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Basal bark treatment of invasive trees is an approach designed to limit damage to non-target vegetation in the vicinity, but non-target injury is still documented. No study of basal bark treatments has examined the release of herbicide residues from roots of treated plants and resulting non-target impacts. Studies were conducted in Alaska interior and coastal boreal forests on basal bark treatments with aminopyralid and triclopyr on active-growth and dormant invasive chokecherry (Prunus padus L.). The study assessed non-target damage and soil herbicide residue using a combination of visual evaluations, bioassays, and soil residue analyses. Non-target damage from herbicide residues were identified in 40% of treatments containing aminopyralid with triclopyr, 60% of treatments containing aminopyralid alone, and 5% of treatments containing only triclopyr. Laboratory studies of aminopyralid treatments to saplings isolated the effects of herbicide exudation from roots, which was found to be significant, and the magnitude was dependent on dose. Herbicide soil residues in field and laboratory experiments were quantified with analytical detection and plant bioassays. Aminopyralid soil residues were identified in 57% of field treatments receiving 8 to 60 ml of herbicide solution (2% ai) and 70% of laboratory treatments receiving 10 µl of herbicide solution (2% to 16% ai). Triclopyr residues were found from one field treatment following dosage with 28 ml of herbicide solution (18.5% ai). Anatomically, plants grown in soils associated with herbicide-treated trees, both in the field and lab, grew less dry mass than non–herbicide treated controls. This study provides the first evidence that root exudation of herbicide following basal bark treatments contributes to non-target damage of adjacent vegetation and to accumulation of soil herbicide residues. This is an important new factor for integrated pest management within basal bark treatment systems and has implications for other herbicide application types such as injections and frill, as well as determining whether root exudation is species or herbicide specific.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is proposed to exert an effect on white matter (WM) microstructure, but the limited power of previous studies made it difficult to highlight consistent patterns of change in diffusion metrics.
We initiated a multi-site mega-analysis and sought to address whether changes in WM microstructure occur following ECT.
To this end, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data (n=58) from 4 different sites were harmonized before pooling them by using ComBat, a batch-effect correction tool that removes inter-site technical variability, preserves inter-site biological variability and maximizes statistical power. Downstream statistical analyses aimed to quantify changes in Fractional anisotropy (FA), Mean Diffusivity (MD), Radial Diffusivity (RD) and Axial Diffusivity (AD), by employing whole-brain, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS).
ECT increases FA in the right splenium of the corpus callosum and the left cortico-spinal tract. Both the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus showed increases in AD. Increases in MD and RD could be observed in overlapping white matter structures of both hemispheres. Finally, responders showed significantly smaller FA values in the left forceps major and smaller AD values in the right uncinate fasciculus compared with non-responders.
This is the first and largest multi-site mega-analysis to demonstrate that ECT normalizes altered WM microstructure in important brain circuits that are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Furthermore, responders appear to present a more decreased WM integrity at baseline, which if replicated could serve as a biomarker for ECT response.
Recovery in psychotic disorders is a concept that evolved through the last decades. Thanks to the contribution of different researchers, together with the recovery movement, a switch happened from a service-based to a client-based approach towards recovery. The Dutch framework considers recovery as the interplay of symptomatic, personal, functional and societal aspects, determined by different biological, psychological, personal and social factors. Literature on this fourdimensional perspective is still scarce. In addition, even if an increased incidence of psychotic disorders has been recognized in ethnic minority populations and migrants, studies on the influence of ethnicity and migration on recovery in psychotic disorders is limited.
To write a systematic literature review on how ethnic minority status and migration history may affect symptomatic, personal, functional and societal recovery.
A systematic search of the main databases, followed by a four-step selection process to include studies comparing migrants or ethnic minority populations and the non-minoritarian/autochthonous population in terms of recovery. A qualitative, narrative summary has been performed.
Thirty-eight articles have been included. Literature is heterogeneous, focused on clinical outcomes and mostly based on data from the UK and the USA. As a common thread, ethnic minority status and migration history result to negatively influence societal, personal and, to a lower extent, clinical recovery.
Further studies based in different cultural backgrounds and focused on recovery in its multiple aspects are needed, to get a better understanding of the contextual and structural factors that affect the interaction between ethnicity, migration and recovery in psychotic disorders.
