and the reverberating waves impose additional instabilities on all interfaces. Our findings suggest that a slow/fast configuration with a large thickness in a dual layer can facilitate the suppression of hydrodynamic instabilities.
This study aimed to determine the risk factors for chronic diseases and to identify the potential influencing mechanisms from the perspectives of lifestyle and dietary factors. The findings could provide updated and innovative evidence for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.
A cross-sectional study.
1005 adults from Yangpu district of Shanghai participated in the study, and responded to questions on dietary habits, lifestyle and health status.
Residents suffering from chronic diseases accounted for about 34·99 % of the respondents. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, diet quality, amount of exercise and tea drinking were related to chronic diseases. Age > 60 and overeating (Diet Balance Index total score > 0) had negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease, while overexercise (Physical Activity Index > 17·1) and tea drinking had negative multiplicative interaction and negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease. Diet quality, physical activity and tea drinking were incomplete mediators of the relationship between types of medical insurance residents participating in and chronic diseases.
The residents in Yangpu District of Shanghai have a high prevalence of chronic diseases. Strengthening access of residents to health education and interventions to prevent chronic diseases and cultivating healthy eating and exercise habits of residents are crucial. The nutritional environment of the elderly population should be considered, and the reimbursement level of different types of medical insurance should be designed reasonably to improve the accessibility of medical and health services and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
A magnetically controlled spiral capsule robot is designed. When the robot is running in a pipe filled with mucus, computational fluid dynamics is used to analyze the fluid field (velocity, streamlines, and vorticity) in the pipe, and particle image velocimetry is used to measure the above fluid field surrounding the robot. The measured fluid field is basically similar to the numerical result. The relationship between the operating parameters of the robot and the performance of the robot is further calculated and analyzed. The results show that the resistance to the robot in the forward direction, average turbulent intensity of the fluid surrounding the robot, and maximum fluid pressure to the pipe wall are proportional to the robotic translational speed. The resisting moment of the robot in the forward direction, average turbulent intensity of the fluid surrounding the robot, and maximum fluid pressure to the pipe wall are proportional to the robotic rotational speed.
Shock-tube experiments on eight kinds of two-dimensional multi-mode air–SF$_6$ interface with controllable initial conditions are performed to examine the dependence of perturbation growth on initial spectra. We deduce and demonstrate experimentally that the amplitude development of each mode is influenced by the mode-competition effect from quasi-linear stages. It is confirmed that the mode-competition effect is closely related to initial spectra, including the wavenumber, the phase and the initial amplitude of constituent modes. By considering both the mode-competition effect and the high-order harmonics effect, a nonlinear model is established based on initial spectra to predict the amplitude growth of each individual mode. The nonlinear model is validated by the present experiments and data in the literature by considering diverse initial spectra, shock intensities and density ratios. Moreover, the nonlinear model is successfully extended based on the superposition principle to predict the growths of the total perturbation width and the bubble/spike width from quasi-linear to nonlinear stages.
Emerging functional imaging studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with aberrant spatiotemporal interaction which may result in aberrant global and local dynamic properties.
We investigated the dynamic functional connectivity (FC) by using instantaneous phase method based on Hilbert transform to detect abnormal spatiotemporal interaction in schizophrenia. Based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, two independent datasets were included, with 114 subjects from COBRE [51 schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 63 healthy controls (HCs)] and 96 from OpenfMRI (36 SZ and 60 HCs). Phase differences and instantaneous coupling matrices were firstly calculated at all time points by extracting instantaneous parameters. Global [global synchrony and intertemporal closeness (ITC)] and local dynamic features [strength of FC (sFC) and variability of FC (vFC)] were compared between two groups. Support vector machine (SVM) was used to estimate the ability to discriminate two groups by using all aberrant features.
We found SZ had lower global synchrony and ITC than HCs on both datasets. Furthermore, SZ had a significant decrease in sFC but an increase in vFC, which were mainly located at prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal cortex and visual cortex or temporal cortex and hippocampus, forming significant dynamic subnetworks. SVM analysis revealed a high degree of balanced accuracy (85.75%) on the basis of all aberrant dynamic features.
SZ has worse overall spatiotemporal stability and extensive FC subnetwork lesions compared to HCs, which to some extent elucidates the pathophysiological mechanism of schizophrenia, providing insight into time-variation properties of patients with other mental illnesses.
As a neuroprogressive illness, depression is accompanied by brain structural abnormality that extends to many brain regions. However, the progressive structural alteration pattern remains unknown.