ECT is an effective treatment for depression. Beyond its therapeutic effect on mood it has a unique impact on psychomotor and cognitive symptoms.Its mechanism of action remains still unclear. To investigate this, we set out to study the brain’s response to ECT from a large-scale brain-network perspective.
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in resting-state functional connectivity following ECT at the whole brain, between-network and within-network level, in patients with a depressive episode.
Resting-state FMRI data were collected from 17 patients with depression before and after an ECT course. Using a group independent component analysis approach, we focused on four networks that are known to be affected in depression: the salience network (SN), default mode network (DMN), cognitive executive network (CEN) and a subcortical network (SCN). Clinical measures including mood, cognition and psychomotor symptoms were assessed.
ECT increased connectivity of the left CEN with the left angular gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus. An increase in left CEN within network connectivity was observed. Both the right CEN and the SCN showed increased connectivity with the precuneus. Furthermore, the anterior DMN showed increased connectivity with the left amygdala. Finally, improvement of psychomotor retardation was positively correlated with an increase of within-posterior DMN connectivity.
We demonstrate that ECT induces a significant increase of connectivity at both the whole brain and within-network level. Furthermore, we provide first evidence on the association between an increase of within posterior DMN connectivity and an improvement of psychomotor retardation, a core symptom of depression.
Quantitative plant biology is an interdisciplinary field that builds on a long history of biomathematics and biophysics. Today, thanks to high spatiotemporal resolution tools and computational modelling, it sets a new standard in plant science. Acquired data, whether molecular, geometric or mechanical, are quantified, statistically assessed and integrated at multiple scales and across fields. They feed testable predictions that, in turn, guide further experimental tests. Quantitative features such as variability, noise, robustness, delays or feedback loops are included to account for the inner dynamics of plants and their interactions with the environment. Here, we present the main features of this ongoing revolution, through new questions around signalling networks, tissue topology, shape plasticity, biomechanics, bioenergetics, ecology and engineering. In the end, quantitative plant biology allows us to question and better understand our interactions with plants. In turn, this field opens the door to transdisciplinary projects with the society, notably through citizen science.
Sheltered housing is associated with quality-of-life improvements for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). However, there are equivocal findings around safety outcomes related to this type of living condition.
We aimed to investigate raw differences in prevalence and incidence of crime victimisation in sheltered housing compared with living alone or with family; and to identify groups at high risk for victimisation, using demographic and clinical factors. We do so by reporting estimated victimisation incidents for each risk group.
A large, community-based, cross-sectional survey of 956 people with SMI completed the Dutch Crime and Victimisation Survey. Data was collected on victimisation prevalence and number of incidents in the past year.
Victimisation prevalence was highest among residents in sheltered housing (50.8%) compared with persons living alone (43%) or with family (37.8%). We found that sheltered housing was associated with increased raw victimisation incidence (incidence rate ratio: 2.80, 95% CI 2.36–3.34 compared with living with family; 1.87, 95% CI 1.59–2.20 compared with living alone). Incidence was especially high for some high-risk groups, including men, people with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and those with high levels of education. However, women reported less victimisation in sheltered housing than living alone or with family, if they also reported drug or alcohol use.
The high prevalence and incidence of victimisation among residents in sheltered housing highlights the need for more awareness and surveillance of victimisation in this population group, to better facilitate a recovery-enabling environment for residents with SMI.
Mental health (MH) service users have increased prevalence of chronic physical conditions such as cardio-respiratory diseases and diabetes. Potentially Preventable Hospitalisations (PPH) for physical health conditions are an indicator of health service access, integration and effectiveness, and are elevated in long term studies of people with MH conditions. We aimed to examine whether PPH rates were elevated in MH service users over a 12-month follow-up period more suitable for routine health indicator reporting. We also examined whether MH service users had increased PPH rates at a younger age, potentially reflecting the younger onset of chronic physical conditions.
A population-wide data linkage in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, population 7.8 million. PPH rates in 178 009 people using community MH services in 2016–2017 were compared to population rates. Primary outcomes were crude and age- and disadvantage-standardised annual PPH episode rate (episodes per 100 000 population), PPH day rate (hospital days per 100 000) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (AIRR).
MH service users had higher rates of PPH admission (AIRR 3.6, 95% CI 3.5–3.6) and a larger number of hospital days (AIRR 5.2, 95% CI 5.2–5.3) than other NSW residents due to increased likelihood of admission, more admissions per person and longer length of stay. Increases were greatest for vaccine-preventable conditions (AIRR 4.7, 95% CI 4.5–5.0), and chronic conditions (AIRR 3.7, 95% CI 3.6–3.7). The highest number of admissions and relative risks were for respiratory and metabolic conditions, including chronic obstructive airways disease (AIRR 5.8, 95% CI 5.5–6.0) and diabetic complications (AIRR 5.4, 95% CI 5.1–5.8). One-quarter of excess potentially preventable bed days in MH service users were due to vaccine-related conditions, including vaccine-preventable respiratory illness. Age-related increases in risk occurred earlier in MH service users, particularly for chronic and vaccine-preventable conditions. PPH rates in MH service users aged 20–29 were similar to population rates of people aged 60 and over. These substantial differences were not explained by socio-economic disadvantage.
PPHs for physical health conditions are substantially increased in people with MH conditions. Short term (12-month) PPH rates may be a useful lead indicator of increased physical morbidity and less accessible, integrated or effective health care. High hospitalisation rates for vaccine-preventable respiratory infections and hepatitis underline the importance of vaccination in MH service users and suggests potential benefits of prioritising this group for COVID-19 vaccination.
Emerging research highlights the importance of the timing of the onset of a depressive episode. This study examines the risk factors and psychiatric features of participants who experienced their first major depressive episode as children, teenagers or adults. This study is unique in that it emphasises the importance of examining onset of an episode during critical developmental periods.
Participants were 372 depressed outpatients who were either treated with psychotherapy (IPT or CBT) or medication as part of two separate randomised clinical trials. Participants completed a number of assessment measures including clinician ratings of DSM diagnoses. Personality was also assessed using Cloninger's (e.g., 1994) Temperament and Character Inventory.
Participants with childhood onset and teenage-onset depression had a higher number of co-morbid diagnoses and more DSM III/IV personality disorder diagnoses than those with adult-onset depression. Specifically, more participants with childhood or teenage onset depression had diagnoses of avoidant and borderline personality disorder. Women who had childhood onset depression were over three times more likely to have attempted suicide compared to other participants. Participants with childhood onset depression were also more likely to report being threatened with abuse, have experienced psychological abuse and reported more abuse incidents. Age of onset was also associated with a number of differences in temperament and character.
This research emphasises the significance of understanding the age of onset of a depressive episode. Depressive episodes that begin in childhood/adolescence are associated with higher co-morbidity and greater personality dysfunction.
In 2008, the UNHCR issued a convention on the rights of persons with disability. Since then, many countries were visited by the High Commissioner for Human Rights. In a number of countries, for example Germany and the Netherlands, mental health legislation was considered unsatisfactory and either regional variations in procedures or new legislation was drafted. In Germany, the final decision after different admission procedures is always made by a judge. In the Netherlands, detention on mental health ground with involuntary admission is decided by a Governmental administrator working for the local Major. In England and Wales, it is decided by three medical/psychiatric professionals. Currently, the Netherlands is drafting a law following the main principles of the Anglo-Saxon law. In Germany, all federal states are currently adopting their mental health laws to fulfil requirements of the Constitutional Court, which decided that coercive treatment is only admissible under very strict conditions after a judge's decision. Studies show the Dutch legislation is associated with higher seclusion rates, in numbers, and duration. Moreover, recent German findings show in a recent period when involuntary medication was not admissible, inpatient violence and coercive measures increased significantly. In this symposium, we discuss the several laws and regulations of four countries (Wales, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands), now and in the near future. Each presentation of a certain countries’ regulations is followed by a description of standard figures of the country, first by an expert in the respective country's law, and consequently by an expert in nationwide or regional figures.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Subspecialisation is increasingly a fundamental part of the contemporary practice of medicine. However, little is known about how medical trainees learn in the modern era, and particularly in growing and relatively new subspecialties, such as adult CHD. The purpose of this study was to assess institutional-led and self-directed learning strategies of adult CHD fellows.