To elaborate the progressive structural alteration of depression according to illness duration, we recruited 195 never-treated first-episode patients with depression and 130 healthy controls (HCs) undergoing T1-weighted MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry method was adopted to measure gray matter volume (GMV) for each participant. Patients were first divided into three stages according to the length of illness duration, then we explored stage-specific GMV alterations and the causal effect relationship between them using causal structural covariance network (CaSCN) analysis.
Overall, patients with depression presented stage-specific GMV alterations compared with HCs. Regions including the hippocampus, the thalamus and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) presented GMV alteration at onset of illness. Then as the illness advanced, others regions began to present GMV alterations. These results suggested that GMV alteration originated from the hippocampus, the thalamus and vmPFC then expanded to other brain regions. The results of CaSCN analysis revealed that the hippocampus and the vmPFC corporately exerted causal effect on regions such as nucleus accumbens, the precuneus and the cerebellum. In addition, GMV alteration in the hippocampus was also potentially causally related to that in the dorsolateral frontal gyrus.
Consistent with the neuroprogressive hypothesis, our results reveal progressive morphological alteration originating from the vmPFC and the hippocampus and further elucidate possible details about disease progression of depression.
Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the aetiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) as well as 95 % CI for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8·96 years (interquartile range 8·29–9·53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that the regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0·80 (95 % CI, 0·75, 0·85; P < 0·001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HR for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0·84 (0·73, 0·96), 0·84 (0·77, 0·92) and 0·71 (0·62, 0·80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (Pfor interaction = 0·078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14 % to 84 % through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation.
Sarcopenic obesity is regarded as a risk factor for the progression and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Since male sex is a risk factor for NAFLD and skeletal muscle mass markedly varies between the sexes, we examined whether sex influences the association between appendicular skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SVR), that is, an index of skeletal muscle mass combined with abdominal obesity, and the histological severity of NAFLD. The SVR was measured by bioelectrical impedance in a cohort of 613 (M/F = 443/170) Chinese middle-aged individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Multivariable logistic regression and subgroup analyses were used to test the association between SVR and the severity of NAFLD (i.e. non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or NASH with the presence of any stage of liver fibrosis). NASH was identified by a NAFLD activity score ≥5, with a minimum score of 1 for each of its categories. The presence of fibrosis was classified as having a histological stage ≥1. The SVR was inversely associated with NASH in men (adjusted OR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·92, P = 0·017 for NASH, adjusted OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·99, P = 0·043 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis), but not in women (1·47 (95 % CI 0·76, 2·83), P = 0·25 for NASH, and 1·45 (95 % CI 0·74, 2·83), P = 0·28 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis). There was a significant interaction for sex and SVR (Pinteraction = 0·017 for NASH and Pinteraction = 0·033 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis). Our findings show that lower skeletal muscle mass combined with abdominal obesity is strongly associated with the presence of NASH only in men.
Fluidization represents an important particulate and multiphase operation, featuring dynamic interactions between a continuum fluid and a discrete phase. It is typically realized in a vertical column or pipe. Various fluidization regimes occur, depending on the property of the fluidizing particles, flow rate, and external field force applied. This chapter describes gas–solid fluidization represented by dense-phase fluidized beds and circulating fluidized beds. Fluidization under the gas–liquid–solid flow conditions is also illustrated with the inclusion of its limiting condition of two-phase flows. Basic topics of fluidization include the fluidization regime classification and characteristics, phase-interaction mechanisms in the dense and dilute phase fluidization as well as nanoparticle fluidization, fluidized bed systems, and multiscaled transport phenomena, such as clustering, agglomeration, breakup, and coalescence of dispersed particles or bubbles. For the numerical modeling of fluidization systems, the Eulerian–Eulerian modeling is extensively used and often coupled with the DEM models or kinetic theory models for collision-induced transport in the dispersed phase.
Multiphase pipe flows are represented by gas–solid pneumatic transport and solid–liquid slurry transport in pipes, and gas–liquid pipe flows with either gas or liquid as the continuous phase. Fully developed multiphase pipe flows can be characterized by several transport regimes with distinctively different flow patterns and phase interactions dominated by factors such as mass flow ratio of phases, density ratio of phases, pipe orientation relative to gravity direction, transport velocity of continuum phase, and sizes of pipe and particles. Basic topics include the regime classification and flow characteristics in each regime for gas–solid pneumatic transport, solid–liquid slurry transport, and gas–liquid pipe flows, critical transport conditions such as saltation and pickup velocities, mechanisms dominating the pressure drop, suspended flow characteristics in straight pipes and effects of particle loading, electrostatic charges and pipe orientation, characteristics of flow over a bend, such as roping phenomena and bend erosion, and stratified multiphase pipe flow with wavy interfaces.