This international, cross-sectional online survey was conducted by the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease and consisted primarily of categorical questions and Likert rating scales. All current or recent (i.e., those within 2 years of training) fellows who reported training in adult CHD (within adult/paediatric cardiology training or within subspecialty fellowships) were eligible.
A total of 75 fellows participated in the survey: mean age: 34 ± 5; 35 (47%) female. Most adult CHD subspecialty fellows considered case-based teaching (58%) as “very helpful”, while topic-based teaching was considered “helpful” (67%); p = 0.003 (favouring case-based). When facing a non-urgent clinical dilemma, fellows reported that they were more likely to search for information online (58%) than consult a faculty member (29%) or textbook (3%). Many (69%) fellows use their smartphones at least once daily to search for information during regular clinical work.
Fellows receiving adult CHD training reported a preference for case-based learning and frequent use of online material and smartphones. These findings may be incorporated into the design and enhancement of fellowships and development of online training resources.
Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is associated with CVD and is mainly genetically determined. Studies suggest a role of dietary fatty acids (FA) in the regulation of Lp(a); however, no studies have investigated the association between plasma Lp(a) concentration and n-6 FA. We aimed to investigate whether plasma Lp(a) concentration was associated with dietary n-6 FA intake and plasma levels of arachidonic acid (AA) in subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). We included FH subjects with (n 68) and without (n 77) elevated Lp(a) defined as ≥75 nmol/l and healthy subjects (n 14). Total FA profile was analysed by GC–flame ionisation detector analysis, and the daily intake of macronutrients (including the sum of n-6 FA: 18 : 2n-6, 20 : 2n-6, 20 : 3n-6 and 20 : 4n-6) were computed from completed FFQ. FH subjects with elevated Lp(a) had higher plasma levels of AA compared with FH subjects without elevated Lp(a) (P = 0·03). Furthermore, both FH subjects with and without elevated Lp(a) had higher plasma levels of AA compared with controls (P < 0·001). The multivariable analyses showed associations between dietary n-6 FA intake and plasma levels of AA (P = 0·02) and between plasma levels of Lp(a) and AA (P = 0·006). Our data suggest a novel link between plasma Lp(a) concentration, dietary n-6 FA and plasma AA concentration, which may explain the small diet-induced increase in Lp(a) levels associated with lifestyle changes. Although the increase may not be clinically relevant, this association may be mechanistically interesting in understanding more of the role and regulation of Lp(a).
Estimating the risk of a complicated course of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) might help doctors guide treatment. We aimed to validate 3 published prediction models: Hensgens (2014), Na (2015), and Welfare (2011).
The validation cohort comprised 148 patients diagnosed with CDI between May 2013 and March 2014. During this period, 70 endemic cases of CDI occurred as well as 78 cases of CDI related to an outbreak of C. difficile ribotype 027. Model calibration and discrimination were assessed for the 3 prediction rules.
A complicated course (ie, death, colectomy, or ICU admission due to CDI) was observed in 31 patients (21%), and 23 patients (16%) died within 30 days of CDI diagnosis. The performance of all 3 prediction models was poor when applied to the total validation cohort with an estimated area under the curve (AUC) of 0.68 for the Hensgens model, 0.54 for the Na model, and 0.61 for the Welfare model. For those patients diagnosed with CDI due to non-outbreak strains, the prediction model developed by Hensgens performed the best, with an AUC of 0.78.
All 3 prediction models performed poorly when using our total cohort, which included CDI cases from an outbreak as well as endemic cases. The prediction model of Hensgens performed relatively well for patients diagnosed with CDI due to non-outbreak strains, and this model may be useful in endemic settings.
Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are the most studied psychotherapies for treatment of depression, but they are rarely directly compared particularly over the longer term. This study compares the outcomes of patients treated with CBT and IPT over 10 months and tests whether there are differential or general predictors of outcome.
A single centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) of depressed outpatients treated with weekly CBT or IPT sessions for 16 weeks and then 24 weeks of maintenance CBT or IPT. The principle outcome was depression severity measured using the MADRS. Pre-specified predictors of response were in four domains: demographic depression, characteristics, comorbidity and personality. Data were analysed over 16 weeks and 40 weeks using general linear mixed effects regression models.
CBT was significantly more effective than IPT in reducing depressive symptoms over the 10 month study largely because it appeared to work more quickly. There were no differential predictors of response to CBT v. IPT at 16 weeks or 40 weeks. Personality variables were most strongly associated with overall outcome at both 16 weeks and 40 weeks. The number of personality disorder symptoms and lower self-directness and reward dependence scores were associated with poorer outcome for both CBT and IPT at 40 weeks.
CBT and IPT are effective treatments for major depression over the longer term. CBT may work more quickly. Personality variables are the most relevant predictors of outcome.
The parent–child attachment relationship plays an important role in the development of the infant's stress regulation system. However, genetic and epigenetic factors such as FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) genotype and DNA methylation have also been associated with hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning. In the current study, we examined how parent–child dyadic regulation works in concert with genetic and epigenetic aspects of stress regulation. We study the associations of attachment, extreme maternal insensitivity, FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism 1360780, and FKBP5 methylation, with cortisol reactivity to the Strange Situation Procedure in 298 14-month-old infants. The results indicate that FKBP5 methylation moderates the associations of FKBP5 genotype and resistant attachment with cortisol reactivity. We conclude that the inclusion of epigenetics in the field of developmental psychopathology may lead to a more precise picture of the interplay between genetic makeup and parenting in shaping stress reactivity.
Six precursors were evaluated for use as in situ electron beam-induced deposition capping layers in the preparation of atom probe tomography specimens with a focus on near-surface features where some of the deposition is retained at the specimen apex. Specimens were prepared by deposition of each precursor onto silicon posts and shaped into sub-70-nm radii needles using a focused ion beam. The utility of the depositions was assessed using several criteria including composition and uniformity, evaporation behavior and evaporation fields, and depth of Ga+ ion penetration. Atom probe analyses through depositions of methyl cyclopentadienyl platinum trimethyl, palladium hexafluoroacetylacetonate, and dimethyl-gold-acetylacetonate [Me2Au(acac)] were all found to result in tip fracture at voltages exceeding 3 kV. Examination of the deposition using Me2Au(acac) plus flowing O2 was inconclusive due to evaporation of surface silicon from below the deposition under all analysis conditions. Dicobalt octacarbonyl [Co2(CO)8] and diiron nonacarbonyl [Fe2(CO)9] depositions were found to be effective as in situ capping materials for the silicon specimens. Their very different evaporation fields [36 V/nm for Co2(CO)8 and 21 V/nm for Fe2(CO)9] provide options for achieving reasonably close matching of the evaporation field between the capping material and many materials of interest.
This research aims to develop a method which predicts the task demand load as experienced by pilots while flying an area navigation (RNAV) approach. First, this will yield insight in which aspects of an approach actually influence pilot task demand load. And second, during the design of approaches this method can be used to rapidly evaluate a potential approach and to ‘optimise’ an approach with respect to pilot task demand load. During previous research, focusing on approaches flown with a B747, a list of factors that influence pilot task demand load has been obtained, as well as a method to keep pilot task demand load at an acceptable level. The method consists of seven guidelines to be adhered to during approach design. This paper shows that the list of factors and the method do not only apply to a B747 aircraft but are generally applicable to other aircraft as well. This is underpinned by results from both flight simulator tests and real flight tests with TU Delft’s Cessna Citation laboratory aircraft. Additionally, it is shown that there are no discrepancies between the list of factors influencing pilot task demand load resulting from the flight simulator tests and the list of factors resulting from the real flight tests.
Previous studies have shown effects of bilingualism on inhibitory control in preschool children. However, these effects only held for ‘conflict tasks’, and not delay of gratification tasks, and other domains of executive functioning were not investigated. For older children, previous studies have found relationships between bilinguals’ advantages and home language environment. This study investigates effects of bilingualism and bilingual home language environment on executive functioning in three-year-old children. 200 bilingual and 829 monolingual three-year-olds performed tasks of inhibitory control, working memory, and selective attention. Home language environment characteristics were assessed through a parental questionnaire. The bilinguals outperformed the monolinguals on a conflict task only, and this effect was very small. Further analyses showed broader effects on inhibitory control that were related to home language environment: Bilinguals whose parents spoke different languages outperformed bilinguals whose parents spoke the same language on both the conflict task and a delay of gratification task.
There is evidence for health benefits from ‘Palaeolithic’ diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.